Gene Symbol: BMAL2
Description: aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator like 2
Alias: BMAL2, CLIF, MOP9, PASD9, bHLHe6, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 2, CYCLE-like factor, PAS domain-containing protein 9, basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS protein MOP9, brain and muscle ARNT-like 2, class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 6, member of PAS protein 9, transcription factor BMAL2
Species: human
Products:     BMAL2

Top Publications

  1. Sasaki M, Yoshitane H, Du N, Okano T, Fukada Y. Preferential inhibition of BMAL2-CLOCK activity by PER2 reemphasizes its negative role and a positive role of BMAL2 in the circadian transcription. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Like BMAL1, its paralog BMAL2 dimerizes with CLOCK to activate the E-box-dependent transcription, but the role of BMAL2 in the circadian ..
  2. Englund A, Kovanen L, Saarikoski S, Haukka J, Reunanen A, Aromaa A, et al. NPAS2 and PER2 are linked to risk factors of the metabolic syndrome. J Circadian Rhythms. 2009;7:5 pubmed publisher
    ..049). Our findings support the view that relevant relationships between circadian clocks and the metabolic syndrome in humans exist. ..
  3. Shi J, Wittke Thompson J, Badner J, Hattori E, Potash J, Willour V, et al. Clock genes may influence bipolar disorder susceptibility and dysfunctional circadian rhythm. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2008;147B:1047-55 pubmed publisher
    ..00000172). It remains significant after correcting for multiple testing using the False Discovery Rate method. Our results indicate an interaction between three circadian genes in susceptibility to bipolar disorder. ..
  4. Ikeda M, Yu W, Hirai M, Ebisawa T, Honma S, Yoshimura K, et al. cDNA cloning of a novel bHLH-PAS transcription factor superfamily gene, BMAL2: its mRNA expression, subcellular distribution, and chromosomal localization. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;275:493-502 pubmed
    We isolated a human cDNA encoding a novel member of the bHLH-PAS transcription factor superfamily, BMAL2, which is highly similar to, but distinct from, BMAL1...
  5. Hogenesch J, Gu Y, Moran S, Shimomura K, Radcliffe L, Takahashi J, et al. The basic helix-loop-helix-PAS protein MOP9 is a brain-specific heterodimeric partner of circadian and hypoxia factors. J Neurosci. 2000;20:RC83 pubmed
    ..understand how organisms sense environmental changes, we have characterized a novel member of the PAS superfamily, MOP9 (member of PAS superfamily), that maps to human chromosome 12p11.22-11.23...
  6. Lavebratt C, Sjöholm L, Partonen T, Schalling M, Forsell Y. PER2 variantion is associated with depression vulnerability. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010;153B:570-581 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, genetic variation in PER2 is associated with depression vulnerability a Swedish population-based sample. More studies are needed to determine if this is the case also for NPAS2, ARNTL, and RORA. ..
  7. Alam S, Lal B, Sood V, Khanna R, Kumar G. AARC-ACLF score: best predictor of outcome in children and adolescents with decompensated Wilson disease. Hepatol Int. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..34-2.05, p = 0.000) and Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score also known as CLIF-SOFA (HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.13-1.50, p = 0...
  8. Ferreira Cardoso M, Alexandrino G, Carvalho E Branco J, Anapaz V, Carvalho R, Horta D, et al. The impact and evolution of acute-on-chronic liver failure in decompensated cirrhosis: A Portuguese single-center study. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..An algorithm for risk stratification in decompensated cirrhosis was recently proposed by the EASL-CLIF (European Association for the Study of the Liver-Chronic Liver Failure) Consortium...
  9. Hannou L, Bélanger Nelson E, O Callaghan E, Dufort Gervais J, Ballester Roig M, Roy P, et al. Regulation of the Neuroligin-1 Gene by Clock Transcription Factors. J Biol Rhythms. 2018;33:166-178 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus aimed to verify whether CLOCK/BMAL1, as well as their homologs NPAS2 and BMAL2, can activate transcription via the Nlgn1 promoter by using luciferase assays in COS-7 cells...

More Information


  1. Angelousi A, Kassi E, Nasiri Ansari N, Weickert M, Randeva H, Kaltsas G. Clock genes alterations and endocrine disorders. Eur J Clin Invest. 2018;48:e12927 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, clock genes exhibit a tissue-specific expression representing an additional level of regulation. Their specific role in endocrine disorders and their potential implications remain to be further clarified. ..
  2. Qi T, Zhu C, Lu G, Hao J, He Q, Chen Y, et al. Elevated D-dimer is associated with increased 28-day mortality in acute-on-chronic liver failure in China: a retrospective study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2019;19:20 pubmed publisher
    ..385, p < 0.001; clif-c ads: r = 0.443, p < 0.001; clif-c aclfs: r = 0.375, p < 0.001)...
