Gene Symbol: beta-actin
Description: actin beta
Alias: BRWS1, PS1TP5BP1, actin, cytoplasmic 1, I(2)-actin, PS1TP5-binding protein 1, beta cytoskeletal actin
Species: human
Products:     beta-actin

Top Publications

  1. Rivière J, van Bon B, Hoischen A, Kholmanskikh S, O Roak B, Gilissen C, et al. De novo mutations in the actin genes ACTB and ACTG1 cause Baraitser-Winter syndrome. Nat Genet. 2012;44:440-4, S1-2 pubmed publisher
  2. Campbell E, Nunez R, Hope T. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton can complement the ability of Nef to enhance human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infectivity. J Virol. 2004;78:5745-55 pubmed
    ..The results presented here suggest that Nef functions to allow the HIV genome to penetrate the cortical actin network, a known barrier for intracellular parasitic organisms. ..
  3. Warrilow D, Harrich D. HIV-1 replication from after cell entry to the nuclear periphery. Curr HIV Res. 2007;5:293-9 pubmed
    ..An actin-transport process may then facilitate the remaining short journey to the nuclear membrane. ..
  4. Hu P, Wu S, Hernandez N. A role for beta-actin in RNA polymerase III transcription. Genes Dev. 2004;18:3010-5 pubmed
    ..Transcription is regained upon treatment of pol III with CK2 and addition of beta-actin. This suggests that beta-actin associated with pol III is essential for basal pol III transcription. ..
  5. Stüven T, Hartmann E, Gorlich D. Exportin 6: a novel nuclear export receptor that is specific for profilin.actin complexes. EMBO J. 2003;22:5928-40 pubmed
    ..In contrast to a previous report, we found no indications of a major and direct role for CRM1 in actin export from mammalian or insect nuclei. ..
  6. Vasiliver Shamis G, Cho M, Hioe C, Dustin M. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gp120-induced partial T-cell receptor signaling creates an F-actin-depleted zone in the virological synapse. J Virol. 2009;83:11341-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model in which the F-actin-depleted zone formed within the target CD4 T cell enhances the reception of virions by releasing the physical barrier for HIV-1 entry and facilitating postentry events. ..
  7. Ibarrondo F, Choi R, Geng Y, Canon J, Rey O, Baldwin G, et al. HIV type 1 Gag and nucleocapsid proteins: cytoskeletal localization and effects on cell motility. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001;17:1489-500 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that interactions between HIV-1 Gag and actin in infected cells enhance cell motility. Ultimately this enhanced motility of infected cells could promote the dissemination of virus into the brain and other tissues. ..
  8. Dugina V, Zwaenepoel I, Gabbiani G, Clement S, Chaponnier C. Beta and gamma-cytoplasmic actins display distinct distribution and functional diversity. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2980-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal new aspects of beta- and gamma-actin organization that support their functional diversity. ..
  9. Gordón Alonso M, Rocha Perugini V, Alvarez S, Moreno Gonzalo O, Ursa A, López Martín S, et al. The PDZ-adaptor protein syntenin-1 regulates HIV-1 entry. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2253-63 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Mouilleron S, Guettler S, Langer C, Treisman R, McDonald N. Molecular basis for G-actin binding to RPEL motifs from the serum response factor coactivator MAL. EMBO J. 2008;27:3198-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison with other actin-binding proteins reveals an unexpected similarity to the vitamin-D-binding protein, extending the G-actin-binding protein repertoire. ..
  2. Kumeta M, Yoshimura S, Harata M, Takeyasu K. Molecular mechanisms underlying nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of actinin-4. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:1020-30 pubmed publisher
  3. Hottiger M, Gramatikoff K, Georgiev O, Chaponnier C, Schaffner W, Hubscher U. The large subunit of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase interacts with beta-actin. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995;23:736-41 pubmed
    ..The reverse transcriptase/beta-actin interaction might be important for the secretion of HIV-1 virions. ..
