Gene Symbol: BPIFA1
Description: BPI fold containing family A member 1
Alias: LUNX, NASG, PLUNC, SPLUNC1, SPURT, bA49G10.5, BPI fold-containing family A member 1, ligand-binding protein RYA3, lung-specific protein X, nasopharyngeal carcinoma-related protein, palate lung and nasal epithelium clone protein, palate, lung and nasal epithelium associated, protein Plunc, secretory protein in upper respiratory tracts, short PLUNC1, tracheal epithelium enriched protein, von Ebner protein Hl
Species: human
Products:     BPIFA1

Top Publications

  1. Gakhar L, Bartlett J, Penterman J, Mizrachi D, Singh P, Mallampalli R, et al. PLUNC is a novel airway surfactant protein with anti-biofilm activity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9098 pubmed publisher
    The PLUNC ("Palate, lung, nasal epithelium clone") protein is an abundant secretory product of epithelia present throughout the conducting airways of humans and other mammals, which is evolutionarily related to the lipid transfer/..
  2. Bingle L, Barnes F, Cross S, Rassl D, Wallace W, Campos M, et al. Differential epithelial expression of the putative innate immune molecule SPLUNC1 in cystic fibrosis. Respir Res. 2007;8:79 pubmed
    b>Short PLUNC1 (SPLUNC1) is the founding member of a family of proteins (PLUNCS) expressed in the upper respiratory tract and oral cavity, which may function in host defence...
  3. Bartlett J, Bartlett J, Gakhar L, Penterman J, Singh P, Singh P, et al. PLUNC: a multifunctional surfactant of the airways. Biochem Soc Trans. 2011;39:1012-6 pubmed publisher
    b>PLUNC (palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone) protein is an abundant secretory product of epithelia throughout the mammalian conducting airways...
  4. Rollins B, Garcia Caballero A, Stutts M, Tarran R. SPLUNC1 expression reduces surface levels of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Channels (Austin). 2010;4:255-9 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that the short, palate lung and nasal epithelial clone (SPLUNC1) binds to and inhibits ENaC in both airway epithelia and in Xenopus laevis oocytes...
  5. Di Y, Harper R, Zhao Y, Pahlavan N, Finkbeiner W, Wu R. Molecular cloning and characterization of spurt, a human novel gene that is retinoic acid-inducible and encodes a secretory protein specific in upper respiratory tracts. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:1165-73 pubmed
    ..cDNA microarray, we identified a clone, DD4, that contains the cDNA of a novel gene, spurt (secretory protein in upper respiratory tracts) that was significantly induced by all-trans-retinoic acid in primary cultured human ..
  6. Bingle C, Craven C. PLUNC: a novel family of candidate host defence proteins expressed in the upper airways and nasopharynx. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:937-43 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we demonstrate the existence of a related family of seven human proteins, which we designate PLUNC proteins...
  7. Sung Y, Moon C, Yoo J, Moon C, Pearse D, Pevsner J, et al. Plunc, a member of the secretory gland protein family, is up-regulated in nasal respiratory epithelium after olfactory bulbectomy. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:12762-9 pubmed
    ..We isolated the rat homologue of plunc, a murine gene highly expressed in lung and nasopharyngeal regions, by this method...
  8. Ghafouri B, Ståhlbom B, Tagesson C, Lindahl M. Newly identified proteins in human nasal lavage fluid from non-smokers and smokers using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. Proteomics. 2002;2:112-20 pubmed
    ..NLF from smokers contained increased proportions of a new variant of palate lung nasal epithelium clone (PLUNC), a recently identified airway irritation marker...
  9. Campos M, Abreu A, Nlend M, Cobas M, Conner G, Whitney P. Purification and characterization of PLUNC from human tracheobronchial secretions. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;30:184-92 pubmed
    ..The protein was identified as palate, lung, nasal epithelium clone protein (PLUNC). The protein had multiple truncated molecules, a pattern also seen in tracheal aspirates...

More Information


  1. Garcia Caballero A, Rasmussen J, Gaillard E, Watson M, Olsen J, Donaldson S, et al. SPLUNC1 regulates airway surface liquid volume by protecting ENaC from proteolytic cleavage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11412-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant SPLUNC1 inhibited ENaC activity in both human bronchial epithelial cultures and Xenopus oocytes...
  2. Zhou H, Li G, Yang Y, Li X, Sheng S, Zhang W, et al. Intracellular co-localization of SPLUNC1 protein with nanobacteria in nasopharyngeal carcinoma epithelia HNE1 cells depended on the bactericidal permeability increasing protein domain. Mol Immunol. 2006;43:1864-71 pubmed
    ..Short palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) is a potential host defensive protein that is secreted from the submucosal gland to the saliva and nasal lavage ..
