Gene Symbol: BMP4
Description: bone morphogenetic protein 4
Alias: BMP2B, BMP2B1, MCOPS6, OFC11, ZYME, bone morphogenetic protein 4, bone morphogenetic protein 2B
Species: human
Products:     BMP4

Top Publications

  1. Shore E, Xu M, Shah P, Janoff H, Hahn G, Deardorff M, et al. The human bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) gene: molecular structure and transcriptional regulation. Calcif Tissue Int. 1998;63:221-9 pubmed
    b>Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) is a vital regulatory molecule that functions throughout human development in mesoderm induction, tooth development, limb formation, bone induction, and fracture repair and is overexpressed in patients ..
  2. Grassinger J, Simon M, Mueller G, Drewel D, Andreesen R, Hennemann B. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7 but not BMP-2 and BMP-4 improves maintenance of primitive peripheral blood-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) cultured in serum-free medium supplemented with early acting cytokines. Cytokine. 2007;40:165-71 pubmed
    ..However, BMP-7 but not BMP-2 and BMP-4 prevents the loss of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells cultured in SFM plus SF3. ..
  3. Houlston R, Webb E, Broderick P, Pittman A, Di Bernardo M, Lubbe S, et al. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association data identifies four new susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer. Nat Genet. 2008;40:1426-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified four previously unreported CRC risk loci at 14q22.2 (rs4444235, BMP4; P = 8.1 x 10(-10)), 16q22.1 (rs9929218, CDH1; P = 1.2 x 10(-8)), 19q13.1 (rs10411210, RHPN2; P = 4...
  4. Deng H, Makizumi R, Ravikumar T, Dong H, Yang W, Yang W. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 is overexpressed in colonic adenocarcinomas and promotes migration and invasion of HCT116 cells. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:1033-44 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that BMP-4 confers invasive phenotype during progression of colon cancer. ..
  5. Mangold E, Ludwig K, Birnbaum S, Baluardo C, Ferrian M, Herms S, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies two susceptibility loci for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Nat Genet. 2010;42:24-6 pubmed publisher
    ..07 x 10(-8), relative risk in homozygotes = 1.84, 95% CI 1.34-2.53) and 10q25.3 (rs7078160, combined P = 1.92 x 10(-8), relative risk in homozygotes = 2.17, 95% CI 1.32-3.56). ..
  6. Capasso M, Ayala F, Russo R, Avvisati R, Asci R, Iolascon A. A predicted functional single-nucleotide polymorphism of bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene affects mRNA expression and shows a significant association with cutaneous melanoma in Southern Italian population. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2009;135:1799-807 pubmed publisher
    An altered expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) has been found in malignant melanoma cells...
  7. Thériault B, Shepherd T, Mujoomdar M, Nachtigal M. BMP4 induces EMT and Rho GTPase activation in human ovarian cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:1153-62 pubmed
    We identified previously an autocrine bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) signalling pathway in primary human normal ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) and epithelial ovarian cancer (OvCa) cells...
  8. Liu B, Tian D, Yi W, Wu L, Cai Q, Dong H, et al. Effect of bone morphogenetic protein 4 in the human brain glioma cell line U251. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2010;58:91-6 pubmed publisher
    The role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in gliomas is not clear...
  9. Zhu D, Wu J, Spee C, Ryan S, Hinton D. BMP4 mediates oxidative stress-induced retinal pigment epithelial cell senescence and is overexpressed in age-related macular degeneration. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9529-39 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Wordinger R, Fleenor D, Hellberg P, Pang I, Tovar T, Zode G, et al. Effects of TGF-beta2, BMP-4, and gremlin in the trabecular meshwork: implications for glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:1191-200 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, in POAG, elevated expression of Gremlin by TM cells inhibits BMP-4 antagonism of TGF-beta2 and leads to increased ECM deposition and elevated IOP. ..
  2. Chen Q, Wang H, Hetmanski J, Zhang T, Ruczinski I, Schwender H, et al. BMP4 was associated with NSCL/P in an Asian population. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35347 pubmed publisher
    The Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 gene (BMP4) is located in chromosome 14q22-q23 which has shown evidence of linkage for isolated nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) in a genome wide linkage analysis of human ..
