Gene Symbol: beta-COP
Description: coatomer protein complex subunit beta 1
Alias: COPB, coatomer subunit beta, beta coat protein, beta-cop
Species: human
Products:     beta-COP

Top Publications

  1. Janvier K, Craig H, Le Gall S, Benarous R, Guatelli J, Schwartz O, et al. Nef-induced CD4 downregulation: a diacidic sequence in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef does not function as a protein sorting motif through direct binding to beta-COP. J Virol. 2001;75:3971-6 pubmed
    ..Additional studies are thus required to characterize the residues of Nef involved in the binding to beta-COP and to evaluate the contribution of this interaction to the Nef-induced perturbations of membrane trafficking. ..
  2. O Kelly I, Butler M, Zilberberg N, Goldstein S. Forward transport. 14-3-3 binding overcomes retention in endoplasmic reticulum by dibasic signals. Cell. 2002;111:577-88 pubmed
    ..Other retained proteins are demonstrated to carry functional 14-3-3beta release motifs. ..
  3. Piguet V, Gu F, Foti M, Demaurex N, Gruenberg J, Carpentier J, et al. Nef-induced CD4 degradation: a diacidic-based motif in Nef functions as a lysosomal targeting signal through the binding of beta-COP in endosomes. Cell. 1999;97:63-73 pubmed
    ..A novel class of endosomal sorting motif, based on acidic residues, is thus revealed, and beta-COP is identified as its downstream partner. ..
  4. Faure J, Stalder R, Borel C, Sobo K, Piguet V, Demaurex N, et al. ARF1 regulates Nef-induced CD4 degradation. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1056-64 pubmed
    ..Finally, a dominant-negative ARF1 mutant blocks the migration of the Nef-CD4 complex to lysosomes. Our results support a model in which ARF1 is the immediate downstream partner of Nef for CD4 lysosomal targeting. ..
  5. Benichou S, Bomsel M, Bodeus M, Durand H, Doute M, Letourneur F, et al. Physical interaction of the HIV-1 Nef protein with beta-COP, a component of non-clathrin-coated vesicles essential for membrane traffic. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:30073-6 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that beta-COP might be one of the cellular mediators of Nef function in HIV-1-infected cells. ..
  6. Aniento F, Gu F, Parton R, Gruenberg J. An endosomal beta COP is involved in the pH-dependent formation of transport vesicles destined for late endosomes. J Cell Biol. 1996;133:29-41 pubmed
    In this paper, we show that beta COP is present on endosomes and is required for the formation of vesicles which mediate transport from early to late endosomes...
  7. Rosario Cruz Z, Eletsky A, Daigham N, Al Tameemi H, Swapna G, Kahn P, et al. The copBL operon protects Staphylococcus aureus from copper toxicity: CopL is an extracellular membrane-associated copper-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2019;294:4027-4044 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified two genes (copB and copL) encoded within the Staphylococcus aureus arginine-catabolic mobile element (ACME) that ..
  8. Barth K, Bläsche R, Kasper M. T1alpha/podoplanin shows raft-associated distribution in mouse lung alveolar epithelial E10 cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010;25:103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The raft-associated distribution of T1alpha may have an impact on a specific, not yet clarified function of this protein in the alveolar epithelium. ..
  9. Gracioso L, Baltazar M, Avanzi I, Karolski B, Oller Nascimento C, Perpetuo E. Analysis of copper response in Acinetobacter sp. by comparative proteomics. Metallomics. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..The proteins were identified to be associated with the glycolytic pathway, membrane transport, biosynthesis and two proteins directly involved in copper homeostasis (CopA and CopB).