  4. Tu Y, Wu S, Shi X, Chen K, Wu C. Migfilin and Mig-2 link focal adhesions to filamin and the actin cytoskeleton and function in cell shape modulation. Cell. 2003;113:37-47 pubmed
    ..Together, Mig-2, migfilin and filamin define a connection between cell matrix adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton and participate in the orchestration of actin assembly and cell shape modulation. ..
  5. Bukrinskaya A, Brichacek B, Mann A, Stevenson M. Establishment of a functional human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription complex involves the cytoskeleton. J Exp Med. 1998;188:2113-25 pubmed
  6. Shuster C, Lin A, Nayak R, Herman I. Beta cap73: a novel beta actin-specific binding protein. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1996;35:175-87 pubmed
    ..Cell Biol. 128:837-848]. To identify the beta actin-specific binding protein that fosters ezrin-beta actin interactions, we developed an isoactin affinity ..
  7. Ott D, Coren L, Kane B, Busch L, Johnson D, Sowder R, et al. Cytoskeletal proteins inside human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions. J Virol. 1996;70:7734-43 pubmed
    ..The presence of these fragments, as well as the incorporation of a few specific cytoskeletal proteins into virions, suggests an active interaction between cytoskeletal and viral proteins. ..
  8. Nunoi H, Yamazaki T, Tsuchiya H, Kato S, Malech H, Matsuda I, et al. A heterozygous mutation of beta-actin associated with neutrophil dysfunction and recurrent infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:8693-8 pubmed
    ..Heterozygous expression of mutant beta-actin in neutrophils and other cells of this patient may act in a dominant-negative fashion to adversely affect cellular activities dependent on the function of nonmuscle actin. ..
  9. Rana A, Ruff P, Maalouf G, Speicher D, Chishti A. Cloning of human erythroid dematin reveals another member of the villin family. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:6651-5 pubmed
    ..The widespread expression of dematin transcripts in human tissues suggests that dematin and its homologues may substitute for villin in villin-negative tissues to regulate actin reorganization by a phosphorylation-regulated mechanism. ..
  10. Galkin V, Orlova A, Cherepanova O, Lebart M, Egelman E. High-resolution cryo-EM structure of the F-actin-fimbrin/plastin ABD2 complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:1494-8 pubmed publisher
  11. Zhao K, Wang W, Rando O, Xue Y, Swiderek K, Kuo A, et al. Rapid and phosphoinositol-dependent binding of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex to chromatin after T lymphocyte receptor signaling. Cell. 1998;95:625-36 pubmed
    ..This work indicates that membrane signals control the activity of the mammalian SWI/SNF or BAF complex and demonstrates a direct interface between signaling and chromatin regulation. ..
  12. Valderrama F, Luna A, Babia T, Martinez Menarguez J, Ballesta J, Barth H, et al. The golgi-associated COPI-coated buds and vesicles contain beta/gamma -actin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:1560-5 pubmed
  13. Allen P, Greenfield A, Svenningsson P, Haspeslagh D, Greengard P. Phactrs 1-4: A family of protein phosphatase 1 and actin regulatory proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:7187-92 pubmed
    ..The current findings present a mechanism by which PP1 may be directed toward neuronal substrates associated with the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  14. Kimura T, Hashimoto I, Yamamoto A, Nishikawa M, Fujisawa J. Rev-dependent association of the intron-containing HIV-1 gag mRNA with the nuclear actin bundles and the inhibition of its nucleocytoplasmic transport by latrunculin-B. Genes Cells. 2000;5:289-307 pubmed
    ..Nuclear beta-actin bundles are suggested to be functionally involved in the Rev-dependent nucleocytoplasmic transport of intron-containing HIV-1 gag mRNA. ..