  3. Bakrania P, Efthymiou M, Klein J, Salt A, Bunyan D, Wyatt A, et al. Mutations in BMP4 cause eye, brain, and digit developmental anomalies: overlap between the BMP4 and hedgehog signaling pathways. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;82:304-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a positional candidate gene approach, we analyzed the BMP4 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4) gene and identified a frameshift mutation (c.226del2, p...
  4. Shon S, Kim A, Kim J, Kim K, Yang Y, Lim J. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 induced by NDRG2 expression inhibits MMP-9 activity in breast cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;385:198-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data show that BMP-4 induced by NDRG2 expression inhibits the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells, especially via suppression of MMP-9 activity. ..
  5. Koli K, Myllärniemi M, Vuorinen K, Salmenkivi K, Ryynänen M, Kinnula V, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibitor gremlin is overexpressed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2006;169:61-71 pubmed
    ..The overexpression of this developmental gene in IPF may be a key event in the persistence of myofibroblasts in the lung interstitium and provides a potential target for therapeutic intervention. ..
  6. Aoki H, Fujii M, Imamura T, Yagi K, Takehara K, Kato M, et al. Synergistic effects of different bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors on alkaline phosphatase induction. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:1483-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, ALK-2 and ALK-3 (or ALK-6) might synergistically induce osteoblast differentiation of C2C12 cells, possibly through efficient activation of downstream signaling pathways. ..
  7. Rudarakanchana N, Flanagan J, Chen H, Upton P, Machado R, Patel D, et al. Functional analysis of bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor mutations underlying primary pulmonary hypertension. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:1517-25 pubmed
    ..ligand binding or kinase domain prevented trafficking of BMPR-II to the cell surface, and reduced binding of (125)I-BMP4. In addition, transfection of cysteine-substituted BMPR-II markedly reduced basal and BMP4-stimulated ..
  8. Simón Sánchez J, Schulte C, Bras J, Sharma M, Gibbs J, Berg D, et al. Genome-wide association study reveals genetic risk underlying Parkinson's disease. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1308-12 pubmed publisher
    ..14, P = 1.55 x 10(-5)). These data demonstrate an unequivocal role for common genetic variants in the etiology of typical PD and suggest population-specific genetic heterogeneity in this disease. ..
  9. Lin J, Chen Y, Huang Y, Tang G, Zhang L, Deng B, et al. Association of bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene polymorphisms with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Chinese children. DNA Cell Biol. 2008;27:601-5 pubmed publisher
    ..linkage data suggesting that 14q21-24 is one of the chromosomal regions that affects nsCL/P and data locating the BMP4 gene to 14q22-23, we performed a case-control study to evaluate whether BMP4 538T/C polymorphism, resulting in an ..
  10. ten Dijke P, Yamashita H, Sampath T, Reddi A, Estevez M, Riddle D, et al. Identification of type I receptors for osteogenic protein-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-4. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:16985-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ALK-3 and ALK-6 are type I receptors for OP-1 and BMP-4; in addition, ALK-2 is a type I receptor shared by activin and OP-1, but not by BMP-4. ..
  11. Weber S, Taylor J, Winyard P, Baker K, Sullivan Brown J, Schild R, et al. SIX2 and BMP4 mutations associate with anomalous kidney development. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:891-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the first mutations in BMP4 and SIX2 identified in patients with RHD...
  12. Suzuki S, Marazita M, Cooper M, Miwa N, Hing A, Jugessur A, et al. Mutations in BMP4 are associated with subepithelial, microform, and overt cleft lip. Am J Hum Genet. 2009;84:406-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified missense and nonsense mutations in the BMP4 gene in 1 of 30 cases of microform clefts, 2 of 87 cases with subepithelial defects in the orbicularis oris muscle (..
  13. Li J, Sun C, Yuan Y, Liu L, Xiong G, Wu J. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk: a meta analysis. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:5239-51 pubmed publisher
    b>BMP4 rs4444235 is a candidate susceptibility allele that has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. This study was conducted to examine the association between BMP4 rs4444235 polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk...
  14. Deng H, Ravikumar T, Yang W. Overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 enhances the invasiveness of Smad4-deficient human colorectal cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2009;281:220-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that Smad4 is dispensable for enhanced invasiveness of human colorectal cancer cells due to BMP-4 overexpression. ..
  15. Bowers R, Kim J, Otto T, Lane M. Stable stem cell commitment to the adipocyte lineage by inhibition of DNA methylation: role of the BMP-4 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13022-7 pubmed
    ..Together, these studies provide compelling evidence for the participation of BMP-4 in adipocyte lineage determination. ..