  3. Levey D, Polimanti R, Cheng Z, Zhou H, Nuñez Y, Jain S, et al. Genetic associations with suicide attempt severity and genetic overlap with major depression. Transl Psychiatry. 2019;9:22 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide evidence of genetic risk factors for suicide attempt severity, providing new information regarding the molecular mechanisms involved. ..
  4. Gao F, Li X, Wan G, Li Y, Zhang Q, Liu Y, et al. Development and external validation of a prognostic nomogram for acute decompensation of chronic hepatitis B cirrhosis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2018;18:179 pubmed publisher
    ..793), MELD (0.821), SOFA (0.868), or the Chronic Liver Failure Consortium AD (CLIF-C AD) (0.716) scores (p <  0.001 for all)...
  5. Sundaram V, Jalan R, Wu T, Volk M, Asrani S, Klein A, et al. Factors Associated with Survival of Patients With Severe Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure Before and After Liver Transplantation. Gastroenterology. 2019;156:1381-1391.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanical ventilation at liver transplantation and use of marginal organs were associated with increased risk of death. ..
  6. Chen L, Zheng J, Cai J, Jie Y, Zhang Y, Li H, et al. Predictive Value of Age-Bilirubin-International Normalized Ratio-Creatinine Score in Short-Term Survival of Acute-on-Chronic Hepatitis B Liver Failure. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018;51:2484-2495 pubmed publisher
    ..Cox analysis included blood urea nitrogen, ABIC score, and Chronic Liver Failure Consortium Organ Failure (CLIF-C OF) score...
  7. Xu L, Ying S, Hu J, Wang Y, Yang M, Ge T, et al. Pneumonia in patients with cirrhosis: risk factors associated with mortality and predictive value of prognostic models. Respir Res. 2018;19:242 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA) displayed highest AUROC (0.89 and 0.90, 95% CI: 0.83-0.95 and 0.85-0...
  8. Lal B, Sood V, Khanna R, Alam S. How to identify the need for liver transplantation in pediatric acute-on-chronic liver failure?. Hepatol Int. 2018;12:552-559 pubmed publisher
    ..role of pediatric modifications of AARC-ACLF score and chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA) score...
  9. Ma Y, Pandzic E, Nicovich P, Yamamoto Y, Kwiatek J, Pageon S, et al. An intermolecular FRET sensor detects the dynamics of T cell receptor clustering. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15100 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we establish a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensor, named CliF, which reports intermolecular associations of neighbouring proteins in live cells...
  10. Caraceni P, Pavesi M, Baldassarre M, Bernardi M, Arroyo V. The use of human albumin in patients with cirrhosis: a European survey. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;12:625-632 pubmed publisher
    ..The European Foundation for the Study of Chronic Liver Failure (EF-CLIF) promoted an online survey to assess its use across Europe...
  11. Engelmann C, Thomsen K, Zakeri N, Sheikh M, Agarwal B, Jalan R, et al. Validation of CLIF-C ACLF score to define a threshold for futility of intensive care support for patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. Crit Care. 2018;22:254 pubmed publisher
    ..Child-Pugh, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), European Foundation for the study of chronic liver failure (CLIF-C) organ failure (OF), and CLIF-C ACLF, were calculated 48 hours after ICU admission and correlated with patient ..
  12. Cai J, Wang K, Han T, Jiang H. Evaluation of prognostic values of inflammation-based makers in patients with HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97:e13324 pubmed publisher
    ..AUC for identified poor outcome, followed by NLR, chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA), MLR, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) and TBIL...
  13. Brzezinski A, Saada A, Miller H, Brzezinski Sinai N, Ben Meir A. Is the aging human ovary still ticking?: Expression of clock-genes in luteinized granulosa cells of young and older women. J Ovarian Res. 2018;11:95 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a decreased expression of some of these genes in older women. This decline may partially explain the decreased fertility and steroidogenesis of reproductive aging. ..
  14. Gao F, Zhang Q, Liu Y, Gong G, Mao D, Gong Z, et al. Nomogram prediction of individual prognosis of patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure. Dig Liver Dis. 2019;51:425-433 pubmed publisher
    ..correct for bias in two external cohorts, including an APASL ACHBLF cohort (10 hospitals, N = 329) and an EASL-CLIF ACHBLF cohort (Renji Hospital, N = 300)...
  15. He S, Liang X, Li L, Sun J, Wen Z, Cheng X, et al. Transcriptome analysis of food habit transition from carnivory to herbivory in a typical vertebrate herbivore, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:15 pubmed publisher
    ..Altered expressions of Per, Cry, Clock, Bmal2, Pdp, Dec and Fbxl3 might reset circadian phase of fish after food habit transition...
  16. Sarbu M, Salman Monte T, Rubio Muñoz P, Lisbona M, Almirall Bernabé M, Carbonell J. Differences between clinical and laboratory findings in patients with recent diagnosis of SLE according to the positivity of anti-dsDNA by the Crithidia luciliae method. Lupus. 2015;24:1198-203 pubmed publisher
    Of all anti-dsDNA antibody detection methods, the Crithidia luciliae immunofluorescence test (CLIF) is considered to have the highest specificity for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)...