  15. Niwa R, Nagata Ohashi K, Takeichi M, Mizuno K, Uemura T. Control of actin reorganization by Slingshot, a family of phosphatases that dephosphorylate ADF/cofilin. Cell. 2002;108:233-46 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, SSH and the hSSHs dephosphorylated P cofilin in cultured cells and in cell-free assays. Our results strongly suggest that the SSH family plays a pivotal role in actin dynamics by reactivating ADF/cofilin in vivo...
  16. Nowak D, Skwarek Maruszewska A, Zemanek Zboch M, Malicka Błaszkiewicz M. Beta-actin in human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines with different metastatic potential. Acta Biochim Pol. 2005;52:461-8 pubmed
    ..beta-actin subcellular localization was done by immunofluorescence staining with monoclonal anti-beta actin antibodies...
  17. Peckham M, Miller G, Wells C, Zicha D, Dunn G. Specific changes to the mechanism of cell locomotion induced by overexpression of beta-actin. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:1367-77 pubmed
  18. Wilk T, Gowen B, Fuller S. Actin associates with the nucleocapsid domain of the human immunodeficiency virus Gag polyprotein. J Virol. 1999;73:1931-40 pubmed
    ..The same result was obtained when mature HIV-1 particles were disrupted with detergent. Taken together, these results indicate that actin molecules are associated with the NC domain of the viral polyprotein. ..
  19. Sasseville A, Langelier Y. In vitro interaction of the carboxy-terminal domain of lamin A with actin. FEBS Lett. 1998;425:485-9 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that an actin-based molecular motor linked to the lamina could be involved in the movement of chromatin domains. ..
  20. Fackler O, Kienzle N, Kremmer E, Boese A, Schramm B, Klimkait T, et al. Association of human immunodeficiency virus Nef protein with actin is myristoylation dependent and influences its subcellular localization. Eur J Biochem. 1997;247:843-51 pubmed
    ..This novel interaction of HIV-1 Nef with actin provides insight into the association of Nef with cellular structures and reveals general differences in the interactions of the Nef proteins from HIV-1 and HIV-2. ..
  21. Jolly C, Mitar I, Sattentau Q. Requirement for an intact T-cell actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient assembly and spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2007;81:5547-60 pubmed
    ..Based on these data, we propose that HIV-1 requires both actin and tubulin components of the T-cell cytoskeleton to direct its assembly and budding and to elaborate a functional VS. ..
  22. Dormoy Raclet V, Ménard I, Clair E, Kurban G, Mazroui R, Di Marco S, et al. The RNA-binding protein HuR promotes cell migration and cell invasion by stabilizing the beta-actin mRNA in a U-rich-element-dependent manner. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:5365-80 pubmed
  23. Stolp B, Abraham L, Rudolph J, Fackler O. Lentiviral Nef proteins utilize PAK2-mediated deregulation of cofilin as a general strategy to interfere with actin remodeling. J Virol. 2010;84:3935-48 pubmed publisher
  24. Readinger J, Schiralli G, Jiang J, Thomas C, August A, Henderson A, et al. Selective targeting of ITK blocks multiple steps of HIV replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6684-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that inhibition of ITK blocks HIV infection by affecting multiple steps of HIV replication. ..
  25. Shuster C, Herman I. Indirect association of ezrin with F-actin: isoform specificity and calcium sensitivity. J Cell Biol. 1995;128:837-48 pubmed
    ..and E64, two specific inhibitors of the calcium-activated protease, calpain I, protect ezrin binding to beta actin in the presence of calcium...
  26. Guo C, Liu S, Wang J, Sun M, Greenaway F. ACTB in cancer. Clin Chim Acta. 2013;417:39-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The current review explores relevant mechanisms, integrates current understandings, and provides suggestions for future studies of the roles of ACTB in tumors. ..
  27. Lattanzi G, Cenni V, Marmiroli S, Capanni C, Mattioli E, Merlini L, et al. Association of emerin with nuclear and cytoplasmic actin is regulated in differentiating myoblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;303:764-70 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence of a modulation of emerin-actin interaction in muscle cells, possibly through differentiation-related stimuli. ..
