Gene Symbol: BMP2
Description: bone morphogenetic protein 2
Alias: BDA2, BMP2A, SSFSC, bone morphogenetic protein 2, bone morphogenetic protein 2A
Species: human
Products:     BMP2

Top Publications

  1. Langenfeld E, Calvano S, Abou Nukta F, Lowry S, Amenta P, Langenfeld J. The mature bone morphogenetic protein-2 is aberrantly expressed in non-small cell lung carcinomas and stimulates tumor growth of A549 cells. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24:1445-54 pubmed
    ..BMP-2 enhancement of tumor cell migration and invasion, as well as stimulating tumor growth in vivo, suggests it has important biological activity in lung carcinomas. ..
  2. Feeley B, Krenek L, Liu N, Hsu W, Gamradt S, Schwarz E, et al. Overexpression of noggin inhibits BMP-mediated growth of osteolytic prostate cancer lesions. Bone. 2006;38:154-66 pubmed
    ..BMPs influence the formation of the osteolytic prostate cancer metastases, and treatment modalities that inhibit BMP activity may limit the progression of the lytic component of prostate cancer metastases. ..
  3. Klages J, Kotzsch A, Coles M, Sebald W, Nickel J, Muller T, et al. The solution structure of BMPR-IA reveals a local disorder-to-order transition upon BMP-2 binding. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11930-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The inherent flexibility of both partners possibly explains the promiscuous ligand-receptor interaction observed in the BMP protein superfamily. ..
  4. Kotzsch A, Nickel J, Seher A, Heinecke K, van Geersdaele L, Herrmann T, et al. Structure analysis of bone morphogenetic protein-2 type I receptor complexes reveals a mechanism of receptor inactivation in juvenile polyposis syndrome. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5876-87 pubmed
  5. Mazerbourg S, Sangkuhl K, Luo C, Sudo S, Klein C, Hsueh A. Identification of receptors and signaling pathways for orphan bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor ligands based on genomic analyses. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:32122-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, the present approach provides a genomic paradigm for matching paralogous polypeptide ligands with a limited number of evolutionarily related receptors capable of activating specific downstream Smad proteins. ..
  6. Kotzsch A, Nickel J, Seher A, Sebald W, Müller T. Crystal structure analysis reveals a spring-loaded latch as molecular mechanism for GDF-5-type I receptor specificity. EMBO J. 2009;28:937-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The new structural data now provide also a molecular basis of how phenotypically relevant missense mutations in GDF-5 might impair receptor binding and activation. ..
  7. Kang M, Kim J, Seo J, Oh S, Yoo Y. BMP2 accelerates the motility and invasiveness of gastric cancer cells via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:24-37 pubmed publisher
  8. Fong Y, Li T, Wu C, Hsu S, Kao S, Chen R, et al. BMP-2 increases migration of human chondrosarcoma cells via PI3K/Akt pathway. J Cell Physiol. 2008;217:846-55 pubmed publisher
  9. Park Y, Kang M, Seo H, Park J, Choi C, Kim Y, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 levels are elevated in the patients with gastric cancer and correlate with disease progression. Med Oncol. 2010;27:1192-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, serum BMP-2 is associated with progression from early localized gastric cancer to locally advanced gastric cancer. ..

More Information


  1. Fritz D, Liu D, Xu J, Jiang S, Rogers M. Conservation of Bmp2 post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48950-8 pubmed
    ..A 265-nucleotide sequence, conserved between mammals, birds, frogs, and fish, is present in Bmp2 but not Bmp4...
  2. Zara J, Siu R, Zhang X, Shen J, Ngo R, Lee M, et al. High doses of bone morphogenetic protein 2 induce structurally abnormal bone and inflammation in vivo. Tissue Eng Part A. 2011;17:1389-99 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated multiple BMP2 doses in a rat femoral segmental defect model and in a minimally traumatic rat femoral onlay model to determine its ..