  3. Cheng M, Chen Y, Yu X, Tian Z, Wei H. Diagnostic utility of LunX mRNA in peripheral blood and pleural fluid in patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:156 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to determine LunX, CK19, CEA, VEGF-C and hnRNP A2/B1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood and pleural fluid from NSCLC patients, compared ..
  4. Irander K, Borres M, Ghafouri B. The effects of physical exercise and smoking habits on the expression of SPLUNC1 in nasal lavage fluids from allergic rhinitis subjects. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;78:618-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SPLUNC1 in allergic rhinitis subjects with considerations taken to the mucosal function and smoking habits...
  5. Lukinskiene L, Liu Y, Reynolds S, Steele C, Stripp B, Leikauf G, et al. Antimicrobial activity of PLUNC protects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. J Immunol. 2011;187:382-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein family has demonstrated antimicrobial activity in vitro. PLUNC (palate, lung, and nasal epithelium associated) is a 25-kDa secreted protein that shares homology with ..
  6. Zhou H, Fan S, Zhao J, Huang D, Zhou M, Liu H, et al. Tissue distribution of the secretory protein, SPLUNC1, in the human fetus. Histochem Cell Biol. 2006;125:315-24 pubmed
    We previously identified a tissue-specific gene, short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1), in nasopharyngeal epithelial tissues. SPLUNC1 was differentially expressed in nasopharyngeal carcinoma...
  7. Iwao K, Watanabe T, Fujiwara Y, Takami K, Kodama K, Higashiyama M, et al. Isolation of a novel human lung-specific gene, LUNX, a potential molecular marker for detection of micrometastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer. Int J Cancer. 2001;91:433-7 pubmed
    We have isolated a novel human lung-specific gene, LUNX (lung-specific X protein), by differential-display mRNA analysis...
  8. Bartlett J, Hicks B, Schlomann J, Ramachandran S, Nauseef W, McCray P. PLUNC is a secreted product of neutrophil granules. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:1201-6 pubmed publisher
    ..One abundant product of airway epithelia is palate, lung, nasal epithelium clone (PLUNC), a proposed innate immune protein expressed in submucosal glands and surface airway epithelia...
  9. Zhou H, Li X, Li G, Zhou M, Liu H, Yang Y, et al. Effect of SPLUNC1 protein on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Epstein-Barr virus. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;309:191-7 pubmed
    Short palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) gene coded a secreted protein found at the surface of nasopharyngeal epithelium, which may be an innate immunity defensive molecular and a risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma ..
  10. Bingle C, Gorr S. Host defense in oral and airway epithelia: chromosome 20 contributes a new protein family. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;36:2144-52 pubmed
    ..In humans, PLUNC genes are located in a compact cluster on chromosome 20, with similar loci being found in synteneic locations in ..
  11. Bingle C, Bingle L. Characterisation of the human plunc gene, a gene product with an upper airways and nasopharyngeal restricted expression pattern. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1493:363-7 pubmed
    Here we report the cloning and characterization of the human homologue of plunc, a murine gene expressed specifically in the upper airways and nasopharyngeal regions...
  12. Lindahl M, Ståhlbom B, Tagesson C. Identification of a new potential airway irritation marker, palate lung nasal epithelial clone protein, in human nasal lavage fluid with two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight. Electrophoresis. 2001;22:1795-800 pubmed
    ..ESTs) determined after post-source decay (PSD) identified the protein as palate lung and nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC)...
  13. Ghafouri B, Kihlström E, Tagesson C, Lindahl M. PLUNC in human nasal lavage fluid: multiple isoforms that bind to lipopolysaccharide. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1699:57-63 pubmed
    Here, we demonstrate the presence of multiple isoforms of palate lung nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC) in human nasal lavage fluid (NLF)...
  14. Zhang B, Nie X, Xiao B, Xiang J, Shen S, Gong J, et al. Identification of tissue-specific genes in nasopharyngeal epithelial tissue and differentially expressed genes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA microarray. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2003;38:80-90 pubmed
    ..Among these genes, LPLUNC1 and SPLUNC1 were confirmed to be specifically expressed in nasopharyngeal epithelial tissue and the trachea...
  15. Elnar A, Desor F, Legay S, Nemos C, Yen F, Oster T, et al. No evidence for oxidative stress in the cerebellar tissues or cells of juvenile male mice exposed via lactation to the 6 non-dioxin-like PCBs at levels below the regulatory safe limits for humans. Toxicol Lett. 2016;245:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..via dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate in the cerebellum of juvenile male offspring mice during brain growth spurt [postnatal day (PND) 14]...
