Gene Symbol: BARD1
Description: BRCA1 associated RING domain 1
Alias: BRCA1-associated RING domain protein 1, BRCA1-associated RING domain gene 1, RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase BARD1
Species: human
Products:     BARD1

Top Publications

  1. Jin Y, Xu X, Yang M, Wei F, Ayi T, Bowcock A, et al. Cell cycle-dependent colocalization of BARD1 and BRCA1 proteins in discrete nuclear domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:12075-80 pubmed
    ..quot; BRCA1 associates in vivo with a structurally related protein termed BARD1. Here we show that the steady-state levels of BARD1, unlike those of BRCA1, remain relatively constant during cell ..
  2. Westermark U, Reyngold M, Olshen A, Baer R, Jasin M, Moynahan M. BARD1 participates with BRCA1 in homology-directed repair of chromosome breaks. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7926-36 pubmed
    ..Much of the BRCA1 in cells forms a heterodimeric complex with a structurally related protein BARD1. We report that expression of truncated mouse or human BARD1 peptides capable of interacting with Brca1 results in ..
  3. Meza J, Brzovic P, King M, Klevit R. Mapping the functional domains of BRCA1. Interaction of the ring finger domains of BRCA1 and BARD1. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:5659-65 pubmed
    Breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) and BRCA1-associated RING domain 1 (BARD1) are multidomain proteins that interact in vivo via their N-terminal RING finger motif regions...
  4. Karppinen S, Heikkinen K, Rapakko K, Winqvist R. Mutation screening of the BARD1 gene: evidence for involvement of the Cys557Ser allele in hereditary susceptibility to breast cancer. J Med Genet. 2004;41:e114 pubmed
  5. Sauer M, Andrulis I. Identification and characterization of missense alterations in the BRCA1 associated RING domain (BARD1) gene in breast and ovarian cancer. J Med Genet. 2005;42:633-8 pubmed
    BRCA1 associated RING domain protein (BARD1) was originally identified due to its interaction with the RING domain of BRCA1...
  6. Morris J, Pangon L, Boutell C, Katagiri T, Keep N, Solomon E. Genetic analysis of BRCA1 ubiquitin ligase activity and its relationship to breast cancer susceptibility. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:599-606 pubmed
    ..of the Breast Cancer-1 predisposition protein (BRCA1) associates with the BRCA1-associated RING domain-1 protein (BARD1) to form a heterodimer, which exhibits ubiquitin ligase activity that is abrogated by known cancer-associated ..
  7. Capasso M, Devoto M, Hou C, Asgharzadeh S, Glessner J, Attiyeh E, et al. Common variations in BARD1 influence susceptibility to high-risk neuroblastoma. Nat Genet. 2009;41:718-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We detected new significant association of six SNPs at 2q35 within the BARD1 locus (P(allelic) = 2.35 x 10(-9)-2.25 x 10(-8))...
  8. Kim H, Chen J, Yu X. Ubiquitin-binding protein RAP80 mediates BRCA1-dependent DNA damage response. Science. 2007;316:1202-5 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest the existence of a ubiquitination-dependent signaling pathway involved in the DNA damage response. ..
  9. Brzovic P, Meza J, King M, Klevit R. BRCA1 RING domain cancer-predisposing mutations. Structural consequences and effects on protein-protein interactions. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:41399-406 pubmed
    ..into the second Zn(2+) site (Site II) of the BRCA1 RING domain and their effect on the interaction with the BARD1 RING domain. Each of the BRCA1 Site II mutants still interact and form a stable heterodimer with BARD1...

More Information


  1. Fox D, Le Trong I, Rajagopal P, Brzovic P, Stenkamp R, Klevit R. Crystal structure of the BARD1 ankyrin repeat domain and its functional consequences. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21179-86 pubmed publisher
    b>BARD1 is the constitutive nuclear partner to the breast and ovarian cancer-specific tumor suppressor BRCA1...
  2. Christensen D, Brzovic P, Klevit R. E2-BRCA1 RING interactions dictate synthesis of mono- or specific polyubiquitin chain linkages. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:941-8 pubmed
    ..strategy, we discovered six previously unidentified interactions between the human heterodimeric RING E3 BRCA1-BARD1 and the human E2s UbcH6, Ube2e2, UbcM2, Ubc13, Ube2k and Ube2w...