  28. Gladnikoff M, Shimoni E, Gov N, Rousso I. Retroviral assembly and budding occur through an actin-driven mechanism. Biophys J. 2009;97:2419-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study show that retroviruses utilize the cell cytoskeleton to expedite their assembly and budding. ..
  29. Philimonenko V, Zhao J, Iben S, Dingová H, Kysela K, Kahle M, et al. Nuclear actin and myosin I are required for RNA polymerase I transcription. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:1165-72 pubmed
    ..The association with Pol I requires phosphorylation of TIF-IA at Ser 649 by RSK kinase, indicating a role for NMI in the growth-dependent regulation of rRNA synthesis. ..
  30. Sakaguchi M, Miyazaki M, Inoue Y, Tsuji T, Kouchi H, Tanaka T, et al. Relationship between contact inhibition and intranuclear S100C of normal human fibroblasts. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:1193-206 pubmed
    ..These data indicate the possible involvement of nuclear S100C in the contact inhibition of cell growth. ..
  31. Liu B, Dai R, Tian C, Dawson L, Gorelick R, Yu X. Interaction of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid with actin. J Virol. 1999;73:2901-8 pubmed
  32. Yoder A, Yu D, Dong L, Iyer S, Xu X, Kelly J, et al. HIV envelope-CXCR4 signaling activates cofilin to overcome cortical actin restriction in resting CD4 T cells. Cell. 2008;134:782-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, induction of active cofilin greatly facilitates it. These findings shed light on viral exploitation of cellular machinery in resting T cells, where chemokine receptor signaling becomes obligatory. ..
  33. Procaccio V, Salazar G, Ono S, Styers M, Gearing M, Davila A, et al. A mutation of beta -actin that alters depolymerization dynamics is associated with autosomal dominant developmental malformations, deafness, and dystonia. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;78:947-60 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that mutations in nonmuscle actins may be associated with a broad spectrum of developmental malformations and/or neurological abnormalities such as dystonia. ..
  34. Rey O, Canon J, Krogstad P. HIV-1 Gag protein associates with F-actin present in microfilaments. Virology. 1996;220:530-4 pubmed
    ..In vivo and in vitro analyses of this interaction indicated that the unprocessed Gag polyprotein is capable of association with polymerized actin (F-actin). Binding of Gag to F-actin may be involved in the assembly or budding of HIV-1. ..
  35. Spear M, Guo J, Wu Y. The trinity of the cortical actin in the initiation of HIV-1 infection. Retrovirology. 2012;9:45 pubmed publisher
    ..It is the purpose of this review to examine, in detail, the manifestation of viral dependence on the actin cytoskeleton, and present a model of how HIV utilizes actin dynamics to initiate infection. ..
  36. Honkura N, Matsuzaki M, Noguchi J, Ellis Davies G, Kasai H. The subspine organization of actin fibers regulates the structure and plasticity of dendritic spines. Neuron. 2008;57:719-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulated this confinement. Thus, spines have an elaborate mechanical nature that is regulated by actin fibers. ..
  37. Tang W, You W, Shi F, Qi T, Wang L, Djouder Z, et al. RNA helicase A acts as a bridging factor linking nuclear beta-actin with RNA polymerase II. Biochem J. 2009;420:421-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that RHA acts as a bridging factor linking nuclear beta-actin with Pol II. ..
  38. Egloff S, Al Rawaf H, O Reilly D, Murphy S. Chromatin structure is implicated in "late" elongation checkpoints on the U2 snRNA and beta-actin genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4002-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, CTCF colocalizes with NELF on the U2 and beta-actin genes, raising the possibility that it helps the positioning and/or function of the NELF-dependent control point on these genes. ..