  16. Arambewela M, Liyanarachchi K, Somasundaram N, Pallewatte A, Punchihewa G. Case report: rare skeletal manifestations in a child with primary hyperparathyroidism. BMC Endocr Disord. 2017;17:45 pubmed publisher
    ..PHPT can cause disarray in bone and epiphysis in children during pubertal growth spurt. Genu valgum and SUFE are rare skeletal manifestations in PHPT and only 10 cases of genu valgum and 9 cases of ..
  17. Scott D, Walker M, Sesma J, Wu B, Stuhlmiller T, Sabater J, et al. SPX-101 Is a Novel Epithelial Sodium Channel-targeted Therapeutic for Cystic Fibrosis That Restores Mucus Transport. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;196:734-744 pubmed publisher
    ..mimetic of the natural regulation of ENaC activity by short palate, lung, and nasal epithelial clone 1, known as SPLUNC1. ENaC internalization by SPX-101 in primary human bronchial epithelial cells from healthy and CF donors was ..
  18. Lu X, Fukumoto S, Yamada Y, Evans C, DIEKWISCH T, Luan X. Ameloblastin, an Extracellular Matrix Protein, Affects Long Bone Growth and Mineralization. J Bone Miner Res. 2016;31:1235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that AMBN facilitates rapid long bone growth and an important growth spurt during the skeletogenesis of adolescent tooth-bearing vertebrates...
  19. Bernhard W, Poets C, Franz A. Choline and choline-related nutrients in regular and preterm infant growth. Eur J Nutr. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Their concentrations are all tightly regulated in tissues. During the fetal growth spurt at 24-34-week postmenstrual age, plasma choline is higher than beyond 34 weeks, and threefold higher than in ..
  20. Qiu L, Zhu C, Bodogan T, Gómez Galán M, Zhang Y, Zhou K, et al. Acute and Long-Term Effects of Brief Sevoflurane Anesthesia During the Early Postnatal Period in Rats. Toxicol Sci. 2016;149:121-33 pubmed publisher
    ..relevant concentrations of sevoflurane in rat pups at 2 functionally distinct stages of the brain growth spurt. We show that this treatment paradigm induced developmental stage-dependent and brain region-specific acute but ..
  21. Van Hulle S, Craen M, Callewaert B, Joustra S, Oostdijk W, Losekoot M, et al. Delayed Adrenarche may be an Additional Feature of Immunoglobulin Super Family Member 1 Deficiency Syndrome. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2016;8:86-91 pubmed publisher
    ..A disharmonious puberty (delayed genital and pubic hair development, bone maturation, and pubertal growth spurt, despite normal testicular growth) was observed as well as a delayed adrenarche, as reflected by very low ..
  22. Tsentidis C, Gourgiotis D, Kossiva L, Marmarinos A, Doulgeraki A, Karavanaki K. Sclerostin distribution in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and correlation with bone metabolism and bone mineral density. Pediatr Diabetes. 2016;17:289-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The decrease in sclerostin values observed in pubertal stage 4 adolescents coincides with the concurrent growth spurt, and is consistent with sclerostin physiology as an inhibiting signal.
  23. Rantalainen T, Weeks B, Nogueira R, Beck B. Long bone robustness during growth: A cross-sectional pQCT examination of children and young adults aged 5-29years. Bone. 2016;93:71-78 pubmed publisher
    ..A period of relative diaphyseal slenderness was identified at age-groups coinciding with the adolescent growth spurt, which may be related to the relatively high incidence of frank and stress fracture in adolescents.
  24. Karampalis C, Bounakis N, Tsirikos A. Surgical treatment of scoliosis in Treacher Collins syndrome: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2014;8:446 pubmed publisher
    ..Treacher Collins syndrome with the deformity demonstrating significant deterioration around the adolescent growth spurt. A high index of awareness will allow for an early diagnosis and scoliosis correction at a stage when this can be ..
  25. Gibelli D, Collini F, Porta D, Zago M, Dolci C, Cattaneo C, et al. Variations of midfacial soft-tissue thickness in subjects aged between 6 and 18years for the reconstruction of the profile: A study on an Italian sample. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2016;22:68-74 pubmed publisher
    ..occasions, males showed thicker soft tissues than females of the same age, especially after the adolescent growth spurt. Facial thicknesses at subnasale, superior labial sulcus, labrale superius, labrale inferius, inferior labial ..
  26. Ruiz R, Sommer E, Tracy D, Banda J, Economos C, JaKa M, et al. Novel patterns of physical activity in a large sample of preschool-aged children. BMC Public Health. 2018;18:242 pubmed publisher
    ..Four distinct MVPA patterns were identified: isolated spurt (IS), isolated sustained activity (ISA), clustered spurt (CS), and clustered sustained activity (CSA)...
  27. Charles Y, Canavese F, Dimeglio A. Curve progression risk in a mixed series of braced and nonbraced patients with idiopathic scoliosis related to skeletal maturity assessment on the olecranon. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2017;26:240-244 pubmed publisher
    ..At the onset of the pubertal growth spurt, curves greater than 30° have a 100% risk of progressing over 45° (P<0.0001)...