  3. Lai C, Cheng S. Alphavbeta integrins play an essential role in BMP-2 induction of osteoblast differentiation. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:330-40 pubmed
    ..BMP-2 upregulates the expression of alphavbeta integrins, and these integrins, in turn, play a critical role in BMP-2 function in osteoblasts. ..
  4. Sumanasinghe R, Bernacki S, Loboa E. Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in collagen matrices: effect of uniaxial cyclic tensile strain on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP-2) mRNA expression. Tissue Eng. 2006;12:3459-65 pubmed
    ..Induction of bone differentiation in 3D culture is a critical step in the creation of bioengineered bone constructs. ..
  5. Wang H, Liu D, Yang Z, Tian B, Li J, Meng X, et al. Association of bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine and its severity in Chinese patients. Eur Spine J. 2008;17:956-64 pubmed publisher
  6. Boraiah S, Paul O, Hawkes D, Wickham M, Lorich D. Complications of recombinant human BMP-2 for treating complex tibial plateau fractures: a preliminary report. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009;467:3257-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. ..
  7. Horvath L, Henshall S, Kench J, Turner J, Golovsky D, Brenner P, et al. Loss of BMP2, Smad8, and Smad4 expression in prostate cancer progression. Prostate. 2004;59:234-42 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to characterize aspects of the BMP pathway in PC by assessing BMP2, Smad8, and Smad4 expression in normal, hyperplastic, and malignant prostate tissue, and to correlate findings with ..
  8. Langenfeld E, Kong Y, Langenfeld J. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulation of tumor growth involves the activation of Smad-1/5. Oncogene. 2006;25:685-92 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that BMP-2 promotes tumor growth. This paper highlights that cell culture experiments may not reveal the full biological affects of BMP-2, and its activity varies depending of the local environment. ..
  9. Nawata M, Wakitani S, Nakaya H, Tanigami A, Seki T, Nakamura Y, et al. Use of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and diffusion chambers to engineer cartilage tissue for the repair of defects in articular cartilage. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:155-63 pubmed
    ..ability of cartilage-like tissue, generated ectopically in a diffusion chamber using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rHuBMP-2), to repair cartilage defects in rats...
  10. Hardwick J, van den Brink G, Bleuming S, Ballester I, Van Den Brande J, Keller J, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is expressed by, and acts upon, mature epithelial cells in the colon. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:111-21 pubmed
    ..We investigated the role of BMP2 in the colon...
  11. Steinert A, Proffen B, Kunz M, Hendrich C, Ghivizzani S, Nöth U, et al. Hypertrophy is induced during the in vitro chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells by bone morphogenetic protein-2 and bone morphogenetic protein-4 gene transfer. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11:R148 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests caution when using these candidate genes in cartilage repair. ..
  12. Allendorph G, Vale W, Choe S. Structure of the ternary signaling complex of a TGF-beta superfamily member. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7643-8 pubmed
    The crystal structure of the complete signaling complex formed between bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and the extracellular domains (ECDs) of its type I receptor [bone morphogenetic protein receptor type Ia (BMPR-Ia)-ECD] and its ..
  13. Schmal H, Niemeyer P, Zwingmann J, Stoffel F, Sudkamp N, Mehlhorn A. Association between expression of the bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 7 in the repair of circumscribed cartilage lesions with clinical outcome. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2010;11:170 pubmed publisher
    ..554, p < 0.001) but not BMP-7 (R = 0.031, n.s.) levels in the knee joints. BMP-2 seems to play an important role in surgically induced cartilage repair; synovial expression correlates with the clinical outcome. ..
  14. Liu Y, Zhao Y, Chen Y, Shi G, Yuan W. RUNX2 polymorphisms associated with OPLL and OLF in the Han population. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468:3333-41 pubmed publisher
  15. Lavery K, Swain P, Falb D, Alaoui Ismaili M. BMP-2/4 and BMP-6/7 differentially utilize cell surface receptors to induce osteoblastic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:20948-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest different mechanisms for BMP-2/4- and BMP-6/7-induced osteoblastic differentiation in primary hMSC. ..