  39. Vandekerckhove J, Schering B, Bärmann M, Aktories K. Botulinum C2 toxin ADP-ribosylates cytoplasmic beta/gamma-actin in arginine 177. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:696-700 pubmed
    ..Further digestion of these two peptides with thermolysin yielded the same radioactive peptide, which was in both cases peptide 175-177. Amino acid sequence analysis of peptides 174-183 and 175-177 located the ADP-ribosylation on Arg177. ..
  40. García Ortiz A, Martín Cófreces N, Ibiza S, Ortega A, Izquierdo Alvarez A, Trullo A, et al. eNOS S-nitrosylates β-actin on Cys374 and regulates PKC-θ at the immune synapse by impairing actin binding to profilin-1. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2000653 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings unveil a novel NO-dependent mechanism by which the actin cytoskeleton controls the organization and activation of signaling microclusters at the IS. ..
  41. Hearps A, Jans D. Regulating the functions of the HIV-1 matrix protein. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007;23:341-6 pubmed
    ..J Virol 2005;79:13028-13036) confirms the importance of this protein for HIV infection and highlights a potentially new avenue in multivalent drug therapy. ..
  42. Arora P, Manolson M, Downey G, Sodek J, McCulloch C. A novel model system for characterization of phagosomal maturation, acidification, and intracellular collagen degradation in fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:35432-41 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that the cellular machinery required for intracellular collagen degradation in fibroblasts closely resembles the vacuolar system in macrophages. ..
  43. Haubert D, Gharib N, Rivero F, Wiegmann K, Hösel M, Kronke M, et al. PtdIns(4,5)P-restricted plasma membrane localization of FAN is involved in TNF-induced actin reorganization. EMBO J. 2007;26:3308-21 pubmed
    ..The results of this study suggest that PH-mediated plasma membrane targeting of FAN is critically involved in TNF-induced Cdc42 activation and cytoskeleton reorganization. ..
  44. Kaczmarski W, Barua M, Mazur Kolecka B, Frackowiak J, Dowjat W, Mehta P, et al. Intracellular distribution of differentially phosphorylated dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A). J Neurosci Res. 2014;92:162-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports the hypothesis that intracellular distribution and compartment-specific functions of DYRK1A may depend on its phosphorylation pattern. ..
  45. Zusev M, Benayahu D. New insights on cellular distribution, microtubule interactions and post-translational modifications of MS-KIF18A. J Cell Physiol. 2008;217:618-25 pubmed publisher
  46. Li L, Chen H, Hsieh Y, Wang Y, Chu H, Chen Y, et al. Nuclear ErbB2 enhances translation and cell growth by activating transcription of ribosomal RNA genes. Cancer Res. 2011;71:4269-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings indicate that nuclear ErbB2 functions as a regulator of rRNA synthesis and cellular translation, which may contribute to tumor development and progression. ..
  47. Band A, Ali H, Vartiainen M, Welti S, Lappalainen P, Olkkonen V, et al. Endogenous plasma membrane t-SNARE syntaxin 4 is present in rab11 positive endosomal membranes and associates with cortical actin cytoskeleton. FEBS Lett. 2002;531:513-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that syntaxin 4 regulates secretion at the actin-rich areas of the plasma membrane and may be recycled through rab11 positive intracellular membranes. ..
  48. Wei L, Xie L, Wang X, Ma H, Lv L, Liu L, et al. Circulating tumor DNA measurement provides reliable mutation detection in mice with human lung cancer xenografts. Lab Invest. 2018;98:935-946 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the present study suggests that determination of ctDNA levels may be essential for reliable mutation detection by analysis of cfDNA. ..
  49. Volkmann N, Amann K, Stoilova McPhie S, Egile C, Winter D, Hazelwood L, et al. Structure of Arp2/3 complex in its activated state and in actin filament branch junctions. Science. 2001;293:2456-9 pubmed
    ..Comparison to the actin-free, WASp-activated complexes suggests that branch initiation involves large-scale structural rearrangements within Arp2/3. ..
  50. Pappenberger G, McCormack E, Willison K. Quantitative actin folding reactions using yeast CCT purified via an internal tag in the CCT3/gamma subunit. J Mol Biol. 2006;360:484-96 pubmed
    ..In this pure in vitro system, the human beta-actin mutants, D244S and G150P, show impaired folding behaviour in the manner predicted by our sequence-specific recognition model for CCT-actin interaction. ..
  51. Chen C, Kirshner J, Sherman M, Hu W, Nguyen T, Shively J. Mutation analysis of the short cytoplasmic domain of the cell-cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1 identifies residues that orchestrate actin binding and lumen formation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5749-60 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that a short cytoplasmic domain membrane receptor can directly mediate substantial intracellular signaling. ..
  52. Gullestad L, Aass H, Ross H, Ueland T, Geiran O, Kjekshus J, et al. Neuropeptide Y receptor 1 (NPY-Y1) expression in human heart failure and heart transplantation. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1998;70:84-91 pubmed
    ..Our results provide the first evidence for altered regulation of the neuropeptide Y1 receptor in heart failure and transplant patients, and suggests that loss of signal transduction by this receptor may be adaptive in both groups...
  53. Rommelaere H, De Neve M, Neirynck K, Peelaers D, Waterschoot D, Goethals M, et al. Prefoldin recognition motifs in the nonhomologous proteins of the actin and tubulin families. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:41023-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, they also compete with tubulins, suggesting that these target proteins contact similar prefoldin subunits. ..
  54. Maun N, Speicher D, DiNubile M, Southwick F. Purification and properties of a Ca(2+)-independent barbed-end actin filament capping protein, CapZ, from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Biochemistry. 1996;35:3518-24 pubmed
    ..Given its abundance and high affinity for barbed filament ends, capZ is likely to play an important role in the calcium-independent regulation of actin filament assembly associated with PMN chemotaxis. ..
  55. Sankovski E, Abroi A, Ustav M. Nuclear myosin 1 associates with papillomavirus E2 regulatory protein and influences viral replication. Virology. 2018;514:142-155 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the B-WICH complex may play a role in the papillomavirus life cycle through NM1 and E2 protein interaction. ..
  56. Shiokawa N, Nakamura M, Sameshima M, Deguchi A, Hayashi T, Sasaki N, et al. Chorein, the protein responsible for chorea-acanthocytosis, interacts with ?-adducin and ?-actin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;441:96-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of ?-adducin is restricted to the brain and hematopoietic tissues, corresponding to the main pathological lesions of ChAc, and thereby implicating ?-adducin and ?-actin in ChAc pathogenesis. ..
  57. Grimsby S, Jaensson H, Dubrovska A, Lomnytska M, Hellman U, Souchelnytskyi S. Proteomics-based identification of proteins interacting with Smad3: SREBP-2 forms a complex with Smad3 and inhibits its transcriptional activity. FEBS Lett. 2004;577:93-100 pubmed
    ..We found that SREBP-2 inhibited the transcriptional activity of Smad3 in luciferase reporter assays. ..
  58. Szentirmay M, Sawadogo M. Spatial organization of RNA polymerase II transcription in the nucleus. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000;28:2019-25 pubmed
    ..The arrangement of transcription in the nucleus is dynamic and depends on its transcriptional activity, with the RNAPII itself playing a central role in marshalling the large complexes involved in gene expression. ..
  59. Galkin V, Orlova A, Salmazo A, Djinovic Carugo K, Egelman E. Opening of tandem calponin homology domains regulates their affinity for F-actin. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:614-6 pubmed publisher
  60. Pedrotti B, Colombo R, Islam K. Microtubule associated protein MAP1A is an actin-binding and crosslinking protein. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1994;29:110-6 pubmed
    ..The widespread distribution of MAP1A and its interaction with microtubules, actin, and intermediate filaments suggests that it may constitute an important determinant of neuronal and non-neuronal cellular morphology. ..
  61. Lopez Lluch G, Bird M, Canas B, Godovac Zimmerman J, Ridley A, Segal A, et al. Protein kinase C-delta C2-like domain is a binding site for actin and enables actin redistribution in neutrophils. Biochem J. 2001;357:39-47 pubmed
    ..Microinjection of deltaC2 also inhibits F-actin redistribution. Thus PKC-delta binds to F-actin through its C2 domain, and these interactions are important in regulating actin redistribution in neutrophils. ..
  62. Salmon B, Liu B, Shen E, Chen T, Li J, Gillette M, et al. WNT-activated bone grafts repair osteonecrotic lesions in aged animals. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14254 pubmed publisher
    ..A WNT therapeutic approach may therefore have utility in the treatment of osteonecrosis, especially in aged patients. ..
  63. Kucharova K, Stallcup W. Distinct NG2 proteoglycan-dependent roles of resident microglia and bone marrow-derived macrophages during myelin damage and repair. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187530 pubmed publisher
    ..Microglia also appear to be important for clearance of myelin debris, as indicated by reduced phagocytosis in NG2 null recipients receiving wild type bone marrow. ..
  64. Lloyd C, Gunning P. beta- and gamma-actin genes differ in their mechanisms of down-regulation during myogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 2002;84:335-42 pubmed
    ..We, therefore, propose that excision of intron III from the primary transcript is inhibited during myogenesis resulting in degradation of the RNA. Removal of intron III from the gene allows it to escape this regulatory mechanism. ..
  65. Munsie L, Desmond C, Truant R. Cofilin nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling affects cofilin-actin rod formation during stress. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3977-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that cofilin nuclear shuttling is critical for the cofilin-actin rod stress response with cofilin dynamically communicating between the nucleus and cytoplasm during cell stress. ..
  66. Oku T, Nakano M, Kaneko Y, Ando Y, Kenmotsu H, Itoh S, et al. Constitutive turnover of phosphorylation at Thr-412 of human p57/coronin-1 regulates the interaction with actin. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:42910-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the constitutive turnover of phosphorylation at Thr-412 of p57/coronin-1 regulates its interaction with actin. ..
  67. Tulay P, Doshi A, Serhal P, SenGupta S. Differential expression of parental alleles of BRCA1 in human preimplantation embryos. Eur J Hum Genet. 2016;25:37-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that differential demethylation of the parental genomes can influence the early development of preimplantation embryos. Expression of maternal and paternal genes is required for the completion of embryogenesis. ..
  68. Shoeman R, Kesselmier C, Mothes E, Höner B, Traub P. Non-viral cellular substrates for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease. FEBS Lett. 1991;278:199-203 pubmed
  69. Tamura M, Itoh K, Akita H, Takano K, Oku S. Identification of an actin-binding site in p47phox an organizer protein of NADPH oxidase. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:261-7 pubmed
    ..A mutant peptide p47phox (319-337, Ser328Glu) bound to filamentous actin more tightly than to monomer actin. These results suggest that p47phox moves to cortical actin when it becomes unmasked in the cells. ..
  70. Glynne P, Darling K, Picot J, Evans T. Epithelial inducible nitric-oxide synthase is an apical EBP50-binding protein that directs vectorial nitric oxide output. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:33132-8 pubmed
    ..These studies define human epithelial iNOS as an apical EBP50-binding protein and suggest that the physical association of iNOS with EBP50 might allow precise NO modulation of EBP50-associated protein functions. ..
  71. Kursula I, Kursula P, Ganter M, Panjikar S, Matuschewski K, Schüler H. Structural basis for parasite-specific functions of the divergent profilin of Plasmodium falciparum. Structure. 2008;16:1638-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data establish the structural basis for understanding the functions of profilin in the malaria parasite. ..