  28. Wu M, Sun H, Liu H, Wang T, Li C, Liu D. [Expression and significance of Cu/ZnSOD and PLUNC protein in chronic sinusitis and nasal polyp tissue]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;22:913-6 pubmed
    To validate the expression of Cu/ZnSOD and PLUNC protein in chronic sinusitis and nasal polyp tissue by immunohistochemistry. Thirty-four nasal polyps, 30 chronic sinusitis and 18 control cases were chosen...
  29. Tsou Y, Chen C, Lin T, Hu F, Tai C, Chen H, et al. Decreased SPLUNC1 expression is associated with Pseudomonas infection in surgically treated chronic rhinosinusitis patients who may require repeated sinus surgery. Laryngoscope. 2013;123:845-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Repeated sinus surgery is often required for these patients. Short palate, lung, and nasal epithelial clone 1 (SPLUNC1) is an epithelium-secreted protein that is involved in innate immunity and has anti-Pseudomonas and antibiofilm ..
  30. Archer T, Garcia D. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Focus upon Aberrant N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors Systems. Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2016;29:295-311 pubmed publisher
    ..that antagonize/block glutamic acid receptors and/or block the glutamate signal during the "brain growth spurt" or in the adult animal may induce functional and biomarker deficits...
  31. Smith G, Mittendorfer B. Sexual dimorphism in skeletal muscle protein turnover. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2016;120:674-82 pubmed publisher
    ..sexes is evident from infancy but becomes most marked after puberty (when boys experience an accelerated growth spurt) and persists into old age...
  32. Veloso de Almeida Watanabe M, Oliveira Lira Ortega A, Riera Costa C, Saito Arita E, Ortega K. Craniofacial morphology of HIV-positive children and adolescents undergoing antiretroviral therapy: A pilot study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2018;153:26-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The patients were also divided into 3 age ranges (6-8, 9-12, and 13-17 years) considering the pubertal growth spurt as the central event...
  33. Vergari C, Dubois G, Vialle R, Gennisson J, Tanter M, Dubousset J, et al. Lumbar annulus fibrosus biomechanical characterization in healthy children by ultrasound shear wave elastography. Eur Radiol. 2016;26:1213-7 pubmed publisher
    ..involved in the cascade leading to spinal deformities such as idiopathic scoliosis, especially during the growth spurt. Recent progress in elastography techniques allows access to non-invasive measurement of cervical IVD in adults; ..
  34. Rozzi F, Koudou Y, Froment A, Le Bouc Y, Botton J. Growth pattern from birth to adulthood in African pygmies of known age. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7672 pubmed publisher
    ..It then more or less follows the standard pattern, with a growth spurt at adolescence. Their life history variables do not allow the Baka to be distinguished from other populations...
  35. Hannema S, Wit J, Houdijk M, van Haeringen A, Bik E, Verkerk A, et al. Novel Leptin Receptor Mutations Identified in Two Girls with Severe Obesity Are Associated with Increased Bone Mineral Density. Horm Res Paediatr. 2016;85:412-20 pubmed publisher
    ..older girl, a normal adult height despite hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and the lack of an obvious pubertal growth spurt. Bone age is remarkably advanced in the younger (prepubertal) girl, and bone mineral density (BMD) is high in both ..
  36. Yang Y, Chang L, Chen L, Wei X. [Study on malnutrition status among Wa ethnicity children and adolescents in Lingcang prefecture, Yunnan province]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2015;36:1391-3 pubmed
    ..83%, respectively. The rates on malnutrition were 46.13%, 49.77% and 35.56%, respectively. From year 2005 to 2014, spurt on height growth of boys and girls were among the 13-14 years-old and 9-10 years-old, respectively...
  37. Shang Y, Lin L, Li C. [Streptococcus pneumoniae induces SPLUNC1 and the regulatory effects of resveratrol]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2017;19:111-116 pubmed
    To investigate the host-defense role of short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) in Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) infection and the effect of resveratrol (Res) on SPLUNC1 expression, and to provide new thoughts for the ..
  38. Kurokawa D, Yamamoto N, Ishikawa H, Nagamoto H, Takahashi H, Muraki T, et al. Differences in humeral retroversion in dominant and nondominant sides of young baseball players. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2017;26:1083-1087 pubmed publisher
    ..We assume that the repetitive throwing motion restricts the physiologic humeral derotation process and the difference became apparent from the fourth grade when the growth spurt begins in boys.