More Information


  1. Lee C, Goldberg J. Structure of coatomer cage proteins and the relationship among COPI, COPII, and clathrin vesicle coats. Cell. 2010;142:123-32 pubmed publisher
  2. Zapotoczna M, Riboldi G, Moustafa A, Dickson E, Narechania A, Morrissey J, et al. Mobile-Genetic-Element-Encoded Hypertolerance to Copper Protects Staphylococcus aureus from Killing by Host Phagocytes. MBio. 2018;9: pubmed publisher
    ..We show that a copper hypertolerance operon (copB-mco), carried on a mobile genetic element (MGE), is prevalent in a collection of invasive S...
  3. López Villarejo J, Lobato Márquez D, Díaz Orejas R. Coupling between the basic replicon and the Kis-Kid maintenance system of plasmid R1: modulation by Kis antitoxin levels and involvement in control of plasmid replication. Toxins (Basel). 2015;7:478-92 pubmed publisher
    kis-kid, the auxiliary maintenance system of plasmid R1 and copB, the auxiliary copy number control gene of this plasmid, contribute to increase plasmid replication efficiency in cells with lower than average copy number...
  4. Pu X, Wang J, Li W, Fan W, Wang L, Mao Y, et al. COPB2 promotes cell proliferation and tumorigenesis through up-regulating YAP1 expression in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;103:373-380 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays were performed to evaluate the effects of COPB on the expression and subcellular location of YAP...
  5. Styers M, O Connor A, Grabski R, Cormet Boyaka E, Sztul E. Depletion of beta-COP reveals a role for COP-I in compartmentalization of secretory compartments and in biosynthetic transport of caveolin-1. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;294:C1485-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that COP-I is required for the compartmentalization of the ERGIC, Golgi, TGN, and recycling endosomes and that COP-I plays a novel role in the biosynthetic transport of Cav1. ..
  6. Drecktrah D, Chambers K, Racoosin E, Cluett E, Gucwa A, Jackson B, et al. Inhibition of a Golgi complex lysophospholipid acyltransferase induces membrane tubule formation and retrograde trafficking. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:3459-69 pubmed
    ..The effect of CI-976 was similar to that of brefeldin A, except that the coatomer subunit beta-COP remained on Golgi-derived membrane tubules...
  7. Mazaki Y, Hashimoto S, Okawa K, Tsubouchi A, Nakamura K, Yagi R, et al. An ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein Git2-short/KIAA0148 is involved in subcellular localization of paxillin and actin cytoskeletal organization. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:645-62 pubmed
  8. Argudín M, Lauzat B, Kraushaar B, Alba P, Agerso Y, Cavaco L, et al. Heavy metal and disinfectant resistance genes among livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Vet Microbiol. 2016;191:88-95 pubmed publisher
    ..8%, 0.2%, 24.3% and 71.5% were positive for arsA (arsenic compounds), cadD (cadmium), copB (copper) and czrC (zinc/cadmium) resistance genes, respectively...
  9. Singh K, Senadheera D, Lévesque C, Cvitkovitch D. The copYAZ Operon Functions in Copper Efflux, Biofilm Formation, Genetic Transformation, and Stress Tolerance in Streptococcus mutans. J Bacteriol. 2015;197:2545-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Most Gram-positive bacteria utilize the copYABZ operon for copper homeostasis, where copA and copB encode copper-transporting P-type ATPases, whereas copY and copZ regulate the expression of the cop operon...
  10. Casey C, Bhat G, Holzapfel M, Petrosyan A. Study of Ethanol-Induced Golgi Disorganization Reveals the Potential Mechanism of Alcohol-Impaired N-Glycosylation. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2016;40:2573-2590 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide the mechanism by which EtOH-induced Golgi remodeling may significantly modify formation of N-glycans. ..
  11. Argudín M, Butaye P. Dissemination of metal resistance genes among animal methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Res Vet Sci. 2016;105:192-4 pubmed publisher
    ..of 130 MRCoNS from pigs and veal calves were investigated for the presence of metal-resistance genes (czrC, copB, cadD, arsA) associated to SCCmec. Near half of the isolates carried metal resistance genes (czrC 5.4%, copB 38...