  16. de Jesus Perez V, Alastalo T, Wu J, Axelrod J, Cooke J, Amieva M, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 induces pulmonary angiogenesis via Wnt-beta-catenin and Wnt-RhoA-Rac1 pathways. J Cell Biol. 2009;184:83-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the recruitment of both canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathways is required in BMP-2-mediated angiogenesis. ..
  17. Dell accio F, De Bari C, El Tawil N, Barone F, Mitsiadis T, O Dowd J, et al. Activation of WNT and BMP signaling in adult human articular cartilage following mechanical injury. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R139 pubmed
    ..b>Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) mRNA was upregulated in the injured explants...
  18. Laperrousaz B, Jeanpierre S, Sagorny K, Voeltzel T, Ramas S, Kaniewski B, et al. Primitive CML cell expansion relies on abnormal levels of BMPs provided by the niche and on BMPRIb overexpression. Blood. 2013;122:3767-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Bone morphogenetic proteins 2 (BMP2) and 4 (BMP4) regulate the fate and proliferation of normal hematopoietic stem cells, as well as interactions with ..
  19. Hauburger A, von Einem S, Schwaerzer G, Buttstedt A, Zebisch M, Schräml M, et al. The pro-form of BMP-2 interferes with BMP-2 signalling by competing with BMP-2 for IA receptor binding. FEBS J. 2009;276:6386-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented here suggest that the pro-domain of BMP-2 can alter the signalling properties of the growth factor by modulating the ability of the mature part to interact with the receptors. ..
  20. Keller S, Nickel J, Zhang J, Sebald W, Mueller T. Molecular recognition of BMP-2 and BMP receptor IA. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2004;11:481-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the L51P substitution converts BMP-2 into a receptor-inactive inhibitor of noggin. These results are relevant for other proteins of the TGF-beta superfamily and provide useful clues for structure-based drug design. ..
  21. Styrkarsdottir U, Cazier J, Kong A, Rolfsson O, Larsen H, Bjarnadottir E, et al. Linkage of osteoporosis to chromosome 20p12 and association to BMP2. PLoS Biol. 2003;1:E69 pubmed
    ..Three variants in the bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) gene, a missense polymorphism and two anonymous single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes, were ..
  22. Choi Y, Kim S, Park K, Oh S, Seo J, Shin S, et al. The serum bone morphogenetic protein-2 level in non-small-cell lung cancer patients. Med Oncol. 2012;29:582-8 pubmed publisher
    ..59.6% versus 40.2%, P = 0.034). The serum BMP-2 level is positively correlated with the stage and metastatic burden and maybe a probable predictor of survival in the NSCLC patients. ..
  23. Bieniasz M, Oszajca K, Eusebio M, Kordiak J, Bartkowiak J, Szemraj J. The positive correlation between gene expression of the two angiogenic factors: VEGF and BMP-2 in lung cancer patients. Lung Cancer. 2009;66:319-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings underline the importance of the two angiogenic factors namely VEGF and BMP-2 as well as +936C/T VEGF gene polymorphism in the evaluation of lung cancer patients. ..
  24. Helbing T, Herold E, Hornstein A, Wintrich S, Heinke J, Grundmann S, et al. Inhibition of BMP activity protects epithelial barrier function in lung injury. J Pathol. 2013;231:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we studied bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling and, in particular, the role of BMP2 and the BMP modulator BMPER in injured lung epithelium...
  25. Yan L, Chang Z, Liu Y, Li Y, He B, Hao D. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the human bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene (109T > G) affects the Smad signaling pathway and the predisposition to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine. Chin Med J (Engl). 2013;126:1112-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate whether bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 is a candidate gene to modify the susceptibility of OPLL and the mechanism of signal transduction in ossification...