  39. Boudissa M, Eid A, Bourgeois E, Griffet J, Courvoisier A. Early outcomes of spinal growth tethering for idiopathic scoliosis with a novel device: a prospective study with 2 years of follow-up. Childs Nerv Syst. 2017;33:813-818 pubmed publisher
    ..modulation with flexible spinal implants have been described to avoid progression of the deformity during growth spurt. The main limitations are that no specific ancillaries and devices are available, which makes the surgery ..
  40. Mori H, Matsumoto K, Kawai N, Izawa T, Horiuchi S, Tanaka E. Long-term follow-up of a patient with achondroplasia treated with an orthodontic approach. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2017;151:793-803 pubmed publisher
    ..After the growth spurt, at the age of 15 years 6 months, leveling and alignment of both dental arches were started with preadjusted ..
  41. Metherel A, Kitson A, Domenichiello A, Lacombe R, Hopperton K, Trépanier M, et al. Maternal liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) stores are increased via higher serum unesterified DHA uptake in pregnant long Evans rats. J Nutr Biochem. 2017;46:143-150 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, higher liver DHA accretion during pregnancy appears to be driven by higher unesterified DHA uptake, potentially via DHA mobilization from periuterine adipose for delivery to the fetus during the brain growth spurt.
  42. Oliveira Pinto J, Paes Branco D, Cristina Rodrigues F, Krahe T, Manhães A, Abreu Villaça Y, et al. GABAA overactivation potentiates the effects of NMDA blockade during the brain growth spurt in eliciting locomotor hyperactivity in juvenile mice. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2015;50:43-52 pubmed publisher
    Both NMDA receptor blockade and GABAA receptor overactivation during the brain growth spurt may contribute to the hyperactivity phenotype reminiscent of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder...
  43. Montoya S, Motoike S, Kuki K, Couto A. Fruit development, growth, and stored reserves in macauba palm (Acrocomia aculeata), an alternative bioenergy crop. Planta. 2016;244:927-38 pubmed publisher
    ..with four stages (S): SI-slow growth and negligible differentiation of the fruit inner parts; SII-first growth spurt and visible, but not complete, differentiation of the inner parts; SIII-growth slowed down and all structures ..
  44. Hodges Simeon C, Hanson Sobraske K, Samore T, Gurven M, Gaulin S. Facial Width-To-Height Ratio (fWHR) Is Not Associated with Adolescent Testosterone Levels. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0153083 pubmed publisher
    ..than adult T per se), 3) fWHR should exhibit velocity changes during adolescence in parallel with the pubertal spurt in T, 4) fWHR should correlate with T after controlling for age and other potential confounds, and 5) fWHR should ..
  45. Lopes L, de Oliveira Gamba T, Visconti M, Ambrosano G, Haiter Neto F, Freitas D. Utility of panoramic radiography for identification of the pubertal growth period. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2016;149:509-15 pubmed publisher
    ..was to investigate the association between dental mineralization stages and the periods of the pubertal growth spurt (PGS)...
  46. Saini S. PSA and beyond: alternative prostate cancer biomarkers. Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2016;39:97-106 pubmed publisher
    ..With the advent of advanced genomic and proteomic technologies, we have in recent years seen an enormous spurt in prostate cancer biomarker research with several promising alternative biomarkers being discovered that show an ..
  47. Arman G, Himpens J, Bolckmans R, Van Compernolle D, Vilallonga R, Leman G. Medium-Term Outcomes after Reversal of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. Obes Surg. 2018;28:781-790 pubmed publisher
    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) can be reversed into normal anatomy (NA) or into sleeve gastrectomy (NASG) to address undesired side effects. Concomitant hiatal hernia repair (HHR) may be required...
  48. Rush E, Tautolo E, Paterson J, Obolonkin V. Pacific Islands Families Study: Signs of puberty are associated with physical growth at ages 9 and 11 years. N Z Med J. 2015;128:24-33 pubmed
    ..At both 9 and 11 years, more than 80% of both boys' and girls' parents reported the presence of a growth spurt. The growth trajectory between 9 and 11 years was steep compared to the Centers for Disease Control reference ..
  49. Bretones P, Riche B, Pichot E, David M, Roy P, Tardy V, et al. Growth curves for congenital adrenal hyperplasia from a national retrospective cohort. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2016;29:1379-1388 pubmed publisher
    ..There was almost no pubertal spurt and the mean adult height was shorter than that of the general population in girls (-1.2 SD, 156...
  50. Tsou Y, Lin C, Chen H, Hsu H, Wu L, Chiang Ni C, et al. Interleukin-13 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced BPIFA1 Expression in Nasal Epithelial Cells. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0143484 pubmed publisher
    Short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) protein is expressed in human nasopharyngeal and respiratory epithelium and has demonstrated antimicrobial activity...
  51. Bao Q, Li J, Sun W, Jiang H, Zhu L, Wang Y. Diagnostic utility of LUNX mRNA and VEGF mRNA in pleural fluid for differentiating benign from malignant origin. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2014;44:1198-205 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of lung-specific X protein (LUNX) mRNA and vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA in differentiating pleural effusion of different origin...