  12. Kobayashi H, Nishimura H, Matsumoto K, Yoshida M. Identification of the determinants of 2-deoxyglucose sensitivity in cancer cells by shRNA library screening. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;467:121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data demonstrated that a defect in COPI-mediated transport or pharmacological inhibition of ATGL potentiates 2DG toxicity in cancer cells, possibly due to a reduction in the energy supply. ..
  13. de Wilde A, Wannee K, Scholte F, Goeman J, Ten Dijke P, Snijder E, et al. A Kinome-Wide Small Interfering RNA Screen Identifies Proviral and Antiviral Host Factors in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Replication, Including Double-Stranded RNA-Activated Protein Kinase and Early Secretory Pathway Proteins. J Virol. 2015;89:8318-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified factors could be interesting targets for the development of host-directed antiviral therapy to treat infections with SARS-CoV or other pathogenic coronaviruses. ..
  14. Purohit R, Ross M, Batelu S, Kusowski A, Stemmler T, Hoffman B, et al. Cu+-specific CopB transporter: Revising P1B-type ATPase classification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:2108-2113 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of Sphaerobacter thermophilus CopB (StCopB) show that, while it does bind Cu2+, the binding site is not the prototypical P1B
  15. Herman E, Yiangou L, Cantoni D, Miller C, Marciano Cabral F, Anthonyrajah E, et al. Identification and characterisation of a cryptic Golgi complex in Naegleria gruberi. J Cell Sci. 2018;131: pubmed publisher
    ..fowleri cells. We then study distribution of the Golgi marker (Ng)CopB by fluorescence in Naegleria gruberi, identifying membranous structures that are disrupted by Brefeldin A ..
  16. Jamieson C, Mills K, Lui C, Semaan C, Molloy M, Sharma M, et al. Characterization of a beta-catenin nuclear localization defect in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Exp Cell Res. 2016;341:196-206 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that in MCF-7 and perhaps other breast cancer cells, beta-catenin may contribute to cytoplasmic functions such as ER-golgi transport, in addition to its transactivation role in the nucleus. ..
  17. Bulir D, Waltho D, Stone C, Liang S, Chiang C, Mwawasi K, et al. Chlamydia Outer Protein (Cop) B from Chlamydia pneumoniae possesses characteristic features of a type III secretion (T3S) translocator protein. BMC Microbiol. 2015;15:163 pubmed publisher
    ..b>CopB is a predicted hydrophobic translocator protein within the chlamydial T3SS...
  18. Cukierman E, Huber I, Rotman M, Cassel D. The ARF1 GTPase-activating protein: zinc finger motif and Golgi complex localization. Science. 1995;270:1999-2002 pubmed
    ..Thus, the GAP is likely to be recruited to the Golgi by an ARF1-dependent mechanism. ..
  19. Eugster A, Frigerio G, Dale M, Duden R. COP I domains required for coatomer integrity, and novel interactions with ARF and ARF-GAP. EMBO J. 2000;19:3905-17 pubmed
    ..Glo3p also interacts with intact coatomer in vitro. ..
  20. Bulir D, Liang S, Lee A, Chong S, Simms E, Stone C, et al. Immunization with chlamydial type III secretion antigens reduces vaginal shedding and prevents fallopian tube pathology following live C. muridarum challenge. Vaccine. 2016;34:3979-85 pubmed publisher
    ..trachomatis (CopB, CopD, and CT584) as a potential chlamydial vaccine candidate...
  21. Pal S, Mishra M, Sudhakar D, Siddiqui M. In-silico designing of a potent analogue against HIV-1 Nef protein and protease by predicting its interaction network with host cell proteins. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2013;5:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The newly designed analogue (LOPI1) is showing significant in silico interaction with Nef protein and protease and can be taken forward as a potent drug lead, which may finally emerge out to be even better than the standard Lopinavir. ..