  17. Cheng Y, Chang C, Chen W, Tsai M, Lee W, Tu K, et al. Prognostic factors and treatment effect of standard-volume plasma exchange for acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure: A single-center retrospective study. Transfus Apher Sci. 2018;57:537-543 pubmed publisher
    ..008), post-PE hemoglobin (P = 0.039), and post-PE CLIF-C ACLF scores (P = 0.061) were independent predictors of survival in ACLF...
  18. Jalan R, Pavesi M, Saliba F, Amorós A, Fernandez J, Holland Fischer P, et al. The CLIF Consortium Acute Decompensation score (CLIF-C ADs) for prognosis of hospitalised cirrhotic patients without acute-on-chronic liver failure. J Hepatol. 2015;62:831-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of this study were to develop and validate the CLIF-C AD score, a specific prognostic score for hospitalised cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation (AD), but ..
  19. Wu P, Chu W, Liu X, Guo X, Zhang J. The Influence of Short-term Fasting on Muscle Growth and Fiber Hypotrophy Regulated by the Rhythmic Expression of Clock Genes and Myogenic Factors in Nile Tilapia. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2018;20:750-768 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our work provides a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of dietary starvation on fish growth and may provide dietary administration in aquiculture. ..
  20. Zhao Y, Zheng D, Cvekl A. A comprehensive spatial-temporal transcriptomic analysis of differentiating nascent mouse lens epithelial and fiber cells. Exp Eye Res. 2018;175:56-72 pubmed publisher
  21. McPhail M, Shawcross D, Abeles R, Chang A, Patel V, Lee G, et al. Increased Survival for Patients With Cirrhosis and Organ Failure in Liver Intensive Care and Validation of the Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Scoring System. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;13:1353-1360.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..The chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA) recently was developed as an adaptation to the SOFA to predict outcomes of patients, but requires validation...
  22. Lenhart A, Hussain S, Salgia R. Chances of Renal Recovery or Liver Transplantation After Hospitalization for Alcoholic Liver Disease Requiring Dialysis. Dig Dis Sci. 2018;63:2800-2809 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyzed variables included patient comorbidities, mode of dialysis, MELD-Na score, CLIF-C ACLF score, and CLIF-C OF score. Forty-seven patients were included, 21...
  23. Meersseman P, Langouche L, Du Plessis J, Korf H, Mekeirele M, Laleman W, et al. The intensive care unit course and outcome in acute-on-chronic liver failure are comparable to other populations. J Hepatol. 2018;69:803-809 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure deserve the same ICU care given to other ICU populations. ..
  24. Partonen T. Clock genes in human alcohol abuse and comorbid conditions. Alcohol. 2015;49:359-65 pubmed publisher
  25. Geoffroy P, Lajnef M, Bellivier F, Jamain S, Gard S, Kahn J, et al. Genetic association study of circadian genes with seasonal pattern in bipolar disorders. Sci Rep. 2015;5:10232 pubmed publisher
    ..The epistasis analysis between rs6738097 (NPAS2) and rs1554338 (CRY2) suggested an additive effect. Genetic variations in NPAS2 might be a biomarker for a seasonal pattern in BD. ..
  26. Testino G, Leone S. Acute alcoholic hepatitis: a literature review and proposal of treatment. Minerva Med. 2018;109:290-299 pubmed publisher
    ..In our clinical practice, we use the MELD routinely. In cases of ACLF, a consortium organ failure score (CLIF-COFs) is used...
  27. Arroyo V, Moreau R, Jalan R, Ginès P. Acute-on-chronic liver failure: A new syndrome that will re-classify cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2015;62:S131-43 pubmed publisher
    ..A scoring system composed of three scores (CLIF-C OFs, CLIF-C AD, and CLIF-C ACLFs) specifically designed for patients with AD, with and without ACLF, allows a ..
  28. Dupont B, Delvincourt M, Koné M, du Cheyron D, Ollivier Hourmand I, Piquet M, et al. Retrospective evaluation of prognostic score performances in cirrhotic patients admitted to an intermediate care unit. Dig Liver Dis. 2015;47:675-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Liver Disease (MELD), MELD-Na and the Chronic Liver Failure-Consortium Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure score (CLIF-C ACLF) in predicting hospital mortality were compared. Mean age was 58.2±12.1 years; 77% were male...
  29. Purushothaman S, Saxena S, Meghah V, Meena Lakshmi M, Singh S, Brahmendra Swamy C, et al. Proteomic and gene expression analysis of zebrafish brain undergoing continuous light/dark stress. J Sleep Res. 2015;24:458-65 pubmed publisher
    ..chain reaction revealed that many circadian pathway-associated genes, such as per1b, bmal1b, cry1b, bmal2 and nr1d2, were differentially regulated during continuous light/dark exposures...