  16. Sorescu G, Song H, Tressel S, Hwang J, Dikalov S, Smith D, et al. Bone morphogenic protein 4 produced in endothelial cells by oscillatory shear stress induces monocyte adhesion by stimulating reactive oxygen species production from a nox1-based NADPH oxidase. Circ Res. 2004;95:773-9 pubmed
    ..OS exposure induces endothelial expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), which in turn may activate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and monocyte adhesion...
  17. Lubbe S, Pittman A, Olver B, Lloyd A, Vijayakrishnan J, Naranjo S, et al. The 14q22.2 colorectal cancer variant rs4444235 shows cis-acting regulation of BMP4. Oncogene. 2012;31:3777-84 pubmed publisher
    ..cell lines heterozygous for rs4444235 showed significantly increased expression of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) associated with the risk allele (P<0.001)...
  18. Vogt R, Unda R, Yeh L, Vidro E, Lee J, Tsin A. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 enhances vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Cell Biochem. 2006;98:1196-202 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that BMP-4 may play a role in the regulation of ocular angiogenesis associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) by stimulating VEGF release from RPE cells. ..
  19. Ramesh Babu L, Wilson S, Dick I, Islam F, Devine A, Prince R. Bone mass effects of a BMP4 gene polymorphism in postmenopausal women. Bone. 2005;36:555-61 pubmed
    ..On the basis of linkage data suggesting gene effects on bone density at chromosome 14q and data locating the BMP4 gene to 14q, we performed a positional candidate study to examine a possible association of BMP4 gene polymorphisms,..
  20. Reis L, Tyler R, Schilter K, Abdul Rahman O, Innis J, Kozel B, et al. BMP4 loss-of-function mutations in developmental eye disorders including SHORT syndrome. Hum Genet. 2011;130:495-504 pubmed publisher
    b>BMP4 loss-of-function mutations and deletions have been shown to be associated with ocular, digital, and brain anomalies, but due to the paucity of these reports, the full phenotypic spectrum of human BMP4 mutations is not clear...
  21. Tian X, Yung L, Wong W, Liu J, Leung F, Liu L, et al. Bone morphogenic protein-4 induces endothelial cell apoptosis through oxidative stress-dependent p38MAPK and JNK pathway. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;52:237-44 pubmed publisher
    The expression of bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), a new pro-inflammatory marker, is increased by disturbed flow in endothelial cells (ECs)...
  22. Felder B, Stegmann K, Schultealbert A, Geller F, Strehl E, Ermert A, et al. Evaluation of BMP4 and its specific inhibitor NOG as candidates in human neural tube defects (NTDs). Eur J Hum Genet. 2002;10:753-6 pubmed
    ..Studies on animal models have shown that BMP4 and NOG are involved in the patterning of the neural tube...
  23. Khurana S, Buckley S, Schouteden S, Ekker S, Petryk A, Delforge M, et al. A novel role of BMP4 in adult hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell homing via Smad independent regulation of integrin-?4 expression. Blood. 2013;121:781-90 pubmed publisher
    Although it is well established that BMP4 plays an important role in the development of hematopoietic system, it is less well understood whether BMP4 affects adult hematopoiesis and how...
  24. Yu P, Pan G, Yu J, Thomson J. FGF2 sustains NANOG and switches the outcome of BMP4-induced human embryonic stem cell differentiation. Cell Stem Cell. 2011;8:326-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we find that FGF2, acting through the MEK-ERK pathway, switches BMP4-induced human ESC differentiation outcome to mesendoderm, characterized by the uniform expression of T (brachyury) ..
  25. Cain J, Bertram J. Ureteric branching morphogenesis in BMP4 heterozygous mutant mice. J Anat. 2006;209:745-55 pubmed
    Exogenous bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) inhibits ureteric branching morphogenesis and amplifies the already existing branching asymmetry in the developing mouse kidney in vitro...
  26. Sneddon J, Zhen H, Montgomery K, van de Rijn M, Tward A, West R, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gremlin 1 is widely expressed by cancer-associated stromal cells and can promote tumor cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14842-7 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that BMP antagonists may be important constituents of tumor stroma, providing a favorable microenvironment for cancer cell survival and expansion in many cancers. ..