  26. Yu Y, Lieu S, Lu C, Colnot C. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulates endochondral ossification by regulating periosteal cell fate during bone repair. Bone. 2010;47:65-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to define the role of BMP2 during the early stages of bone regeneration and more specifically in regulating the fate of skeletal progenitors...
  27. Sugimori K, Matsui K, Motomura H, Tokoro T, Wang J, Higa S, et al. BMP-2 prevents apoptosis of the N1511 chondrocytic cell line through PI3K/Akt-mediated NF-kappaB activation. J Bone Miner Metab. 2005;23:411-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that BMP-2 can utilize a new signal transduction pathway in the NF-kappaB activation system, which plays a crucial role in the survival of the N1511 chondrocytic cell line. ..
  28. Lories R, Derese I, Ceuppens J, Luyten F. Bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 6, expressed in arthritic synovium, are regulated by proinflammatory cytokines and differentially modulate fibroblast-like synoviocyte apoptosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2807-18 pubmed
    ..Although BMP signaling has been proposed to be involved in cartilage and bone repair in arthritis, this pathway may be equally important in modulating FLS cell populations in inflamed synovium. ..
  29. Valdes A, Van Oene M, Hart D, Surdulescu G, Loughlin J, Doherty M, et al. Reproducible genetic associations between candidate genes and clinical knee osteoarthritis in men and women. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:533-9 pubmed
    ..The 12 genes tested were AACT, ADAM12, BMP2, CD36, CILP, COX2, ESR1, NCOR2, OPG, TNA, TNFAIP6, and VDR...
  30. Kumagai T, Tomari K, Shimizu T, Takeda K. Alteration of gene expression in response to bone morphogenetic protein-2 in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Int J Mol Med. 2006;17:285-91 pubmed
    ..Further studies of the roles of these genes may clarify the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of cell proliferation by BMP-2 and identify better approaches for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. ..
  31. Jang W, Kim E, Kim D, Ryoo H, Lee K, Kim S, et al. BMP2 protein regulates osteocalcin expression via Runx2-mediated Atf6 gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:905-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) activates unfolded protein response (UPR) transducers, such as PERK and OASIS, in osteoblast cells. ATF6, a bZIP transcription factor, is also a UPR transducer...
  32. Nakashima A, Katagiri T, Tamura M. Cross-talk between Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) signaling in differentiation pathway of C2C12 myoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:37660-8 pubmed
    ..We examined a potential role for Wnt signaling and functional cross-talk of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) in osteoblast differentiation...
  33. Dathe K, Kjaer K, Brehm A, Meinecke P, Nurnberg P, Neto J, et al. Duplications involving a conserved regulatory element downstream of BMP2 are associated with brachydactyly type A2. Am J Hum Genet. 2009;84:483-92 pubmed publisher
    ..3 that incorporates the gene for Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)...
  34. Ma Y, Ma L, Guo Q, Zhang S. Expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and its receptors in epithelial ovarian cancer and their influence on the prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010;29:85 pubmed publisher
    ..BMP-2, BMPRIB, and BMPRII exhibited low expression in EOC tissue, and variation or loss of expression may indicate poor prognosis for ovarian cancer patients. ..
  35. Jin E, Lee S, Choi Y, Jung J, Bang O, Kang S. BMP-2-enhanced chondrogenesis involves p38 MAPK-mediated down-regulation of Wnt-7a pathway. Mol Cells. 2006;22:353-9 pubmed
    ..Our results collectively indicate that the increase in Sox9 protein resulting from downregulation of b-catenin/Wnt-7a signaling is mediated by p38 MAPK during BMP-2 induced chondrogenesis in chick wing bud mesenchymal cells. ..