  30. Li H, Xia Q, Zeng B, Li S, Liu H, Li Q, et al. Submassive hepatic necrosis distinguishes HBV-associated acute on chronic liver failure from cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. J Hepatol. 2015;63:50-9 pubmed publisher
    ..with more severely impaired hepatic function, a higher prevalence of multiple organ failure (as indicated by higher CLIF-SOFA and SOFA scores) and a shorter interval between acute decompensation and liver transplantation than those ..
  31. Yang Z, Matsumoto A, Nakayama K, Jimbo E, Kojima K, Nagata K, et al. Circadian-relevant genes are highly polymorphic in autism spectrum disorder patients. Brain Dev. 2016;38:91-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in circadian-relevant genes affecting gene function are more frequent in patients with ASD than in controls. Circadian-relevant genes may be involved in the psychopathology of ASD. ..
  32. Cadenas C, van de Sandt L, Edlund K, Lohr M, Hellwig B, Marchan R, et al. Loss of circadian clock gene expression is associated with tumor progression in breast cancer. Cell Cycle. 2014;13:3282-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Coordinated co-expression of clock genes, indicative of a functional circadian clock, is maintained in ER+, HER2-, low grade and non-metastasizing tumors but is compromised in more aggressive carcinomas. ..
  33. Legaz García M, Dentler K, Fernández Breis J, Cornet R. Combining Archetypes, Ontologies and Formalization Enables Automated Computation of Quality Indicators. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2017;235:416-420 pubmed
    ..However, it does not yet support the automated assessment of quality of care. CLIF is a stepwise method to formalize quality indicators...
  34. Kerbert A, Verspaget H, Navarro A, Jalan R, Solá E, Benten D, et al. Copeptin in acute decompensation of liver cirrhosis: relationship with acute-on-chronic liver failure and short-term survival. Crit Care. 2017;21:321 pubmed publisher
    ..Presence of ACLF was defined according to the CLIF-consortium organ failure (CLIF-C OF) score...
  35. Jiang S, Wang P, Xiang X, Mo R, Lin L, Bao S, et al. Serum soluble ST2 is a promising prognostic biomarker in HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2017;16:181-188 pubmed
    ..serum sST2 level was significantly correlated with laboratory parameters and the most updated prognostic scores (CLIF-C OF score, CLIF-C ACLF score and ACLF grades)...
  36. Huber W, Henschel B, Schmid R, Al Chalabi A. First clinical experience in 14 patients treated with ADVOS: a study on feasibility, safety and efficacy of a new type of albumin dialysis. BMC Gastroenterol. 2017;17:32 pubmed publisher
    ..Mean age 54?±?13; MELD-score 34?±?7; CLIF-SOFA 15?±?3. Serum bilirubin levels were significantly decreased by 32% during the first session (26.0?±?15.4 vs...
  37. Baty F, Klingbiel D, Zappa F, Brutsche M. High-throughput alternative splicing detection using dually constrained correspondence analysis (DCCA). J Biomed Inform. 2015;58:175-185 pubmed publisher
    ..DCCA facilitates the identification of putative biologically relevant alternative splicing events in high-throughput exon array data. ..
  38. Lebailly B, Langa F, Boitard C, Avner P, Rogner U. The circadian gene Arntl2 on distal mouse chromosome 6 controls thymocyte apoptosis. Mamm Genome. 2017;28:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, IL-21 also leads to an increase in thymic proinflammatory Th17 helper cells. Our results identify Arntl2 as a gene controlling thymocyte apoptosis and proliferation along with Th17 development through the IL-21 pathway. ..
  39. Mookerjee R, Pavesi M, Thomsen K, Mehta G, Macnaughtan J, Bendtsen F, et al. Treatment with non-selective beta blockers is associated with reduced severity of systemic inflammation and improved survival of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. J Hepatol. 2016;64:574-82 pubmed publisher
    ..164 (47%) ACLF patients received NSBBs whereas 185 patients did not. Although the CLIF-C ACLF scores were similar at presentation, more patients in the NSBB treated group had lower grades of ACLF (p=0...
  40. Markwardt D, Holdt L, Steib C, Benesic A, Bendtsen F, Bernardi M, et al. Plasma cystatin C is a predictor of renal dysfunction, acute-on-chronic liver failure, and mortality in patients with acutely decompensated liver cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2017;66:1232-1241 pubmed publisher
    ..the plasma levels of CysC and NGAL in 429 patients hospitalized for acute decompensation of cirrhosis in the EASL-CLIF Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure in Cirrhosis (CANONIC) study. The patients were followed for 90 days...
  41. Bernal W, Jalan R, Quaglia A, Simpson K, Wendon J, Burroughs A. Acute-on-chronic liver failure. Lancet. 2015;386:1576-87 pubmed publisher
    ..A new diagnostic score, the Chronic Liver Failure Consortium (CLIF-C) organ failure score, has been developed for classification and prognostic assessment of patients with acute-on-..