  3. Ishitobi M, Miyoshi Y, Hasegawa S, Egawa C, Tamaki Y, Monden M, et al. Mutational analysis of BARD1 in familial breast cancer patients in Japan. Cancer Lett. 2003;200:1-7 pubmed
    Since BRCA1,which is a breast cancer susceptibility gene, form heterodimers with BARD1, it is speculated that BARD1 mutations might affect the function of BRCA1, contributing to breast carcinogenesis...
  4. Vahteristo P, Syrjakoski K, Heikkinen T, Eerola H, Aittomaki K, von Smitten K, et al. BARD1 variants Cys557Ser and Val507Met in breast cancer predisposition. Eur J Hum Genet. 2006;14:167-72 pubmed
    b>BARD1 (BRCA1-associated RING-domain 1) is a tumor suppressor whose protein product interacts with BRCA1, and in which rare somatic and germline mutations have been reported in breast, uterine, and endometrial cancers...
  5. Stacey S, Sulem P, Johannsson O, Helgason A, Gudmundsson J, Kostic J, et al. The BARD1 Cys557Ser variant and breast cancer risk in Iceland. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e217 pubmed
    ..of the BRCA1 protein are mediated through heterodimeric complexes composed of BRCA1 and a related protein, BARD1. Some breast-cancer-associated BRCA1 missense mutations disrupt the function of the BRCA1/BARD1 complex...
  6. Sy S, Huen M, Chen J. PALB2 is an integral component of the BRCA complex required for homologous recombination repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7155-60 pubmed publisher
  7. Brodie K, Henderson B. Differential modulation of BRCA1 and BARD1 nuclear localisation and foci assembly by DNA damage. Cell Signal. 2010;22:291-302 pubmed publisher
    The BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer regulates genomic maintenance and contributes to the DNA damage checkpoint response. We previously reported that BRCA1 and BARD1 can shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm...
  8. Irminger Finger I. BARD1, a possible biomarker for breast and ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;117:211-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A blood test based on BARD1, a protein that interacts with the breast cancer gene product BRCA1, is a promising candidate for fulfilling these ..
  9. Wang K, Diskin S, Zhang H, Attiyeh E, Winter C, Hou C, et al. Integrative genomics identifies LMO1 as a neuroblastoma oncogene. Nature. 2011;469:216-20 pubmed publisher
  10. Sporn J, Hothorn T, Jung B. BARD1 expression predicts outcome in colon cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:5451-62 pubmed publisher
    b>BARD1 is a BRCA1-binding partner with tumor suppressive properties. Aberrant splice variants of BARD1 have been detected in various cancers, and it has been postulated that the presence of some splice variants is cancer specific...
  11. Zhang Y, Bianco A, Malkinson A, Leoni V, Frau G, De Rosa N, et al. BARD1: an independent predictor of survival in non-small cell lung cancer. Int J Cancer. 2012;131:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..However, BRCA1 functions depend on the interaction with BARD1 for its stability, nuclear localization and ubiquitin ligase activity...
  12. Bosse K, Diskin S, Cole K, Wood A, Schnepp R, Norris G, et al. Common variation at BARD1 results in the expression of an oncogenic isoform that influences neuroblastoma susceptibility and oncogenicity. Cancer Res. 2012;72:2068-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we characterized the high-risk neuroblastoma association at the BRCA1-related locus, BARD1, showing that disease-associated variations correlate with increased expression of the oncogenically activated ..
  13. Kleiman F, Manley J. Functional interaction of BRCA1-associated BARD1 with polyadenylation factor CstF-50. Science. 1999;285:1576-9 pubmed
    ..and in intact cells with a nuclear protein of previously unknown function, BRCA1-associated RING domain protein (BARD1). The BARD1-CstF-50 interaction inhibits polyadenylation in vitro...
  14. Brzovic P, Rajagopal P, Hoyt D, King M, Klevit R. Structure of a BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimeric RING-RING complex. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:833-7 pubmed
    ..and ovarian cancer tumor suppressor BRCA1 interacts with multiple cognate proteins, including the RING protein BARD1. Proper function of the BRCA1 RING domain is critical, as evidenced by the many cancer-predisposing mutations ..