  36. Yang X, van der Kraan P, van den Dolder J, Walboomers X, Bian Z, Fan M, et al. STRO-1 selected rat dental pulp stem cells transfected with adenoviral-mediated human bone morphogenetic protein 2 gene show enhanced odontogenic differentiation. Tissue Eng. 2007;13:2803-12 pubmed
    ..Results of ALP activity, calcium content, and real-time PCR showed that only BMP2-transfected cells had the ability to differentiate into the odontoblast phenotype and to produce a calcified ..
  37. Karakida T, Yui R, Suzuki T, Fukae M, Oida S. Retinoic acid receptor ?-dependent signaling cooperates with BMP2 to induce osteoblastic differentiation of C2C12 cells. Connect Tissue Res. 2011;52:365-72 pubmed publisher
    All-trans retinoic acid and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) synergistically induced an alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, one of the osteoblastic differentiation markers, and promoted the extracellular matrix calcification in a ..
  38. Nakagawa Y, Ikeda K, Akakabe Y, Koide M, Uraoka M, Yutaka K, et al. Paracrine osteogenic signals via bone morphogenetic protein-2 accelerate the atherosclerotic intimal calcification in vivo. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1908-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings collectively demonstrate an important role of dedifferentiated VSMCs in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic calcification through activating paracrine BMP-2 osteogenic signals. ..
  39. Lee K, Taghavi C, Murray S, Song K, Keorochana G, Wang J. BMP induced inflammation: a comparison of rhBMP-7 and rhBMP-2. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:1985-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our animal model can be used to test materials that could ameliorate this reaction. ..
  40. Fei Z, Yao C, Yang X, Huang X, Ma S. Serum BMP-2 up-regulation as an indicator of poor survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14:5293-9 pubmed
    ..This study was conducted to assess correlations between serum BMP-2 levels and prognostic outcome in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
  41. Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy G. Bone morphogenetic proteins. Growth Factors. 2004;22:233-41 pubmed
    ..A. et al. (1996) "MADR1, a MAD-related protein that functions in BMP2 signaling pathways", Cell 85, 489-500; Chen Y. et al...
  42. Langenfeld E, Langenfeld J. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 stimulates angiogenesis in developing tumors. Mol Cancer Res. 2004;2:141-9 pubmed
    ..This study reveals that BMP-2 enhanced the angiogenic response in developing tumors. Furthermore, these data suggest that BMP-2 stimulation of angiogenesis may involve the activation of endothelial cells. ..
  43. Liu Z, Tang Y, Qiu T, Cao X, Clemens T. A dishevelled-1/Smad1 interaction couples WNT and bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways in uncommitted bone marrow stromal cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:17156-63 pubmed
    ..These results identify a potential mechanism whereby BMP-2 antagonizes Wnt signaling in osteoblast progenitors by promoting an interaction between Smad1 and Dvl-1 that restricts beta-catenin activation. ..
  44. Lai T, Fong Y, Fu W, Yang R, Tang C. Osteoblasts-derived BMP-2 enhances the motility of prostate cancer cells via activation of integrins. Prostate. 2008;68:1341-53 pubmed publisher
  45. Kiyozuka Y, Nakagawa H, Senzaki H, Uemura Y, Adachi S, Teramoto Y, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 and type IV collagen expression in psammoma body forming ovarian cancer. Anticancer Res. 2001;21:1723-30 pubmed
    ..These results raise the possibility that BMP-2 and type IV collagen-producing slow growing tumor cells form PBs in ovarian cancer. ..
  46. Hallahan A, Pritchard J, Chandraratna R, Ellenbogen R, Geyer J, Overland R, et al. BMP-2 mediates retinoid-induced apoptosis in medulloblastoma cells through a paracrine effect. Nat Med. 2003;9:1033-8 pubmed
  47. Waite K, Eng C. BMP2 exposure results in decreased PTEN protein degradation and increased PTEN levels. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:679-84 pubmed
    ..We thus sought to determine whether BMP2 stimulation alters PTEN protein levels in the breast cancer line, MCF-7...