  42. Grønbæk H, Rødgaard Hansen S, Aagaard N, Arroyo V, Moestrup S, Garcia E, et al. Macrophage activation markers predict mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis without or with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). J Hepatol. 2016;64:813-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The patients' clinical course was registered and their MELD, CLIF-C Acute Decompensation (AD), and CLIF-C ACLF-scores computed at inclusion. We found a stepwise increase (p<0...
  43. Olkkonen J, Kouri V, Hynninen J, Konttinen Y, Mandelin J. Differentially Expressed in Chondrocytes 2 (DEC2) Increases the Expression of IL-1β and Is Abundantly Present in Synovial Membrane in Rheumatoid Arthritis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0145279 pubmed publisher
    ..Not only ARNTL2 and NPAS2 but also DEC2 is regulated by TNFα in human fibroblasts. NF-κB mediates the effect on DEC2, which upregulates IL-1β. Circadian clock has a direct effect on inflammation in human fibroblasts. ..
  44. Antunes A, Teixeira C, Vaz A, Martins C, Queirós P, Alves A, et al. Comparison of the prognostic value of Chronic Liver Failure Consortium scores and traditional models for predicting mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;40:276-285 pubmed publisher
    Recently, the European Association for the Study of the Liver - Chronic Liver Failure (CLIF) Consortium defined two new prognostic scores, according to the presence or absence of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF): the CLIF Consortium ..
  45. Dirchwolf M, Podhorzer A, Mariño M, Shulman C, Cartier M, Zunino M, et al. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis: Distinct cytokines phenotypes according to cirrhosis severity. Cytokine. 2016;77:14-25 pubmed publisher
    ..7%) developed ACLF. Leukocyte count, MELD score at admission, Clif-SOFA at admission and day 7 were significantly higher in the ACLF group (p=0.046, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0...
  46. Palmieri O, Mazzoccoli G, Bossa F, Maglietta R, Palumbo O, Ancona N, et al. Systematic analysis of circadian genes using genome-wide cDNA microarrays in the inflammatory bowel disease transcriptome. Chronobiol Int. 2015;32:903-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The deregulated genes evidenced by transcriptome analysis in the major IBDs may play a crucial role in the pathophysiological mechanisms and may suggest novel therapeutic approaches. ..
  47. Sonika U, Jadaun S, Ranjan G, Rout G, Gunjan D, Kedia S, et al. Alcohol-related acute-on-chronic liver failure-Comparison of various prognostic scores in predicting outcome. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2018;37:50-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Maddrey's discriminant function (DF), age-bilirubin-INR-creatinine (ABIC), and Chronic Liver Failure Consortium (CLIF-C) ACLF score (CLIF-C ACLF) score were calculated...
  48. Reszka E, Przybek M, Muurlink O, Pepłońska B. Circadian gene variants and breast cancer. Cancer Lett. 2017;390:137-145 pubmed publisher
    ..We summarize fifteen epidemiological studies, including five studies on shift work that have indicated BMAL1, BMAL2, CLOCK, NPAS2, CRY1, CRY2, PER1, PER3 and TIMELESS as a candidate breast cancer risk variants.
  49. Maiwall R, Sarin S, Moreau R. Acute kidney injury in acute on chronic liver failure. Hepatol Int. 2016;10:245-57 pubmed publisher serum creatinine of more than 2 mg/dl or requirement of renal replacement therapy according to the EASL-CLIF Consortium...
  50. Machicao F, Peter A, Machann J, Königsrainer I, Böhm A, Lutz S, et al. Glucose-Raising Polymorphisms in the Human Clock Gene Cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) Affect Hepatic Lipid Content. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0145563 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-steatotic effects of the glucose-raising CRY2 alleles may explain why these alleles do not increase type-2 diabetes risk. ..
  51. Liang Y, Huang G, Zhao J, Shi W, Hu L, Tian F, et al. Transcriptional alterations induced by binary mixtures of ethinylestradiol and norgestrel during the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017;195:60-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding suggests exposure to the binary mixtures of EE2 and NGT produced significantly enhanced effects in fish as compared to single chemical exposures, and their coexistence could have significant environmental implications. ..
  52. Lebailly B, Boitard C, Rogner U. Circadian rhythm-related genes: implication in autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015;17 Suppl 1:134-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent findings in the non-obese diabetic mouse model pinpoint to specific mechanisms controlling type 1 diabetes by the clock-related gene Arntl2 in the immune system. ..
  53. Jacovetti C, Rodríguez Trejo A, Guay C, Sobel J, Gattesco S, Petrenko V, et al. MicroRNAs modulate core-clock gene expression in pancreatic islets during early postnatal life in rats. Diabetologia. 2017;60:2011-2020 pubmed publisher
    ..up to a sixfold-change in the 24 h transcriptional oscillations and overall expression of Clock, Npas2, Bmal1, Bmal2, Rev-erbα, Per1, Per2, Per3 and Cry2 between newborn and adult rat islets...