  22. Yi L, Rosales T, Rose J, Chowdhury B, Chaudhury B, Knutson J, et al. HIV-1 Nef binds a subpopulation of MHC-I throughout its trafficking itinerary and down-regulates MHC-I by perturbing both anterograde and retrograde trafficking. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:30884-905 pubmed publisher
    ..In all, our data support a model for Nef down-regulation of HLA-I that involves both major trafficking itineraries and persistent protein-protein interactions throughout the cell...
  23. Lowe M, Kreis T. In vivo assembly of coatomer, the COP-I coat precursor. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:30725-30 pubmed
    ..These results describe for the first time in vivo assembly of a coat protein complex involved in membrane traffic and extend our knowledge of how coatomer is structured. ..
  24. Turgay Y, Ungricht R, Rothballer A, Kiss A, Csucs G, Horvath P, et al. A classical NLS and the SUN domain contribute to the targeting of SUN2 to the inner nuclear membrane. EMBO J. 2010;29:2262-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, SUN2 represents the first mammalian INM protein relying on a functional cNLS, a Golgi retrieval signal and a perinuclear domain to mediate targeting to the INM. ..
  25. Sullivan B, Harrison Lavoie K, Marshansky V, Lin H, Kehrl J, Ausiello D, et al. RGS4 and RGS2 bind coatomer and inhibit COPI association with Golgi membranes and intracellular transport. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:3155-68 pubmed
    ..Thus, these data support the hypothesis that these RGS proteins sequester coatomer in the cytoplasm and inhibit its recruitment onto Golgi membranes, which may in turn modulate Golgi-plasma membrane or intra-Golgi transport. ..
  26. Yang Y, Yin J, Liu J, Xu Q, Lan T, Ren F, et al. The Copper Homeostasis Transcription Factor CopR Is Involved in H2O2 Stress in Lactobacillus plantarum CAUH2. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:2015 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed putative CopR-binding "cop box" sequences in the promoter region of the adjacent gene copB encoding a Cu2+-exporting ATPase...
  27. Tamaki H, Yamashina S. Structural integrity of the Golgi stack is essential for normal secretory functions of rat parotid acinar cells: effects of brefeldin A and okadaic acid. J Histochem Cytochem. 2002;50:1611-23 pubmed
    ..This suggested that the integrated structure of the Golgi apparatus was quite necessary for the occurrence of normal secretory events, including proper sorting of molecules. ..
  28. Schaefer M, Wonderlich E, Roeth J, Leonard J, Collins K. HIV-1 Nef targets MHC-I and CD4 for degradation via a final common beta-COP-dependent pathway in T cells. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000131 pubmed publisher
    ..The requirement for redundant motifs with distinct roles supports a model in which Nef exists in multiple conformational states that allow access to different motifs, depending upon which cellular target is bound by Nef. ..
  29. Ong Y, Tran T, Gounko N, Hong W. TMEM115 is an integral membrane protein of the Golgi complex involved in retrograde transport. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:2825-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish that TMEM115 is an integral membrane protein of the Golgi stack regulating Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport and is likely to be part of the machinery of the COG complex. ..
  30. Lippincott Schwartz J, Liu W. Insights into COPI coat assembly and function in living cells. Trends Cell Biol. 2006;16:e1-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we present images and movies characterizing the dynamics of protein components of the COPI coat in living cells. We discuss the self-assembly of these coat components into a molecular machine for sorting and trafficking membranes. ..
  31. Ruíz Masó J, Luengo L, Moreno Córdoba I, Díaz Orejas R, del Solar G. Successful Establishment of Plasmids R1 and pMV158 in a New Host Requires the Relief of the Transcriptional Repression of Their Essential rep Genes. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:2367 pubmed publisher
    ..rolling-circle-type mobilizable streptococcal plasmid pMV158 encode a transcriptional repressor protein, namely CopB in R1 and CopG in pMV158, involved in replication control...