  48. Dumont N, Arteaga C. A kinase-inactive type II TGFbeta receptor impairs BMP signaling in human breast cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;301:108-12 pubmed
    ..In this letter, we report that expression of dnTbetaRII also impairs BMP2-mediated Smad1 phosphorylation as well as BMP2-mediated Smad-dependent transcriptional responses, resulting in an ..
  49. Kawamura C, Kizaki M, Ikeda Y. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 induces apoptosis in human myeloma cells. Leuk Lymphoma. 2002;43:635-9 pubmed
    ..In this review, we summarize data concerning BMPs and BMP-2-induced apoptosis of myeloma cells including our own recent experimental data. ..
  50. Marie P, Debiais F, Hay E. Regulation of human cranial osteoblast phenotype by FGF-2, FGFR-2 and BMP-2 signaling. Histol Histopathol. 2002;17:877-85 pubmed publisher
  51. Kirsch T, Sebald W, Dreyer M. Crystal structure of the BMP-2-BRIA ectodomain complex. Nat Struct Biol. 2000;7:492-6 pubmed
    ..No contacts exist between the receptor domains. The model reveals the structural basis for discrimination between type I and type II receptors and the variability of receptor-ligand interactions that is seen in BMP-TGF-beta systems. ..
  52. Lai C, Cheng S. Signal transductions induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 and transforming growth factor-beta in normal human osteoblastic cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:15514-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, ERK and p38 differentially mediate TGF-beta and BMP-2 function in osteoblasts. ..
  53. Orui H, Imaizumi S, Ogino T, Motoyama T. Effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on human tumor cell growth and differentiation: a preliminary report. J Orthop Sci. 2000;5:600-4 pubmed
    ..The results of this study may suggest the feasibility of using rhBMP-2 for the reconstruction of bone defects caused by malignant tumors, although the data are still preliminary and require further investigation. ..
  54. Liu F, Ventura F, Doody J, Massague J. Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the two-kinase receptor model to the BMPs. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:3479-86 pubmed
    ..The combinatorial nature of these receptors and their capacity to crosstalk with the activin receptor system may underlie the multifunctional nature of their ligands. ..
  55. Fukui N, Zhu Y, Maloney W, Clohisy J, Sandell L. Stimulation of BMP-2 expression by pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and TNF-alpha in normal and osteoarthritic chondrocytes. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85-A Suppl 3:59-66 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, known to be present in synovium and cartilage of patients with osteoarthritis, stimulate the production of active BMP-2. ..
  56. Kleeff J, Maruyama H, Ishiwata T, Sawhney H, Friess H, Buchler M, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 exerts diverse effects on cell growth in vitro and is expressed in human pancreatic cancer in vivo. Gastroenterology. 1999;116:1202-16 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that BMP-2 has the capacity to act as a mitogen when Smad4 is mutated and suggest that it might play a role in the pathobiology of human pancreatic cancer. ..
  57. Furuta Y, Piston D, Hogan B. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) as regulators of dorsal forebrain development. Development. 1997;124:2203-12 pubmed
    ..compared by in situ hybridization the expression of five Bmp genes belonging to the Drosophila Decapentaplegic (Bmp2 and Bmp4) and 60A subgroups (Bmp5, Bmp6 and Bmp7)...
  58. Wozney J, Rosen V, Celeste A, Mitsock L, Whitters M, Kriz R, et al. Novel regulators of bone formation: molecular clones and activities. Science. 1988;242:1528-34 pubmed
    ..Two of the encoded proteins (BMP-2A and BMP-3) are new members of the TGF-beta supergene family, while the third, BMP-1, appears to be a novel regulatory molecule. ..
  59. Wang E, Rosen V, D Alessandro J, Bauduy M, Cordes P, Harada T, et al. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein induces bone formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:2220-4 pubmed
    ..The cartilage- and bone-inductive activity of the recombinant BMP-2A is histologically indistinguishable from that of bone extracts. Thus, recombinant BMP-2A has therapeutic potential to promote de novo bone formation in humans. ..