  52. Ginther O. Variations in follicle-diameter deviation and a growth spurt in the dominant follicle at deviation in Bos taurus heifers. Anim Reprod Sci. 2018;188:155-164 pubmed publisher
    ..were supported that (1) conventional deviation is more common during wave 1 whereas F2-undersized deviation is more common during wave 2 and (2) a transient growth spurt occurs in F1 of wave 1 at the beginning of diameter deviation.
  53. Weng T, Qiu X, Wang J, Li Z, Bian J. Recent discovery of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 inhibitors targeting cancer immunotherapy. Eur J Med Chem. 2018;143:656-669 pubmed publisher
    ..The most recent spurt of high potent IDO1 inhibitors has been driven by the solution of the increased crystal structures of inhibitors ..
  54. Zheng X, Cheng M, Fu B, Fan X, Wang Q, Yu X, et al. Targeting LUNX inhibits non-small cell lung cancer growth and metastasis. Cancer Res. 2015;75:1080-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the identification of a novel candidate therapeutic target, LUNX, as a molecule overexpressed in primary NSCLC and lymph node metastases that is associated with reduced ..
  55. Nikolaidis P, Knechtle B. Pacing in age group marathoners in the "New York City Marathon". Res Sports Med. 2017;:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..001, ?2 = 0.003) and men (p < 0.001, ?2 = 0.004). In summary, men and women of all age groups reduced running speed during the marathon with a final spurt in the last segment (i.e. 40-42.2 km).
  56. Jouybari A, Arash V, Tavanafar S, Khafri S, Dehghar Z. The Effects of Functional Appliances on Female Patients with Skeletal Class II Malocclusion 6 Months after Menarche. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2016;17:286-93 pubmed
    ..the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue changes in girls with class II division 1 malocclusion after growth spurt peak under the effect of activator appliance...
  57. Di Y, Tkach A, Yanamala N, Stanley S, Gao S, Shurin M, et al. Dual acute proinflammatory and antifibrotic pulmonary effects of short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone-1 after exposure to carbon nanotubes. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;49:759-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone-1 (SPLUNC1) protein, a member of the bactericidal/permeability-increasing-fold (BPIF)-containing protein family, is a 25-kD ..
  58. Graham Paulson T, Perret C, Goosey Tolfrey V. Case Study: Dose Response of Caffeine on 20 km Handcycling Time Trial Performance in a Para-Triathlete. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2017;:1-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The largest CAF dose resulted in a positive pacing strategy, which when combined with an end spurt resulted in the fastest TT...
  59. Zhang H, Li X, Liao S, Wang H, Chen P, Zhu G, et al. SPLUNC1 knockout enhances LPS-induced lung injury by increasing recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ cells to the spleen of mice. Oncol Rep. 2018;39:358-366 pubmed publisher
    Short palate, lung and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) is a tissue-specific gene of nasopharyngeal tissue, and has been recognized as a potential tumor-suppressor gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma...
  60. Seshadri S, Lin D, Rosati M, Carter R, Norton J, Suh L, et al. Reduced expression of antimicrobial PLUNC proteins in nasal polyp tissues of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergy. 2012;67:920-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of the members of the PLUNC family was analyzed by real-time PCR. Expression of SPLUNC1 and LPLUNC2 proteins was analyzed by ELISA, immunoblot, and immunohistochemical analysis...
  61. Bryborn M, Hallden C, Sall T, Cardell L. CLC- a novel susceptibility gene for allergic rhinitis?. Allergy. 2010;65:220-8 pubmed publisher
    ..site family, member 2B (WNT2B), Charcot-Leyden crystal protein (CLC) and palate lung nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC)...
  62. Liu Y, Bartlett J, Di M, Bomberger J, Chan Y, Gakhar L, et al. SPLUNC1/BPIFA1 contributes to pulmonary host defense against Klebsiella pneumoniae respiratory infection. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:1519-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The short palate, lung, nasal epithelium clone (PLUNC) 1 (SPLUNC1) protein is a member of the bactericidal/permeability-increasing (BPI) fold-containing (BPIF) protein family, ..
  63. Walton W, Ahmad S, Little M, Kim C, Tyrrell J, Lin Q, et al. Structural Features Essential to the Antimicrobial Functions of Human SPLUNC1. Biochemistry. 2016;55:2979-91 pubmed publisher
    b>SPLUNC1 is an abundantly secreted innate immune protein in the mammalian respiratory tract that exerts bacteriostatic and antibiofilm effects, binds to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and acts as a fluid-spreading surfactant...