  54. Ha N, Long J, Cai Q, Shu X, Hunter K. The Circadian Rhythm Gene Arntl2 Is a Metastasis Susceptibility Gene for Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006267 pubmed publisher
  55. Zhang X, O Kennedy N, Morton J. Extreme Variation of Nutritional Composition and Osmolality of Commercially Available Carbohydrate Energy Gels. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2015;25:504-9 pubmed publisher
    ..31 product ranges (incorporating 51 flavor variants) from 23 brands (Accelerade, CNP, High5, GU, Hammer, Maxim, Clif, USN, Mule, Multipower, Nectar, Carb- Boom, Power Bar, Lucozade, Shotz, TORQ, Dextro, Kinetica, SiS, Zipvit, ..
  56. Gao J, Zhang Q, Wu Y, Li Y, Qi T, Zhu C, et al. Improving survival of acute-on-chronic liver failure patients complicated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Sci Rep. 2018;8:876 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to explore prognostic value of the Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (CLIF-SOFA) lung score and to establish an optimal voriconazole regimen for ACLF patients complicated with IPA...
  57. Cheng L, Shafiq S, Xu W, Sun Q. EARLY FLOWERING IN SHORT DAYS (EFS) regulates the seed size in Arabidopsis. Sci China Life Sci. 2018;61:214-224 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analysis reveals that an imprinted gene MOP9.5 is hypomethylated at the promoter region and its expression is derepressed in efs mutant. MOP9...
  58. Mocellin S, Tropea S, Benna C, Rossi C. Circadian pathway genetic variation and cancer risk: evidence from genome-wide association studies. BMC Med. 2018;16:20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings, based on the largest series ever utilized for ARTP-based gene and pathway analysis, support the hypothesis that circadian pathway genetic variation is involved in cancer predisposition. ..
  59. Alempijevic T, Zec S, Nikolic V, Veljkovic A, Milivojevic V, Dopsaj V, et al. Erythropoietin in Predicting Prognosis in Patients with Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2016;25:473-479 pubmed publisher
    ..According to the EASL-CLIF criteria, 104 consecutive patients were diagnosed with ACLF, and separated into two groups based on the type of ..
  60. Nikonova E, Gilliland J, Tanis K, Podtelezhnikov A, Rigby A, Galante R, et al. Transcriptional Profiling of Cholinergic Neurons From Basal Forebrain Identifies Changes in Expression of Genes Between Sleep and Wake. Sleep. 2017;40: pubmed publisher
    ..Cholinergic cell signatures were characterized. Whether the identified genes are changing as a consequence of differences in behavioral state or as part of the molecular regulatory mechanism remains to be determined. ..
  61. Edmark C, McPhail M, Bell M, Whitehouse T, Wendon J, CHRISTOPHER K. LiFe: a liver injury score to predict outcome in critically ill patients. Intensive Care Med. 2016;42:361-369 pubmed publisher
    ..9, ≥2.0-3.9, ≥4.0-5.9, ≥6.0) at ICU admission. Performance analysis of the LiFe score against SOFA, CLIF-SOFA, APACHE II and SAPS II was completed in the validation cohort of critically ill cirrhotic patients...
  62. Bolia R, Srivastava A, Yachha S, Poddar U. Pediatric CLIF-SOFA score is the best predictor of 28-day mortality in children with decompensated chronic liver disease. J Hepatol. 2018;68:449-455 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study supports the use of scores based on organ failure in prognosticating children with DCLD. ..
  63. Ooe N, Saito K, Mikami N, Nakatuka I, Kaneko H. Identification of a novel basic helix-loop-helix-PAS factor, NXF, reveals a Sim2 competitive, positive regulatory role in dendritic-cytoskeleton modulator drebrin gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:608-16 pubmed
  64. Frasinyuk M, Zhang W, Wyrebek P, Yu T, Xu X, Sviripa V, et al. Developing antineoplastic agents that target peroxisomal enzymes: cytisine-linked isoflavonoids as inhibitors of hydroxysteroid 17-beta-dehydrogenase-4 (HSD17B4). Org Biomol Chem. 2017;15:7623-7629 pubmed publisher
    ..A pull-down assay using a biologically active, biotin-modified CLIF identified the target of these agents as the bifunctional peroxisomal enzyme, hydroxysteroid 17β-dehydrogenase-4 (..
  65. Okano T, Yamamoto K, Okano K, Hirota T, Kasahara T, Sasaki M, et al. Chicken pineal clock genes: implication of BMAL2 as a bidirectional regulator in circadian clock oscillation. Genes Cells. 2001;6:825-36 pubmed
    ..We identified expression of the Per2, Bmal1, Bmal2 and Clock genes in the chicken pineal gland...