  15. Morris J, Keep N, Solomon E. Identification of residues required for the interaction of BARD1 with BRCA1. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:9382-6 pubmed
    The breast and ovarian cancer predisposition gene product BRCA1, binds to BARD1 at its N terminus. In cells BRCA1 is found as a heterodimer with BARD1 and may represent the functionally active form of BRCA1...
  16. Kleiman F, Manley J. The BARD1-CstF-50 interaction links mRNA 3' end formation to DNA damage and tumor suppression. Cell. 2001;104:743-53 pubmed
    The mRNA polyadenylation factor CstF interacts with the BRCA1-associated protein BARD1, and this interaction represses the nuclear mRNA polyadenylation machinery in vitro...
  17. Xia Y, Pao G, Chen H, Verma I, Hunter T. Enhancement of BRCA1 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity through direct interaction with the BARD1 protein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:5255-63 pubmed
    ..domain containing the RING finger, as well as that of the full-length BRCA1, was significantly enhanced by the BARD1 protein (residues 8-142), whose RING finger domain itself lacked Ub ligase activity in vitro...
  18. Fabbro M, Savage K, Hobson K, Deans A, Powell S, McArthur G, et al. BRCA1-BARD1 complexes are required for p53Ser-15 phosphorylation and a G1/S arrest following ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:31251-8 pubmed
    ..The major BRCA1 binding partner, BARD1, is also implicated in the DNA damage response, and recent reports indicate that BRCA1 and BARD1 co-operate in ..
  19. Gorringe K, Choong D, Visvader J, Lindeman G, Campbell I. BARD1 variants are not associated with breast cancer risk in Australian familial breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;111:505-9 pubmed
    Several studies in various populations have suggested that non-synonymous BARD1 variants are associated with increased breast cancer risk...
  20. Latorre V, Diskin S, Diamond M, Zhang H, Hakonarson H, Maris J, et al. Replication of neuroblastoma SNP association at the BARD1 locus in African-Americans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012;21:658-63 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs in the BARD1 gene region show a similar pattern of association to neuroblastoma in African-American and European-American ..
  21. Edwards R, Lee M, Tsutakawa S, Williams R, Nazeer I, Kleiman F, et al. The BARD1 C-terminal domain structure and interactions with polyadenylation factor CstF-50. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11446-56 pubmed publisher
    The BARD1 N-terminal RING domain binds BRCA1 while the BARD1 C-terminal ankyrin and tandem BRCT repeat domains bind CstF-50 to modulate mRNA processing and RNAP II stability in response to DNA damage...
  22. Zhou X, Han S, Wang S, Chen X, Dong J, Shi X, et al. Polymorphisms in HPV E6/E7 protein interacted genes and risk of cervical cancer in Chinese women: a case-control analysis. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;114:327-31 pubmed publisher
    Accumulating studies indicate that HPV E6/E7 oncoproteins interacting genes, TP53, BRCA1 and BARD1, play a critical role in cervical carcinogenesis...
  23. Morris J, Solomon E. BRCA1 : BARD1 induces the formation of conjugated ubiquitin structures, dependent on K6 of ubiquitin, in cells during DNA replication and repair. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:807-17 pubmed
    ..This activity is greatly increased when BRCA1 is in a complex with its N-terminal binding partner BARD1. In this report we use an immunohistochemical approach to demonstrate the association of cellular BRCA1 with the ..
  24. Scully R, Ganesan S, Vlasakova K, Chen J, Socolovsky M, Livingston D. Genetic analysis of BRCA1 function in a defined tumor cell line. Mol Cell. 1999;4:1093-9 pubmed
    ..These data constitute the basis for a BRCA1 functional assay and suggest that efficient repair of double-strand DNA breaks is linked to BRCA1 tumor suppression function. ..
  25. Fabbro M, Rodriguez J, Baer R, Henderson B. BARD1 induces BRCA1 intranuclear foci formation by increasing RING-dependent BRCA1 nuclear import and inhibiting BRCA1 nuclear export. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:21315-24 pubmed
    ..The BRCA1 RING element mediates nuclear import via association with BARD1, and this is not affected by cancer-associated RING mutations...
  26. Wu L, Wang Z, Tsan J, Spillman M, Phung A, Xu X, et al. Identification of a RING protein that can interact in vivo with the BRCA1 gene product. Nat Genet. 1996;14:430-40 pubmed
    ..This BRCA1-associated RING domain (BARD1) protein contains an N-terminal RING motif, three tandem ankyrin repeats, and a C-terminal sequence with ..