  64. Nelson C. Hazards to Early Development: The Biological Embedding of Early Life Adversity. Neuron. 2017;96:262-266 pubmed publisher
    The number of children under 18 years of age has increased worldwide over the past decade. This growth spurt is due, in part, to remarkable progress in child survival...
  65. Saferali A, Obeidat M, Bérubé J, Lamontagne M, Bossé Y, Laviolette M, et al. Polymorphisms associated with expression of BPIFA1/BPIFB1 and lung disease severity in cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2015;53:607-14 pubmed publisher
    BPI fold containing family A, member 1 (BPIFA1) and BPIFB1 are putative innate immune molecules expressed in the upper airways...
  66. Tsou Y, Peng M, Wu Y, Lai C, Lin C, Tai C, et al. Decreased PLUNC expression in nasal polyps is associated with multibacterial colonization in chronic rhinosinusitis patients. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;271:299-304 pubmed publisher
    b>PLUNC (palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone) is an epithelium-secreted protein that plays a crucial role in the host's defense against bacterial infection. The function of PLUNC in the sinus remains poorly understood...
  67. Budding K, van de Graaf E, Hoefnagel T, Hack C, Otten H. Anti-BPIFA1/SPLUNC1: a new autoantibody prevalent in patients with endstage cystic fibrosis. J Cyst Fibros. 2014;13:281-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that CF patients have circulating IgG or IgA anti-BPIFA1 autoantibodies, similarly as reported for BPI autoantibodies...
  68. May T, Pang K, O Connell M, Williams K. Typical Pubertal Timing in an Australian Population of Girls and Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017;47:3983-3993 pubmed publisher
    ..14-15 years; N?=?3454 no ASD, N?=?94 with ASD) included breast development, menses, skin changes, growth spurt, body hair, deepening voice and facial hair...
  69. Hobbs C, Blanchard M, Alijevic O, Tan C, Kellenberger S, Bencharit S, et al. Identification of the SPLUNC1 ENaC-inhibitory domain yields novel strategies to treat sodium hyperabsorption in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cultures. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2013;305:L990-L1001 pubmed publisher
    ..Short palate lung and nasal epithelial clone 1 (SPLUNC1) is a secreted, innate defense protein and an autocrine inhibitor of ENaC that is highly expressed in airway ..
  70. Yew P, Mushiroda T, Kiyotani K, Govindasamy G, Yap L, Teo S, et al. Identification of a functional variant in SPLUNC1 associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma susceptibility among Malaysian Chinese. Mol Carcinog. 2012;51 Suppl 1:E74-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in LPLUNC1 and SPLUNC1 genes with NPC was investigated by performing a two-stage case control association study in a Malaysian Chinese ..
  71. Ou C, Sun Z, Zhang H, Xiong W, Ma J, Zhou M, et al. SPLUNC1 reduces the inflammatory response of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells infected with the EB virus by inhibiting the TLR9/NF-κB pathway. Oncol Rep. 2015;33:2779-88 pubmed publisher
    Studies indicate that the natural immune-related protein short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1) plays an antitumor role in nasopharyngeal epithelial tissue...
  72. Luque Almagro V, Manso I, Sullivan M, Rowley G, Ferguson S, Moreno Vivián C, et al. Transcriptional and translational adaptation to aerobic nitrate anabolism in the denitrifier Paracoccus denitrificans. Biochem J. 2017;474:1769-1787 pubmed publisher
    ..The nitrite reductase NasG subunit was detected by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in cytoplasmic fractions from nitrate-..
  73. Zhang W, Zeng Z, Wei F, Chen P, Schmitt D, Fan S, et al. SPLUNC1 is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma prognosis and plays an important role in all-trans-retinoic acid-induced growth inhibition and differentiation in nasopharyngeal cancer cells. FEBS J. 2014;281:4815-29 pubmed publisher
    Human SPLUNC1 can suppress nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tumor formation; however, the correlation between SPLUNC1expression and NPC patient prognosis has not been reported...
  74. Zhang J, Qin X, Liang A, Kim E, Lawrence P, Park W, et al. Fads3 modulates docosahexaenoic acid in liver and brain. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2017;123:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the fatty acid compositional results suggest that Fads3 enhances liver-mediated 22:6n-3 synthesis to support brain 22:6n-3 accretion before and during the brain growth spurt.
  75. Sentani K, Oue N, Sakamoto N, Arihiro K, Aoyagi K, Sasaki H, et al. Gene expression profiling with microarray and SAGE identifies PLUNC as a marker for hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:464-75 pubmed publisher
    ..gene expression and microarray and identified the palate, lung, and nasal epithelium carcinoma-associated protein (PLUNC) gene...