  66. Sjöholm L, Kovanen L, Saarikoski S, Schalling M, Lavebratt C, Partonen T. CLOCK is suggested to associate with comorbid alcohol use and depressive disorders. J Circadian Rhythms. 2010;8:1 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with previous reports it indicates that the CLOCK variations we found here may be a vulnerability factor to depression given the exposure to alcohol in individuals having AUD. ..
  67. Ding H, Liu S, Yuan Y, Lin Q, Chan P, Cai Y. Decreased expression of Bmal2 in patients with Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2011;499:186-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is still unclear whether other key regulators of the clock machinery, especially Bmal2, the paralog of Bmal1, are also expressed differently in PD...
  68. Parsons M, Lester K, Barclay N, Archer S, Nolan P, Eley T, et al. Polymorphisms in the circadian expressed genes PER3 and ARNTL2 are associated with diurnal preference and GN?3 with sleep measures. J Sleep Res. 2014;23:595-604 pubmed publisher
  69. Mansour H, Talkowski M, Wood J, Chowdari K, McClain L, Prasad K, et al. Association study of 21 circadian genes with bipolar I disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia. Bipolar Disord. 2009;11:701-10 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Additional analyses using adequately powered samples are warranted to further evaluate these results. ..
  70. Kovanen L, Saarikoski S, Aromaa A, Lonnqvist J, Partonen T. ARNTL (BMAL1) and NPAS2 gene variants contribute to fertility and seasonality. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10007 pubmed publisher
    ..Earlier findings have linked ARNTL to infertility in mice, but this is the first time when any polymorphism of these genes is linked to fertility in humans. ..
  71. Schoenhard J, Smith L, Painter C, Eren M, Johnson C, Vaughan D. Regulation of the PAI-1 promoter by circadian clock components: differential activation by BMAL1 and BMAL2. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2003;35:473-81 pubmed
    ..Both CLOCK:BMAL1 and CLOCK:BMAL2 heterodimers activate the PAI-1 promoter through requisite proximal (-565 to -560 bp) and distal (-680 to -675 bp) ..
  72. Brady J, Chuang C, Greenside P, Rogers Z, Murray C, Caswell D, et al. An Arntl2-Driven Secretome Enables Lung Adenocarcinoma Metastatic Self-Sufficiency. Cancer Cell. 2016;29:697-710 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms that enable single cancer cells to form allochthonous tumors in foreign tissue environments. ..
  73. Qing Xiu L, Chang Quan H, Qian C, Xue Mei Z, Xiu Ying H, Song Bing L. The polymorphism of ARNTL2 (BMAL2) gene rs2306074 C>T is associated with susceptibility of Alzheimer disease in Chinese population. Neurol Sci. 2014;35:1743-7 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we investigated whether polymorphism of ARNTL2 (BMAL2) gene rs2306074 T/C was associated with susceptibility of Alzheimer disease (AD) in Chinese population. A case-control method was employed in this study...
  74. Macdonald S, Andreola F, Bachtiger P, Amorós A, Pavesi M, Mookerjee R, et al. Cell death markers in cirrhotic patients with acute decompensation. Hepatology. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..TUNEL staining confirmed evidence of greater hepatic cell death in patients with ACLF as opposed to AD. Inclusion of cK18 and K18 improved the performance of the CLIF-C AD score in prediction of progression from AD to ACLF (p<0.05).
  75. Kovanen L, Saarikoski S, Haukka J, Pirkola S, Aromaa A, Lonnqvist J, et al. Circadian clock gene polymorphisms in alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption. Alcohol Alcohol. 2010;45:303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..04) and NPY Pro7 decreased (P = 0.01) the risk of alcohol dependence. ARNTL, ARNTL2, VIP and ADCYAP1 were indicated as having influence on alcohol use or abuse. The role of DRD2 and NPY on alcohol dependence was also supported. ..
  76. Bartoletti M, Giannella M, Lewis R, Caraceni P, Tedeschi S, Paul M, et al. A prospective multicentre study of the epidemiology and outcomes of bloodstream infection in cirrhotic patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2018;24:546.e1-546.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..was 25% and was best predicted by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Chronic Liver Failure-SOFA (CLIF-SOFA) score. In a Cox regression model, delayed (>24 hours) antibiotic treatment (hazard ratio (HR) 7...
  77. Schoenhard J, Eren M, Johnson C, Vaughan D. Alternative splicing yields novel BMAL2 variants: tissue distribution and functional characterization. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002;283:C103-14 pubmed
    The BMAL2 gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix PER-ARNT-SIM family of transcription factors, which control diverse physiological processes including circadian rhythms...
  78. Yamaguchi M, Uemura H, Arisawa K, Katsuura Kamano S, Hamajima N, Hishida A, et al. Association between brain-muscle-ARNT-like protein-2 (BMAL2) gene polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese Japanese individuals: A cross-sectional analysis of the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015;110:301-8 pubmed publisher
    Brain-muscle-Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1) and BMAL2 genes are essential components of the circadian clock, and are considered to be involved in glucose homeostasis...