  32. Majoul I, Straub M, Hell S, Duden R, Söling H. KDEL-cargo regulates interactions between proteins involved in COPI vesicle traffic: measurements in living cells using FRET. Dev Cell. 2001;1:139-53 pubmed
    ..Both p24a and p23 interact with ARF1, but only p24 interacts with ARFGAP. These findings suggest a model for how cargo-induced oligomerization of ERD2 regulates its sorting into COPI-coated buds. ..
  33. Benichou S, Liu L, Erdtmann L, Selig L, Benarous R. Use of the two-hybrid system to identify cellular partners of the HIV1 Nef protein. Res Virol. 1997;148:71-3 pubmed
  34. Howley B, Link L, Grelet S, El Sabban M, Howe P. A CREB3-regulated ER-Golgi trafficking signature promotes metastatic progression in breast cancer. Oncogene. 2018;37:1308-1325 pubmed publisher
  35. Lérias J, Pinto M, Botelho H, Awatade N, Quaresma M, Silva I, et al. A novel microscopy-based assay identifies extended synaptotagmin-1 (ESYT1) as a positive regulator of anoctamin 1 traffic. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2018;1865:421-431 pubmed publisher
    ..This ANO1 cell-based assay constitutes an important tool to be further used in high-throughput screens and drug discovery of high relevance for CF and cancer. ..
  36. Burman J, Bourbonniere L, Philie J, Stroh T, Dejgaard S, Presley J, et al. Scyl1, mutated in a recessive form of spinocerebellar neurodegeneration, regulates COPI-mediated retrograde traffic. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:22774-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate a function for Scyl1 as an accessory factor in COPI trafficking and suggest for the first time that alterations in the COPI pathway result in neurodegenerative disease. ..
  37. Kanzaki M, Watson R, Hou J, Stamnes M, Saltiel A, Pessin J. Small GTP-binding protein TC10 differentially regulates two distinct populations of filamentous actin in 3T3L1 adipocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:2334-46 pubmed
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that TC10 can differentially regulate two types of filamentous actin in adipocytes dependent on distinct functional domains and its subcellular compartmentalization. ..
  38. Pavel J, Harter C, Wieland F. Reversible dissociation of coatomer: functional characterization of a beta/delta-coat protein subcomplex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:2140-5 pubmed
    ..Herein we describe isolation of a subcomplex of coatomer consisting of beta- and delta-COPs that is able to bind to Golgi membranes in an ARF1- and GTP-dependent manner. ..
  39. Goryachev A, Pokhilko A. Computational model explains high activity and rapid cycling of Rho GTPases within protein complexes. PLoS Comput Biol. 2006;2:e172 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we find that the cycling regimes are only weakly dependent on the concentration of GTPase itself. ..
  40. Moggy M, Pajor E, Thurston W, Parker S, Greter A, Schwartzkopf Genswein K, et al. Attitudes of western Canadian cow-calf producers towards the Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle. Can Vet J. 2017;58:1209-1211 pubmed
    ..Canadian cow-calf producers' attitudes towards the Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Beef Cattle (COPB). Most respondents had not read the COPB...
  41. Bernstein J, Okamoto Y, Kim M, Shikano S. Potential use of potassium efflux-deficient yeast for studying trafficking signals and potassium channel functions. FEBS Open Bio. 2013;3:196-203 pubmed publisher
  42. Fischer K, Helms J, Zhao L, Wieland F. Site-specific photocrosslinking to probe interactions of Arf1 with proteins involved in budding of COPI vesicles. Methods. 2000;20:455-64 pubmed
  43. Paulsson K, Kleijmeer M, Griffith J, Jevon M, Chen S, Anderson P, et al. Association of tapasin and COPI provides a mechanism for the retrograde transport of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules from the Golgi complex to the endoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18266-71 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that tapasin is required for the COPI vesicle-mediated retrograde transport of immature MHC class I molecules from the Golgi network to the ER. ..