  76. Al Masri S, Reincke R, Huenigen H, Gemeinhardt O, Richardson K, Plendl J. Computed tomography study of the fetal development of the dairy cow stomach complex. J Dairy Sci. 2018;101:1719-1729 pubmed publisher
    ..9 times, and that of the abomasum 30.03 times. Between mo 5 and 6 of gestation, the abomasum had another growth spurt, with a monthly volume increase of 10.4 times...
  77. Magwali T, Butrick E, Ayadi A, Bergel E, Gibbons L, Huong N, et al. A cluster randomized controlled trial of the non-pneumatic anti-shock garment for obstetric haemorrhage: sub-analysis of the Zimbabwean Arm. Cent Afr J Med. 2015;61:27-32 pubmed
    To determine whether earlier application of the Non-pneumatic Anti-Shock Garment (NASG) at clinic level compared to the referral hospital level reduces maternal morbidity and mortality and recovery time from shock due to severe Obstetric ..
  78. Jiang D, Wenzel S, Wu Q, Bowler R, Schnell C, Chu H. Human neutrophil elastase degrades SPLUNC1 and impairs airway epithelial defense against bacteria. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64689 pubmed publisher
    ..by degrading airway epithelial host defense proteins such as short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1). Recombinant human SPLUNC1 protein was incubated with HNE to confirm SPLUNC1 degradation by HNE...
  79. He Y, Ding Y, Huang Z, Yao K. [Association of the coding region single nucleotide polymorphisms in PLUNC gene with nasopharyngeal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2007;87:1553-5 pubmed
    To investigate whether the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site G14595T of PLUNC gene coding region is significantly correlated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)...
  80. Sanders J, Qiu X, Lu X, Duren D, Liu R, Dang D, et al. The Uniform Pattern of Growth and Skeletal Maturation during the Human Adolescent Growth Spurt. Sci Rep. 2017;7:16705 pubmed publisher
    Humans are one of the few species undergoing an adolescent growth spurt. Because children enter the spurt at different ages making age a poor maturity measure, longitudinal studies are necessary to identify the growth patterns and ..
  81. Garland A, Walton W, Coakley R, Tan C, Gilmore R, Hobbs C, et al. Molecular basis for pH-dependent mucosal dehydration in cystic fibrosis airways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15973-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In normal airways, the secreted protein short palate lung and nasal epithelial clone 1 (SPLUNC1) effectively inhibits epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC)-dependent Na(+) absorption and preserves ASL volume...
  82. Bundy D, de Silva N, Horton S, Patton G, Schultz L, Jamison D. Investment in child and adolescent health and development: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd Edition. Lancet. 2018;391:687-699 pubmed publisher
    ..and malnutrition constrain growth, and mortality is higher than previously recognised; the adolescent growth spurt (10-14 years), when substantial changes place commensurate demands on good diet and health; and the adolescent ..
  83. Passali D, Sarafoleanu C, Manea C, Loglisci M, Passali F, Cambi J, et al. PLUNC proteins positivity in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis: a case-control study. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014;2014:853583 pubmed publisher
    ..Nowadays, there is a growing interest in innate immune molecule known as palate, lung, nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC)...
  84. Raveli T, Raveli D, Gandini L, Santos Pinto A. Dental skeletal effects of the metallic splinted Herbst appliance after growth spurt: a lateral oblique cephalometric assessment. Acta Odontol Latinoam. 2017;30:76-82 pubmed
    ..Em conclusao, o tratamento tardio da má-oclusao de Classe II com o aparelho MESPHER foi alcangado através de mudangas dento alveolares. ..
  85. Deng Y, Wang S, Zheng L, Tang N, Xiao X. [Cloning of human LUNX gene enhancers and analysis of transcriptional regulation]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010;30:2025-9 pubmed
    To identify the enhancers of human lung specific X protein (LUNX) and their regulation at the transcription level in vitro...
  86. Zhang B, Zhu S, Xiang J, Zhou M, Nie X, Xiao B, et al. [Analysis of splicing variants in NASG 3'UTR, down-regulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and its expression in multiple cancer tissues]. Ai Zheng. 2003;22:477-80 pubmed
    b>NASG gene, a tissue-specific gene of human nasopharyngeal epithelium was isolated by suppression subtractive hybridization...
  87. Bittencourt M, Cericato G, Franco A, Girão R, Lima A, Paranhos L. Accuracy of dental development for estimating the pubertal growth spurt in comparison to skeletal development: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2017;:20170362 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to search for scientific evidence concerning the accuracy of dental development for estimating the pubertal growth spurt.
  88. Katseli A, Maragos H, Nezos A, Syrigos K, Koutsilieris M. Multiplex PCR-based detection of circulating tumor cells in lung cancer patients using CK19, PTHrP, and LUNX specific primers. Clin Lung Cancer. 2013;14:513-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Samples were analyzed using multiplex PCR, and specific primers for CK19, PTHrP, and LUNX mRNA...