  79. Liu L, Jiang G, Peng Z, Li Y, Li J, Zou L, et al. The effect of high fat diet on daily rhythm of the core clock genes and muscle functional genes in the skeletal muscle of Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx sinensis). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;213:17-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In the HFD treatment, the circadian rhythms expressional patterns of the 8 core clock genes (Clock, Bmal2, Cry2, Per1, DBP, NFIL3, BHLHE40 and RORA) and 6 muscle functional genes (MSTN, Myf5, MyoD, MyoG, PPARa and Trim63)..
  80. Choudhury A, Jindal A, Maiwall R, Sharma M, Sharma B, Pamecha V, et al. Liver failure determines the outcome in patients of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF): comparison of APASL ACLF research consortium (AARC) and CLIF-SOFA models. Hepatol Int. 2017;11:461-471 pubmed publisher
    ..80 and 0.78, respectively. AARC-ACLF score (range 5-15) was found to be superior to MELD and CLIF SOFA scores in predicting mortality with an AUROC of 0.80...
  81. Shi S, Bichell T, Ihrie R, Johnson C. Ube3a imprinting impairs circadian robustness in Angelman syndrome models. Curr Biol. 2015;25:537-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The ubiquitin ligase encoded by Ube3a interacts with the central clock components BMAL1 and BMAL2. Moreover, inactivation of Ube3a expression elevates BMAL1 levels in brain regions that control circadian behavior ..
  82. Ciarleglio C, Ryckman K, Servick S, Hida A, Robbins S, Wells N, et al. Genetic differences in human circadian clock genes among worldwide populations. J Biol Rhythms. 2008;23:330-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Population genetic analyses indicate that these differences are likely to arise from genetic drift rather than from natural selection. ..
  83. Mazzoccoli G, Pazienza V, Panza A, Valvano M, Benegiamo G, Vinciguerra M, et al. ARNTL2 and SERPINE1: potential biomarkers for tumor aggressiveness in colorectal cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012;138:501-11 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and SERPINE1 (P = 0.001). ARNTL2 and SERPINE1 expression is increased in colorectal cancer and in a highly proliferative colon cancer cell line and is related to tumor invasiveness and aggressiveness. ..
  84. Utge S, Soronen P, Loukola A, Kronholm E, Ollila H, Pirkola S, et al. Systematic analysis of circadian genes in a population-based sample reveals association of TIMELESS with depression and sleep disturbance. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9259 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support a connection between circadian genes and gender-dependent depression and defective sleep regulation. ..
  85. Sy E, Ronco J, Searle R, Karvellas C. Prognostication of critically ill patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure using the Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment: A Canadian retrospective study. J Crit Care. 2016;36:234-239 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the Chronic Liver Failure-Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (CLIF-SOFA) score to predict survival in a Canadian critically ill cohort with acute-on-chronic liver failure...
  86. Soria V, Martínez Amorós E, Escaramis G, Valero J, Pérez Egea R, Garcia C, et al. Differential association of circadian genes with mood disorders: CRY1 and NPAS2 are associated with unipolar major depression and CLOCK and VIP with bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010;35:1279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the contribution of the circadian system to the genetic susceptibility to MD and suggest that different circadian genes may have specific effects on MD polarity. ..
  87. Piano S, Tonon M, Vettore E, Stanco M, Pilutti C, Romano A, et al. Incidence, predictors and outcomes of acute-on-chronic liver failure in outpatients with cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2017;67:1177-1184 pubmed publisher
    ..ACLF was defined and graded according to the EASL-CLIF Consortium definition...
  88. Maemura K, de la Monte S, Chin M, Layne M, Hsieh C, Yet S, et al. CLIF, a novel cycle-like factor, regulates the circadian oscillation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:36847-51 pubmed
    ..We isolated a novel bHLH/PAS protein, cycle-like factor (CLIF) from human umbilical vein endothelial cells...
  89. Sun D, Zheng C, Liu W, Van Poucke S, Mao Z, Shi K, et al. AKI-CLIF-SOFA: a novel prognostic score for critically ill cirrhotic patients with acute kidney injury. Aging (Albany NY). 2017;9:286-296 pubmed publisher
    ..with AKI, the acute kidney injury - Chronic Liver Failure - Sequential Organ Failure- Assessment score (AKI-CLIF-SOFA) score...
  90. Hamaguchi H, Fujimoto K, Kawamoto T, Noshiro M, Maemura K, Takeda N, et al. Expression of the gene for Dec2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is regulated by a molecular clock system. Biochem J. 2004;382:43-50 pubmed
    ..Forced expression of Clock/Bmal1 and Clock/Bmal2 markedly increased Dec2 mRNA levels, and up-regulated the transcription of the Dec2 gene through the CACGTG E-..