  44. Huang L, Feng L, Yang L, Zhou W, Zhao S, Li C. Screen and identification of proteins interacting with ADAM19 cytoplasmic tail. Mol Biol Rep. 2002;29:317-23 pubmed
    ..And the interaction is specific. ArgBP1 does not bind to ADAM22, ADAM29 or ADAM9 (mouse). ArgBP1 may be the key protein, which accounts for the physiological function of ADAM19. ..
  45. Harter C, Wieland F. A single binding site for dilysine retrieval motifs and p23 within the gamma subunit of coatomer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11649-54 pubmed
    ..We suggest that, under physiological conditions, interaction of coatomer with both endoplasmic reticulum retrieval motifs and the cytoplasmic domain of p23 is mediated by gamma-COP. ..
  46. Rohde H, Cheong F, Konrad G, Paiha K, Mayinger P, Boehmelt G. The human phosphatidylinositol phosphatase SAC1 interacts with the coatomer I complex. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52689-99 pubmed
    ..These results open the possibility that the enzymatic function of hSAC1 provides a switch for accessibility of the COPI interaction motif. ..
  47. Futatsumori M, Kasai K, Takatsu H, Shin H, Nakayama K. Identification and characterization of novel isoforms of COP I subunits. J Biochem. 2000;128:793-801 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that gamma2-COP and zeta2-COP can form a COP I-like complex in place of gamma1-COP and zeta1-COP, respectively, and suggest that the COP I complex and the COP I-like complex are functionally redundant. ..
  48. England K, Ashford D, Kidd D, Rumsby M. PKC epsilon is associated with myosin IIA and actin in fibroblasts. Cell Signal. 2002;14:529-36 pubmed
    ..Inhibitors of PKC and myosin ATPase activity, as well as microfilament-disrupting drugs, all inhibited spreading of fibroblasts after passage, suggesting a role for a PKC epsilon-actin-myosin complex in cell spreading. ..
  49. Lee Y, Bae Y, Park N, Yoo J, Cho C, Ryoo K, et al. Surface expression of the Anoctamin-1 (ANO1) channel is suppressed by protein-protein interactions with ?-COP. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;475:216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that ?-COP negatively regulates ANO1 surface expression. ..
  50. Faulstich D, Auerbach S, Orci L, Ravazzola M, Wegchingel S, Lottspeich F, et al. Architecture of coatomer: molecular characterization of delta-COP and protein interactions within the complex. J Cell Biol. 1996;135:53-61 pubmed
    ..We propose that these interactions reflect in vivo associations of those subunits and thus play a functional role in the assembly of coatomer and/or serve to maintain the molecular architecture of the complex. ..
  51. Luo R, Jacques K, Ahvazi B, Stauffer S, Premont R, Randazzo P. Mutational analysis of the Arf1*GTP/Arf GAP interface reveals an Arf1 mutant that selectively affects the Arf GAP ASAP1. Curr Biol. 2005;15:2164-9 pubmed
    ..Based on our results, we conclude that the contribution of specific residues within switch 1 of Arf to binding and achieving a transition state toward GTP hydrolysis differs among Arf GAPs. ..
  52. Duden R, Griffiths G, Frank R, Argos P, Kreis T. Beta-COP, a 110 kd protein associated with non-clathrin-coated vesicles and the Golgi complex, shows homology to beta-adaptin. Cell. 1991;64:649-65 pubmed
    ..These coated vesicles accumulate in rat liver Golgi fractions treated with GTP gamma S and strongly label for beta-COP. Our data suggest that beta-COP is a component of a coat associated with vesicles and cisternae of the Golgi complex. ..
  53. Xu Y, Martin S, James D, Hong W. GS15 forms a SNARE complex with syntaxin 5, GS28, and Ykt6 and is implicated in traffic in the early cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:3493-507 pubmed
  54. Leonard J, Filzen T, Carter C, Schaefer M, Collins K. HIV-1 Nef disrupts intracellular trafficking of major histocompatibility complex class I, CD4, CD8, and CD28 by distinct pathways that share common elements. J Virol. 2011;85:6867-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide important new information on the similarities and differences with which Nef affects intracellular trafficking and help focus future research on the best potential pharmaceutical targets. ..