  27. Irminger Finger I, Leung W. BRCA1-dependent and independent functions of BARD1. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;34:582-7 pubmed
    Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1)-associated RING domain (BARD1) was discovered as a protein interacting with the RING domain of BRCA1...
  28. Kleiman F, Wu Baer F, Fonseca D, Kaneko S, Baer R, Manley J. BRCA1/BARD1 inhibition of mRNA 3' processing involves targeted degradation of RNA polymerase II. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1227-37 pubmed
    Mammalian cells exhibit a complex response to DNA damage. The tumor suppressor BRCA1 and associated protein BARD1 are thought to play an important role in this response, and our previous work demonstrated that this includes transient ..
  29. Dechend R, Hirano F, Lehmann K, Heissmeyer V, Ansieau S, Wulczyn F, et al. The Bcl-3 oncoprotein acts as a bridging factor between NF-kappaB/Rel and nuclear co-regulators. Oncogene. 1999;18:3316-23 pubmed
    ..The novel Bcl-3 interactors Jab1, Pirin, Tip60 and Bard1 are nuclear proteins which also bind to other transcription factors including c-Jun, nuclear factor I (NFI), HIV-1 ..
  30. Mallery D, Vandenberg C, Hiom K. Activation of the E3 ligase function of the BRCA1/BARD1 complex by polyubiquitin chains. EMBO J. 2002;21:6755-62 pubmed
    ..In vivo, BRCA1 forms a heterodimeric complex with BARD1. Both proteins contain an N-terminal zinc RING-finger domain which confers E3 ubiquitin ligase activity...
  31. Wei L, Lan L, Hong Z, Yasui A, Ishioka C, Chiba N. Rapid recruitment of BRCA1 to DNA double-strand breaks is dependent on its association with Ku80. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:7380-93 pubmed publisher DSBs depended on Ku80, which functions in the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway, independently of BARD1, which binds to the N terminus of BRCA1...
  32. Spurdle A, Marquart L, McGuffog L, Healey S, Sinilnikova O, Wan F, et al. Common genetic variation at BARD1 is not associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011;20:1032-8 pubmed publisher
    ..cohort of 5,546 BRCA1 and 2,865 BRCA2 mutation carriers was used to evaluate risk of breast cancer associated with BARD1 Cys557Ser...
  33. Yu X, Wu L, Bowcock A, Aronheim A, Baer R. The C-terminal (BRCT) domains of BRCA1 interact in vivo with CtIP, a protein implicated in the CtBP pathway of transcriptional repression. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:25388-92 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the BRCA1-CtIP interaction may be required for tumor suppression by BRCA1. ..
  34. Johnatty S, Beesley J, Chen X, Hopper J, Southey M, Giles G, et al. The BARD1 Cys557Ser polymorphism and breast cancer risk: an Australian case-control and family analysis. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;115:145-50 pubmed publisher
    b>BARD1 was first identified as a BRCA1-interacting protein with tumour-suppressor functions...
  35. Thai T, Du F, Tsan J, Jin Y, Phung A, Spillman M, et al. Mutations in the BRCA1-associated RING domain (BARD1) gene in primary breast, ovarian and uterine cancers. Hum Mol Genet. 1998;7:195-202 pubmed
    ..The protein encoded by BRCA1 interacts in vivo with the BRCA1-associated RING domain (BARD1) protein...
  36. Birrane G, Varma A, Soni A, Ladias J. Crystal structure of the BARD1 BRCT domains. Biochemistry. 2007;46:7706-12 pubmed
    The interaction of the breast tumor suppressor BRCA1 with the protein BARD1 results in the formation of a heterodimeric complex that has ubiquitin ligase activity and plays central roles in cell cycle checkpoint control and DNA repair...
  37. Rodriguez J, Schüchner S, Au W, Fabbro M, Henderson B. Nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of BARD1 contributes to its proapoptotic activity and is regulated by dimerization with BRCA1. Oncogene. 2004;23:1809-20 pubmed
    The breast cancer-associated protein, BARD1, colocalizes with BRCA1 in nuclear foci in the S phase and after DNA damage, and the two proteins form a stable heterodimer implicated in DNA repair, protein ubiquitination, and control of mRNA ..