  27. Lai D, Yang X. BMP4 is a novel transcriptional target and mediator of mammary cell migration downstream of the Hippo pathway component TAZ. Cell Signal. 2013;25:1720-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we identified the secreted growth factor BMP4 as a mediator of TAZ-induced cell migration...
  28. Guo D, Huang J, Gong J. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is required for migration and invasion of breast cancer. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;363:179-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) was one of the most frequently expressed BMPs...
  29. Tomlinson I, Carvajal Carmona L, Dobbins S, Tenesa A, Jones A, Howarth K, et al. Multiple common susceptibility variants near BMP pathway loci GREM1, BMP4, and BMP2 explain part of the missing heritability of colorectal cancer. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002105 pubmed publisher
    ..3), BMP4 (14q22.2), and BMP2 (20p12.3) using sample sets totalling 24,910 CRC cases and 26,275 controls...
  30. Yang X, Lee P, Long L, Trembath R, Morrell N. BMP4 induces HO-1 via a Smad-independent, p38MAPK-dependent pathway in pulmonary artery myocytes. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007;37:598-605 pubmed
    ..In a microarray study, we identified HO-1 as a major target of BMP4 signaling in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), and confirmed the induction of HO-1 mRNA and ..
  31. Virtanen S, Alarmo E, Sandström S, Ampuja M, Kallioniemi A. Bone morphogenetic protein -4 and -5 in pancreatic cancer--novel bidirectional players. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:2136-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Low expression levels of BMP5 and BMP8 were detected in cancer cells compared to the normal samples, whereas BMP4 expression was elevated in 25% of the cases...
  32. Van den Wijngaard A, van Kraay M, van Zoelen E, Olijve W, Boersma C. Genomic organization of the human bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene: molecular basis for multiple transcripts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;219:789-94 pubmed
    ..This observation is of fundamental relevance for understanding the specific role of BMP-4 in skeletal development and bone remodeling. ..
  33. Jeffery T, Upton P, Trembath R, Morrell N. BMP4 inhibits proliferation and promotes myocyte differentiation of lung fibroblasts via Smad1 and JNK pathways. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005;288:L370-8 pubmed
    ..the expression of TGF-beta superfamily receptors in human fetal lung fibroblasts (HFL) and investigated the role of BMP4 on cell cycle regulation, fibroblast proliferation, and differentiation...
  34. Goldman D, Bailey A, Pfaffle D, Al Masri A, Christian J, Fleming W. BMP4 regulates the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Blood. 2009;114:4393-401 pubmed publisher
    b>Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is required for mesoderm commitment to the hematopoietic lineage during early embryogenesis...
  35. Zhu N, Li C, Huang H, Sebald M, Londhe V, Heisterkamp N, et al. TNF-alpha represses transcription of human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 in lung epithelial cells. Gene. 2007;393:70-80 pubmed
    ..In this study we examined whether TNF-alpha, which activates NF-kB, can regulate Bmp4 gene expression...
  36. Su D, Zhu S, Han X, Feng Y, Huang H, Ren G, et al. BMP4-Smad signaling pathway mediates adriamycin-induced premature senescence in lung cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:12153-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Adriamycin treatment resulted in the up-regulation of BMP4, which is underexpressed in NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancers)...
  37. Varas A, Sacedon R, Hidalgo L, Martínez V, Valencia J, Cejalvo T, et al. Interplay between BMP4 and IL-7 in human intrathymic precursor cells. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:4119-26 pubmed
    ..In this study, we provide evidence that BMP4 and IL-7 interplay is important in the maintenance of the human thymic progenitor population...
  38. Pierre A, Pisselet C, Dupont J, Mandon Pepin B, Monniaux D, Monget P, et al. Molecular basis of bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibitory action on progesterone secretion by ovine granulosa cells. J Mol Endocrinol. 2004;33:805-17 pubmed
    ..Because SF-1 plays an essential role in the differentiation of GCs, our findings could have new implications in understanding the role of BMP family members in the control of ovarian folliculogenesis. ..
  39. Fernández Rozadilla C, Palles C, Carvajal Carmona L, Peterlongo P, Nici C, Veneroni S, et al. BMP2/BMP4 colorectal cancer susceptibility loci in northern and southern European populations. Carcinogenesis. 2013;34:314-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These markers are located close to two of the genes involved in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling (BMP4 and BMP2, respectively)...
  40. Nohno T, Ishikawa T, Saito T, Hosokawa K, Noji S, Wolsing D, et al. Identification of a human type II receptor for bone morphogenetic protein-4 that forms differential heteromeric complexes with bone morphogenetic protein type I receptors. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:22522-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a subpopulation of super-high affinity binding sites is formed in COS cells upon cotransfection only of BRK-2 + BRK-3, suggesting that the different heteromeric BMP receptor complexes have different signaling potential. ..
  41. Piccirillo S, Reynolds B, Zanetti N, Lamorte G, Binda E, Broggi G, et al. Bone morphogenetic proteins inhibit the tumorigenic potential of human brain tumour-initiating cells. Nature. 2006;444:761-5 pubmed
    ..Here we report that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), amongst which BMP4 elicits the strongest effect, trigger a significant reduction in the stem-like, tumour-initiating precursors of ..
  42. Paige S, Osugi T, Afanasiev O, Pabon L, Reinecke H, Murry C. Endogenous Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is required for cardiac differentiation in human embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11134 pubmed publisher
    ..efficient protocol to generate cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem (ES) cells via induction with activin A and BMP4. We tested the hypothesis that Wnt/beta-catenin signals control both early mesoderm induction and later cardiac ..
  43. Ying Y, Liu X, Marble A, Lawson K, Zhao G. Requirement of Bmp8b for the generation of primordial germ cells in the mouse. Mol Endocrinol. 2000;14:1053-63 pubmed
    ..embryo, the generation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) from the epiblast requires a bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) signal from the adjacent extraembryonic ectoderm...
  44. Sakuta H, Suzuki R, Takahashi H, Kato A, Shintani T, Iemura Si -, et al. Ventroptin: a BMP-4 antagonist expressed in a double-gradient pattern in the retina. Science. 2001;293:111-5 pubmed
    ..We identified chick Ventroptin, an antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), which is mainly expressed in the ventral retina, not only with a ventral high-dorsal low ..
  45. Rosenzweig B, Imamura T, Okadome T, Cox G, Yamashita H, ten Dijke P, et al. Cloning and characterization of a human type II receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:7632-6 pubmed
    ..Binding of OP-1/BMP-7 to BMPR-II was also observed in nontransfected cell lines. Moreover, a transcriptional activation signal was transduced by BMPR-II in the presence of type I receptors after stimulation by OP-1/BMP-7. ..
  46. Xia Y, Yu P, Sidis Y, Beppu H, Bloch K, Schneyer A, et al. Repulsive guidance molecule RGMa alters utilization of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type II receptors by BMP2 and BMP4. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:18129-40 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that RGMa bound to radiolabeled BMP2 and BMP4 with Kd values of 2.4+/-0.2 and 1.4+/-0.1 nm, respectively...
  47. Lubbe S, Pittman A, Matijssen C, Twiss P, Olver B, Lloyd A, et al. Evaluation of germline BMP4 mutation as a cause of colorectal cancer. Hum Mutat. 2011;32:E1928-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) is a member of the TGF-? family of signal transduction molecules...
  48. Solmesky L, Abekasis M, Bulvik S, Weil M. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling is involved in human mesenchymal stem cell survival in serum-free medium. Stem Cells Dev. 2009;18:1283-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, exogenously added BMP4 alleviates the noggin effect, restoring cell survival, and suggesting that BMP signal is essential for hMSC ..
  49. Jianyan L, Zeqiang G, Yongjuan C, Kaihong D, Bing D, Rongsheng L. Analysis of interactions between genetic variants of BMP4 and environmental factors with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate susceptibility. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;39:50-6 pubmed publisher study was conducted to identify interactions between the 538(T-->C) polymorphic site of bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene (BMP4T538C) and exposures in pregnancy with nonsyndromic cleft lip, with or without cleft palate (..
  50. Guo X, Xiong L, Zou L, Zhao J. Upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res. 2012;18:635-40 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about the correlation of BMP4 expression with clinical aggressiveness and prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  51. Johnson M, O Connell M, Vito F, Pilcher W. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and its receptors are expressed in the leptomeninges and meningiomas and signal via the Smad pathway. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2009;68:1177-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Conditioned media from 7 cultures were analyzed for BMP-4 by ELISA. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 was variably detected in adult leptomeninges but was detected in 89% or 84% of Grade I meningiomas and ..
  52. Lee J, Ha L, Kwon I, Lim J. The role of focal adhesion kinase in BMP4 induction of mesenchymal stem cell adipogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;435:696-701 pubmed publisher
    ..hypothesis that focal adhesion kinase (FAK), one of the vital focal adhesion signaling molecules, is required for BMP4 induction of MSC adipogenesis...
  53. Abir R, Ben Haroush A, Melamed N, Felz C, Krissi H, Fisch B. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins 4 and 7 and their receptors IA, IB, and II in human ovaries from fetuses and adults. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:1430-40 pubmed
    ..However, to elucidate whether indeed BMP-4 or BMP-7 are involved in the initiation of human primordial follicular growth, they should be added to the culture medium. ..
  54. Montesano R. Bone morphogenetic protein-4 abrogates lumen formation by mammary epithelial cells and promotes invasive growth. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;353:817-22 pubmed
  55. Furuta Y, Piston D, Hogan B. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as regulators of dorsal forebrain development. Development. 1997;124:2203-12 pubmed in situ hybridization the expression of five Bmp genes belonging to the Drosophila Decapentaplegic (Bmp2 and Bmp4) and 60A subgroups (Bmp5, Bmp6 and Bmp7)...
  56. Van den Wijngaard A, Weghuis D, Boersma C, van Zoelen E, Geurts van Kessel A, Olijve W. Fine mapping of the human bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene (BMP4) to chromosome 14q22-q23 by in situ hybridization. Genomics. 1995;27:559-60 pubmed
  57. Laatio L, Myllynen P, Serpi R, Rysa J, Ilves M, Lappi Blanco E, et al. BMP-4 expression has prognostic significance in advanced serous ovarian carcinoma and is affected by cisplatin in OVCAR-3 cells. Tumour Biol. 2011;32:985-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that CDDP induces several angiogenesis-related growth factors in vitro and future studies are warranted to clarify the clinical significance of this phenomenon. ..
  58. Zhang X, Li S, Xiao X, Jia X, Wang P, Shen H, et al. Mutational screening of 10 genes in Chinese patients with microphthalmia and/or coloboma. Mol Vis. 2009;15:2911-8 pubmed
    ..To screen ten genes for mutations in 32 Chinese patients with microphthalmia and/or coloboma...
  59. Chang S, Chang T, Peng H, Yeh Y, Lee D, Yeh C, et al. BMP-4 induction of arrest and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells via p21 CIP1 and p27 KIP1 regulation. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1827-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The extracellular matrix/beta(3) integrin/ focal adhesion kinase/Shc/ERK2 signaling pathway is involved in these BMP-4-induced responses in osteoblast-like cells. ..
  60. Amita M, Adachi K, Alexenko A, Sinha S, Schust D, Schulz L, et al. Complete and unidirectional conversion of human embryonic stem cells to trophoblast by BMP4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E1212-21 pubmed publisher
    Human ES cells (hESC) exposed to bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) in the absence of FGF2 have become widely used for studying trophoblast development, but the soundness of this model has been challenged by others, who concluded that ..
  61. Wozney J, Rosen V, Celeste A, Mitsock L, Whitters M, Kriz R, et al. Novel regulators of bone formation: molecular clones and activities. Science. 1988;242:1528-34 pubmed
    ..Two of the encoded proteins (BMP-2A and BMP-3) are new members of the TGF-beta supergene family, while the third, BMP-1, appears to be a novel regulatory molecule. ..
  62. Ketolainen J, Alarmo E, Tuominen V, Kallioniemi A. Parallel inhibition of cell growth and induction of cell migration and invasion in breast cancer cells by bone morphogenetic protein 4. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;124:377-86 pubmed publisher
    ..BMPs have also been implicated in both promotion and inhibition of cancer progression. We have recently shown that BMP4 is commonly expressed in breast cancer but its functional significance has not been previously explored...
  63. Suazo J, Santos J, Jara L, Blanco R. Association between bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene polymorphisms with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in a chilean population. DNA Cell Biol. 2010;29:59-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental evidences have postulated that bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene (Bmp4) is involved in the etiology of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) in mice...
  64. Ivanova T, Zouridis H, Wu Y, Cheng L, Tan I, Gopalakrishnan V, et al. Integrated epigenomics identifies BMP4 as a modulator of cisplatin sensitivity in gastric cancer. Gut. 2013;62:22-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Epigenomic analysis identified bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) as an epigenetically regulated gene highly expressed in cisplatin-resistant lines...