  55. Anderson D, Holt B, Pennell C, Holt P, Hart P, Blackwell J. Genome-wide association study of vitamin D levels in children: replication in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study. Genes Immun. 2014;15:578-83 pubmed publisher
    ..3 × 10(-6)) that could be of functional interest in highlighting alternative pathways for vitamin D metabolism in this age group and merits further analysis in other cohort studies. ..
  56. Orcl L, Palmer D, Amherdt M, Rothman J. Coated vesicle assembly in the Golgi requires only coatomer and ARF proteins from the cytosol. Nature. 1993;364:732-4 pubmed
    ..COP-coated buds may therefore form essentially by self-assembly from Golgi cisternae after an initial step in which GTP is used to allow ARF binding. ..
  57. Zhao L, Helms J, Brunner J, Wieland F. GTP-dependent binding of ADP-ribosylation factor to coatomer in close proximity to the binding site for dilysine retrieval motifs and p23. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:14198-203 pubmed
  58. Sevinc A, Fung L. Non-erythroid beta spectrin interacting proteins and their effects on spectrin tetramerization. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2011;16:595-609 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that the syntaxin binding protein 1 fragment abolished ?II-N and ?II-C interaction, suggesting that this protein may inhibit or regulate non-erythroid spectrin tetramer formation. ..
  59. Wegmann D, Hess P, Baier C, Wieland F, Reinhard C. Novel isotypic gamma/zeta subunits reveal three coatomer complexes in mammals. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:1070-80 pubmed
    ..This existence of three structurally different forms of coatomer will need to be considered in future models of COPI-mediated transport. ..
  60. Taranum S, Vaylann E, Meinke P, Abraham S, Yang L, Neumann S, et al. LINC complex alterations in DMD and EDMD/CMT fibroblasts. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:614-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results point to a potential influence of mutations in components of the LINC complex on the clinical outcome and the molecular pathology in the patients. ..
  61. Mohrs M, Janssen K, Kreis T, Noegel A, Schleicher M. Cloning and characterization of beta-COP from Dictyostelium discoideum. Eur J Cell Biol. 2000;79:350-7 pubmed
    ..However, upon DMSO treatment we observed a reversible disassembly of the Golgi apparatus. In mammalian cells DMSO treatment had a similar effect on beta-COP distribution...
  62. Park B, Ahn K. An essential function of tapasin in quality control of HLA-G molecules. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14337-45 pubmed
  63. Schekman R, Orci L. Coat proteins and vesicle budding. Science. 1996;271:1526-33 pubmed
    ..Secretion, which has been viewed as a default pathway, may require sorting and packaging signals on transported molecules to ensure their rapid delivery to the cell surface...
  64. Takatsu H, Futatsumori M, Yoshino K, Yoshida Y, Shin H, Nakayama K. Similar subunit interactions contribute to assembly of clathrin adaptor complexes and COPI complex: analysis using yeast three-hybrid system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:1083-9 pubmed
  65. Hansen K, Ronnstrand L, Rorsman C, Hellman U, Heldin C. Association of coatomer proteins with the beta-receptor for platelet-derived growth factor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;235:455-60 pubmed
    ..The possible functional importance of the interaction between the PDGF beta-receptor and alpha- and beta'-COP, is discussed. ..
  66. Waters M, Serafini T, Rothman J. 'Coatomer': a cytosolic protein complex containing subunits of non-clathrin-coated Golgi transport vesicles. Nature. 1991;349:248-51 pubmed
  67. Xu P, Hankins H, MacDonald C, Erlinger S, Frazier M, Diab N, et al. COPI mediates recycling of an exocytic SNARE by recognition of a ubiquitin sorting signal. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher