Gene Symbol: Bcl-xL
Description: BCL2 like 1
Alias: BCL-XL/S, BCL2L, BCLX, Bcl-X, PPP1R52, bcl-2-like protein 1, apoptosis regulator Bcl-X, protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 52
Species: human
Products:     Bcl-xL

Top Publications

  1. Cartron P, Gallenne T, Bougras G, Gautier F, Manero F, Vusio P, et al. The first alpha helix of Bax plays a necessary role in its ligand-induced activation by the BH3-only proteins Bid and PUMA. Mol Cell. 2004;16:807-18 pubmed
    ..Thus, a specific interaction between Bax Halpha1 and their BH3 domains allows Bid and PUMA to function as "death agonists" of Bax, whereas Bad recruits Bax activity through a distinct pathway. ..
  2. Peddaboina C, Jupiter D, Fletcher S, Yap J, Rai A, Tobin R, et al. The downregulation of Mcl-1 via USP9X inhibition sensitizes solid tumors to Bcl-xl inhibition. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:541 pubmed publisher
    ..Mcl-1, Bcl-xL and USP9X overexpression are tumor survival mechanisms protective against chemotherapy. USP9X inhibition increases tumor cell sensitivity to various chemotherapeutic agents including Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitors. ..
  3. Nijhawan D, Fang M, Traer E, Zhong Q, Gao W, Du F, et al. Elimination of Mcl-1 is required for the initiation of apoptosis following ultraviolet irradiation. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1475-86 pubmed
    ..The disappearance of Mcl-1 is also required for other mitochondrial apoptotic events including Bax translocation, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. ..
  4. O Neill J, Manion M, Maguire B, Hockenbery D. BCL-XL dimerization by three-dimensional domain swapping. J Mol Biol. 2006;356:367-81 pubmed
    ..Chemical crosslinking studies of Cys-substituted BCL-X(L) proteins demonstrate that 3DDS dimers form in synthetic lipid vesicles. ..
  5. Kunze D, Kraemer K, Erdmann K, Froehner M, Wirth M, Fuessel S. Simultaneous siRNA-mediated knockdown of antiapoptotic BCL2, Bcl-xL, XIAP and survivin in bladder cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2012;41:1271-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5-fold enhancement in apoptosis rate and reduced cellular viability by 40%. Therefore, simultaneous knockdown of antiapoptotic BCL2, Bcl?xL, XIAP and survivin may represent a promising treatment option for bladder cancer. ..
  6. Chipuk J, Kuwana T, Bouchier Hayes L, Droin N, Newmeyer D, Schuler M, et al. Direct activation of Bax by p53 mediates mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and apoptosis. Science. 2004;303:1010-4 pubmed
    ..We propose that when p53 accumulates in the cytosol, it can function analogously to the BH3-only subset of proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins to activate Bax and trigger apoptosis. ..
  7. Lin B, Kolluri S, Lin F, Liu W, Han Y, Cao X, et al. Conversion of Bcl-2 from protector to killer by interaction with nuclear orphan receptor Nur77/TR3. Cell. 2004;116:527-40 pubmed
  8. Bhat V, McDonald C, Mikles D, Deegan B, Seldeen K, Bates M, et al. Ligand binding and membrane insertion compete with oligomerization of the BclXL apoptotic repressor. J Mol Biol. 2012;416:57-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that oligomerization of a key apoptotic repressor serves as an allosteric switch that fine-tunes its ligand binding and membrane insertion pertinent to the regulation of apoptotic machinery. ..
  9. Yi C, Pan H, Seebacher J, Jang I, Hyberts S, Heffron G, et al. Metabolic regulation of protein N-alpha-acetylation by Bcl-xL promotes cell survival. Cell. 2011;146:607-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that acetyl-CoA serves as a signaling molecule that couples apoptotic sensitivity to metabolism by regulating protein N-alpha-acetylation. ..

More Information


  1. Li H, Chen Y, Jones A, Sanger R, Collis L, FLANNERY R, et al. Bcl-xL induces Drp1-dependent synapse formation in cultured hippocampal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that Bcl-xL positively regulates Drp1 to alter mitochondrial function in a manner that stimulates synapse formation. ..
  2. Kuwana T, Bouchier Hayes L, Chipuk J, Bonzon C, Sullivan B, Green D, et al. BH3 domains of BH3-only proteins differentially regulate Bax-mediated mitochondrial membrane permeabilization both directly and indirectly. Mol Cell. 2005;17:525-35 pubmed
    ..In this model, the simple inhibition of antiapoptotic functions is insufficient to induce apoptosis unless a direct activator of Bax or Bak is present. ..
  3. Watanabe J, Kushihata F, Honda K, Sugita A, Tateishi N, Mominoki K, et al. Prognostic significance of Bcl-xL in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Surgery. 2004;135:604-12 pubmed
    ..These results showed Bcl-xL in HCC specimens, suggesting that Bcl-xL was a significant prognostic factor for disease progression in human HCC. ..
  4. Terrano D, Upreti M, Chambers T. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1-mediated Bcl-xL/Bcl-2 phosphorylation acts as a functional link coupling mitotic arrest and apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:640-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, phosphorylation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins acts as a sensor for CDK1 signal duration and as a functional link coupling mitotic arrest to apoptosis. ..
  5. Jeong S, Gaume B, Lee Y, Hsu Y, Ryu S, Yoon S, et al. Bcl-x(L) sequesters its C-terminal membrane anchor in soluble, cytosolic homodimers. EMBO J. 2004;23:2146-55 pubmed
    ..The C-terminal tail of Bcl-x(L) is also required to mediate Bcl-x(L)/Bax heterodimer formation. Both mitochondrial import and antiapoptotic activity of different Bcl-x(L) mutants correlate with their ability to form homodimers. ..
  6. Cao X, Littlejohn J, Rodarte C, Zhang L, Martino B, Rascoe P, et al. Up-regulation of Bcl-xl by hepatocyte growth factor in human mesothelioma cells involves ETS transcription factors. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:2207-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings support a role for c-Met as an inhibitor of apoptosis and an activator of Bcl-xl. ..
  7. Bruey J, Bruey Sedano N, Luciano F, Zhai D, Balpai R, Xu C, et al. Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL regulate proinflammatory caspase-1 activation by interaction with NALP1. Cell. 2007;129:45-56 pubmed
    ..The findings reveal an interaction of host defense and apoptosis machinery. ..
  8. Willis S, Fletcher J, Kaufmann T, van Delft M, Chen L, Czabotar P, et al. Apoptosis initiated when BH3 ligands engage multiple Bcl-2 homologs, not Bax or Bak. Science. 2007;315:856-9 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that BH3-only proteins induce apoptosis at least primarily by engaging the multiple pro-survival relatives guarding Bax and Bak. ..
  9. Lo S, Hannink M. PGAM5, a Bcl-XL-interacting protein, is a novel substrate for the redox-regulated Keap1-dependent ubiquitin ligase complex. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:37893-903 pubmed
    ..The identification of PGAM5 as a novel substrate of Keap1 suggests that Keap1 regulates both transcriptional and post-transcriptional responses of mammalian cells to oxidative stress. ..
  10. Brotin E, Meryet Figuière M, Simonin K, Duval R, Villedieu M, Leroy Dudal J, et al. Bcl-XL and MCL-1 constitute pertinent targets in ovarian carcinoma and their concomitant inhibition is sufficient to induce apoptosis. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:885-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Bcl-X(L) and MCL-1 targeted strategies could constitute an efficient therapeutic tool for the treatment of chemoresistant ovarian carcinoma, in association with conventional chemotherapy. ..
  11. Liu Z, Wang S, Zhou H, Yang Y, Zhang M. Na+/H+ exchanger mediates TNF-alpha-induced hepatocyte apoptosis via the calpain-dependent degradation of Bcl-xL. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24:879-85 pubmed publisher
    ..TNF-alpha via NHE results in hepatocyte apoptosis through the calcium/calpain/Bcl-xL pathway. ..
  12. Pimkina J, Humbey O, Zilfou J, Jarnik M, Murphy M. ARF induces autophagy by virtue of interaction with Bcl-xl. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:2803-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined data support the premise that ARF induces autophagy in a p53-independent manner in part by virtue of its interaction with Bcl-xl. ..
  13. Chipuk J, Bouchier Hayes L, Kuwana T, Newmeyer D, Green D. PUMA couples the nuclear and cytoplasmic proapoptotic function of p53. Science. 2005;309:1732-5 pubmed
    ..Mutant Bcl-xL that bound p53, but not PUMA, rendered cells resistant to p53-induced apoptosis irrespective of PUMA expression. Thus, PUMA couples the nuclear and cytoplasmic proapoptotic functions of p53. ..
  14. Upreti M, Galitovskaya E, Chu R, Tackett A, Terrano D, Granell S, et al. Identification of the major phosphorylation site in Bcl-xL induced by microtubule inhibitors and analysis of its functional significance. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:35517-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that Bcl-xL phosphorylation induced by microtubule inhibitors plays a key pro-apoptotic role at least in part by disabling the ability of Bcl-xL to bind Bax. ..
  15. Gautier F, Guillemin Y, Cartron P, Gallenne T, Cauquil N, Le Diguarher T, et al. Bax activation by engagement with, then release from, the BH3 binding site of Bcl-xL. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:832-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism might contribute to the clinical efficiency of Bcl-x(L) inhibitors. ..
  16. Rahmani M, Aust M, Attkisson E, Williams D, Ferreira Gonzalez A, Grant S. Dual inhibition of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL strikingly enhances PI3K inhibition-induced apoptosis in human myeloid leukemia cells through a GSK3- and Bim-dependent mechanism. Cancer Res. 2013;73:1340-51 pubmed publisher
    ..They also argue that combining PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors with BH3 mimetics warrants attention in AML, particularly in the setting of basal AKT activation and/or addiction. ..
  17. Gillissen B, Wendt J, Richter A, Richter A, Müer A, Overkamp T, et al. Endogenous Bak inhibitors Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL: differential impact on TRAIL resistance in Bax-deficient carcinoma. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:851-62 pubmed publisher
  18. Ren H, Fu K, Wang D, Mu C, Wang G. Oxidized DJ-1 interacts with the mitochondrial protein BCL-XL. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:35308-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that DJ-1 protects cells against UVB-induced cell death dependent on its oxidation and its association with mitochondrial Bcl-X(L). ..
  19. Zhao W, Daneshpouy M, Mounier N, Briere J, Leboeuf C, Plassa L, et al. Prognostic significance of bcl-xL gene expression and apoptotic cell counts in follicular lymphoma. Blood. 2004;103:695-7 pubmed
    ..0235). Moreover, bcl-xL gene overexpression was linked to short overall survival times (P =.0129). The value of bcl-xL gene expression as a prognostic marker in follicular lymphoma should thus be considered. ..
  20. Jordan J, Galindo M, Tornero D, González García C, Ceña V. Bcl-x L blocks mitochondrial multiple conductance channel activation and inhibits 6-OHDA-induced death in SH-SY5Y cells. J Neurochem. 2004;89:124-33 pubmed
  21. Takehara T, Takahashi H. Suppression of Bcl-xL deamidation in human hepatocellular carcinomas. Cancer Res. 2003;63:3054-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, suppression of Bcl-xL deamidation may play a critical role in the regulation of cell death by apoptosis. ..
  22. Qi X, Wildey G, Howe P. Evidence that Ser87 of BimEL is phosphorylated by Akt and regulates BimEL apoptotic function. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:813-23 pubmed
    ..We propose that Ser(87) of Bim(EL) is an important regulatory site that is targeted by Akt to attenuate the pro-apoptotic function of Bim(EL), thereby promoting cell survival. ..
  23. Weng C, Li Y, Xu D, Shi Y, Tang H. Specific cleavage of Mcl-1 by caspase-3 in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10491-500 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that removal of N-terminal domains of Bid by caspase-8 and Mcl-1 by caspase-3 enabled the maximal mitochondrial perturbation that potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis. ..
  24. Gillissen B, Essmann F, Graupner V, Stärck L, Radetzki S, Dorken B, et al. Induction of cell death by the BH3-only Bcl-2 homolog Nbk/Bik is mediated by an entirely Bax-dependent mitochondrial pathway. EMBO J. 2003;22:3580-90 pubmed
    ..Since, in addition, Nbk did not localize to the mitochondria, our data suggest a model in which Nbk acts as an indirect killer to trigger Bax-dependent apoptosis, whereas Bak is not sufficient to confer sensitivity to Nbk. ..
  25. Priault M, Hue E, Marhuenda F, Pilet P, Oliver L, Vallette F. Differential dependence on Beclin 1 for the regulation of pro-survival autophagy by Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8755 pubmed publisher
  26. Jin Song Y, Zhao Xia W, Cheng Yu L, Xiao Di L, Ming S, Yuan Yuan G, et al. Prognostic significance of Bcl-xL gene expression in human colorectal cancer. Acta Histochem. 2011;113:810-4 pubmed publisher
    ..032). Taken together, immunohistochemical assessment of status of Bcl-xL protein may offer a valuable approach for predicting survival after curative surgery for colorectal cancer. ..
  27. Willis S, Chen L, Dewson G, Wei A, Naik E, Fletcher J, et al. Proapoptotic Bak is sequestered by Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, but not Bcl-2, until displaced by BH3-only proteins. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1294-305 pubmed
    ..The finding that different prosurvival proteins have selective roles has notable implications for the design of anti-cancer drugs that target the Bcl-2 family. ..
  28. Ho J, Kang G, Lee S, Kim J, Bae I, Hwang S, et al. Bcl-XL and STAT3 mediate malignant actions of gamma-irradiation in lung cancer cells. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1417-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a novel function of Bcl-X(L) in cancer, and also advance our understanding of the malignant actions of IR significantly. ..
  29. García Sáez A, Mingarro I, Perez Paya E, Salgado J. Membrane-insertion fragments of Bcl-xL, Bax, and Bid. Biochemistry. 2004;43:10930-43 pubmed
    ..Thus, the above fragments should be considered for the definition of plausible models of the active, membrane-bound species of Bcl-2 proteins. ..
  30. Sillars Hardebol A, Carvalho B, Beliën J, de Wit M, Delis van Diemen P, Tijssen M, et al. BCL2L1 has a functional role in colorectal cancer and its protein expression is associated with chromosome 20q gain. J Pathol. 2012;226:442-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, even though BCL2L1 affects CRC biology in a 20q gain-dependent manner, it is not likely to be a driver of chromosome 20q gain associated adenoma-to-carcinoma progression. ..
  31. Chen L, Willis S, Wei A, Smith B, Fletcher J, Hinds M, et al. Differential targeting of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins by their BH3-only ligands allows complementary apoptotic function. Mol Cell. 2005;17:393-403 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that apoptosis relies on selective interactions between particular subsets of these proteins and that it should be feasible to discover BH3-mimetic drugs that inactivate specific prosurvival targets. ..
  32. Billen L, Kokoski C, Lovell J, Leber B, Andrews D. Bcl-XL inhibits membrane permeabilization by competing with Bax. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e147 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that because Bcl-XL does not oligomerize it functions like a dominant-negative Bax in the membrane permeabilization process. ..
  33. Wei G, Margolin A, Haery L, Brown E, Cucolo L, Julian B, et al. Chemical genomics identifies small-molecule MCL1 repressors and BCL-xL as a predictor of MCL1 dependency. Cancer Cell. 2012;21:547-62 pubmed publisher
    ..A computational model, validated in vivo, indicated that high BCL-xL expression confers resistance to MCL1 repression, thereby identifying a patient-selection strategy for the clinical development of MCL1 inhibitors. ..
  34. Mihara M, Erster S, Zaika A, Petrenko O, Chittenden T, Pancoska P, et al. p53 has a direct apoptogenic role at the mitochondria. Mol Cell. 2003;11:577-90 pubmed
    ..This opens the possibility that mutations might represent "double-hits" by abrogating the transcriptional and mitochondrial apoptotic activity of p53. ..
  35. Maiuri M, Le Toumelin G, Criollo A, Rain J, Gautier F, Juin P, et al. Functional and physical interaction between Bcl-X(L) and a BH3-like domain in Beclin-1. EMBO J. 2007;26:2527-39 pubmed
    ..BH3-only proteins and pharmacological BH3 mimetics induce autophagy by competitively disrupting the interaction between Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 or Bcl-X(L). ..
  36. Guo R, Wang Y, Shi W, Liu B, Hou S, Liu L. MicroRNA miR-491-5p targeting both TP53 and Bcl-XL induces cell apoptosis in SW1990 pancreatic cancer cells through mitochondria mediated pathway. Molecules. 2012;17:14733-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results demonstrated that miR491-5p could effectively target both Bcl-xL and TP53 and induce cell apoptosis independent of TP53. ..
  37. Bielli P, Bus R, Di Stasi S, Munoz M, Botti F, Kornblihtt A, et al. The transcription factor FBI-1 inhibits SAM68-mediated BCL-X alternative splicing and apoptosis. EMBO Rep. 2014;15:419-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals an unexpected function for FBI-1 in splicing modulation with a direct impact on cell survival...
  38. Kazi A, Sun J, Doi K, Sung S, Takahashi Y, Yin H, et al. The BH3 alpha-helical mimic BH3-M6 disrupts Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2, and MCL-1 protein-protein interactions with Bax, Bak, Bad, or Bim and induces apoptosis in a Bax- and Bim-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:9382-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, BH3-M6 sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by the proteasome inhibitor CEP-1612. ..
  39. Fiebig A, Zhu W, Hollerbach C, Leber B, Andrews D. Bcl-XL is qualitatively different from and ten times more effective than Bcl-2 when expressed in a breast cancer cell line. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:213 pubmed
    ..When examined in the same cellular context, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL differ substantially in the potency with which they inhibit apoptosis, mediated in part by differences in the inhibition of specific subcellular pathways. ..
  40. Chen N, Chen X, Huang R, Zeng H, Gong J, Meng W, et al. BCL-xL is a target gene regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:10004-12 pubmed publisher
    ..HIF-1alpha-dependent BCL-xL overexpression may be an important mechanism by which HIF-1alpha protects prostate cancer cells from apoptosis and leads to treatment resistance. ..
  41. Mendez O, Martín B, Sanz R, Aragues R, Moreno V, Oliva B, et al. Underexpression of transcriptional regulators is common in metastatic breast cancer cells overexpressing Bcl-xL. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:1169-79 pubmed
  42. Thuduppathy G, Craig J, Kholodenko V, SchOn A, Hill R. Evidence that membrane insertion of the cytosolic domain of Bcl-xL is governed by an electrostatic mechanism. J Mol Biol. 2006;359:1045-58 pubmed
    ..Given the distinct biological activities of these conformations, the possibility that this conformational change might be a regulatory checkpoint for apoptosis is discussed. ..
  43. Sánchez Ceja S, Reyes Maldonado E, Vázquez Manríquez M, López Luna J, Belmont A, Gutiérrez Castellanos S. Differential expression of STAT5 and Bcl-xL, and high expression of Neu and STAT3 in non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Lung Cancer. 2006;54:163-8 pubmed
  44. Feng W, Huang S, Wu H, Zhang M. Molecular basis of Bcl-xL's target recognition versatility revealed by the structure of Bcl-xL in complex with the BH3 domain of Beclin-1. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:223-35 pubmed
    ..Systematic analysis of all known Bcl-xL/BH3 domain complexes helped us to identify the molecular basis underlying the capacity of Bcl-xL to recognize diverse target sequences. ..
  45. Edlich F, Banerjee S, Suzuki M, Cleland M, Arnoult D, Wang C, et al. Bcl-x(L) retrotranslocates Bax from the mitochondria into the cytosol. Cell. 2011;145:104-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Bcl-x(L) inhibits and maintains Bax in the cytosol by constant retrotranslocation of mitochondrial Bax. ..
  46. Park K, Lee J. Bcl-XL protein is markedly decreased in UVB-irradiated basal cell carcinoma cell lines through proteasome-mediated degradation. Oncol Rep. 2009;21:689-92 pubmed
  47. Hameed D, Abdel Raheem A, Mosad E, Hammouda H, Kamel N, Abdel Aziz M. Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 expression in bilharzial squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: which protein is prognostic?. Urology. 2008;72:374-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this is another negative report on the prognostic value of bcl-2 in bilharzial bladder tumors. ..
  48. Martínez Brocca M, Castilla C, Navarro E, Amaya M, Travado P, Japon M, et al. Clinicopathological correlations of Bcl-xL and Bax expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;68:190-7 pubmed
    ..5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-5.9; P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical expression of Bcl-xL might be a valuable tool in the prediction of tumour aggressiveness in DTC. ..
  49. Habens F, Lapham A, Dallman C, Pickering B, Michels J, Marcusson E, et al. Distinct promoters mediate constitutive and inducible Bcl-XL expression in malignant lymphocytes. Oncogene. 2007;26:1910-9 pubmed
  50. Castilla C, Congregado B, Chinchón D, Torrubia F, Japon M, Saez C. Bcl-xL is overexpressed in hormone-resistant prostate cancer and promotes survival of LNCaP cells via interaction with proapoptotic Bak. Endocrinology. 2006;147:4960-7 pubmed
  51. Certo M, Del Gaizo Moore V, Nishino M, Wei G, Korsmeyer S, Armstrong S, et al. Mitochondria primed by death signals determine cellular addiction to antiapoptotic BCL-2 family members. Cancer Cell. 2006;9:351-65 pubmed
    ..Our data allow us to distinguish a cellular state we call "primed for death," which can be determined by BH3 profiling and which correlates with dependence on antiapoptotic family members for survival. ..
  52. Haughn L, Hawley R, Morrison D, von Boehmer H, Hockenbery D. BCL-2 and BCL-XL restrict lineage choice during hematopoietic differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25158-65 pubmed
    ..These effects are associated with differential regulation of Raf-1 expression, perhaps involving the previously identified interaction between BCL-2-BH4 and the catalytic domain of Raf-1. ..
  53. Revil T, Pelletier J, Toutant J, Cloutier A, Chabot B. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K represses the production of pro-apoptotic Bcl-xS splice isoform. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21458-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore document a clear role for hnRNP K in preventing the production of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-x(S) splice isoform. ..