  38. Fabbro M, Schuechner S, Au W, Henderson B. BARD1 regulates BRCA1 apoptotic function by a mechanism involving nuclear retention. Exp Cell Res. 2004;298:661-73 pubmed
    ..BRCA1 is normally regulated by protein turnover, but is stabilized by BARD1 which can recruit BRCA1 to the nucleus to form a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex involved in DNA repair or cell ..
  39. Choudhury A, Xu H, Modi A, Zhang W, Ludwig T, Baer R. Hyperphosphorylation of the BARD1 tumor suppressor in mitotic cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24669-79 pubmed
    ..In vivo, BRCA1 exists as a heterodimer with the BARD1 protein, and many of its biological functions are mediated by the BRCA1-BARD1 complex...
  40. Wu J, Vlastos A, Pelte M, Caligo M, Bianco A, Krause K, et al. Aberrant expression of BARD1 in breast and ovarian cancers with poor prognosis. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:1215-26 pubmed
    Mutations in tumor-suppressor gene BARD1 have been found in inherited and spontaneous breast, ovarian and uterine cancers...
  41. Onay V, Briollais L, Knight J, Shi E, Wang Y, Wells S, et al. SNP-SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:114 pubmed
    ..cell cycle and estrogen metabolism (CCND1-[Pro241Pro] and COMT-[Met108/158Val]), cell cycle and DNA repair (BARD1-[Pro24Ser] and XPD-[Lys751Gln]), and within carcinogen metabolism (GSTP1-[Ile105Val] and COMT-[Met108/158Val]) ..
  42. Ghimenti C, Sensi E, Presciuttini S, Brunetti I, Conte P, Bevilacqua G, et al. Germline mutations of the BRCA1-associated ring domain (BARD1) gene in breast and breast/ovarian families negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 alterations. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002;33:235-42 pubmed
    b>BARD1 (BRCA1-associated RING domain) was identified by yeast two-hybrid screening as a protein interacting with BRCA1. Somatic and germline mutations of BARD1 have been detected in sporadic breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancers...
  43. Irminger Finger I, Leung W, Li J, Dubois Dauphin M, Harb J, Feki A, et al. Identification of BARD1 as mediator between proapoptotic stress and p53-dependent apoptosis. Mol Cell. 2001;8:1255-66 pubmed
    The BRCA1-associated protein BARD1 is a putative tumor suppressor...
  44. Hashizume R, Fukuda M, Maeda I, Nishikawa H, Oyake D, Yabuki Y, et al. The RING heterodimer BRCA1-BARD1 is a ubiquitin ligase inactivated by a breast cancer-derived mutation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:14537-40 pubmed
    BRCA1-BARD1 constitutes a heterodimeric RING finger complex associated through its N-terminal regions...
  45. Cantor S, Bell D, Ganesan S, Kass E, Drapkin R, Grossman S, et al. BACH1, a novel helicase-like protein, interacts directly with BRCA1 and contributes to its DNA repair function. Cell. 2001;105:149-60 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is conceivable that, like BRCA1, BACH1 is a target of germline cancer-inducing mutations. ..
  46. Ryser S, Dizin E, Jefford C, Delaval B, Gagos S, Christodoulidou A, et al. Distinct roles of BARD1 isoforms in mitosis: full-length BARD1 mediates Aurora B degradation, cancer-associated BARD1beta scaffolds Aurora B and BRCA2. Cancer Res. 2009;69:1125-34 pubmed publisher
    The BRCA1-associated ring domain protein 1 (BARD1) interacts with BRCA1 via its RING finger domain...
  47. Feki A, Jefford C, Berardi P, Wu J, Cartier L, Krause K, et al. BARD1 induces apoptosis by catalysing phosphorylation of p53 by DNA-damage response kinase. Oncogene. 2005;24:3726-36 pubmed
    The BRCA1-associated RING domain protein BARD1 acts with BRCA1 in double-strand break repair and ubiquitination...
  48. Li L, Ryser S, Dizin E, Pils D, Krainer M, Jefford C, et al. Oncogenic BARD1 isoforms expressed in gynecological cancers. Cancer Res. 2007;67:11876-85 pubmed
    b>BARD1 is required for protein stability and tumor suppressor functions of BRCA1, which depend on the ubiquitin ligase activity of the BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimer...
  49. Brzovic P, Keeffe J, Nishikawa H, Miyamoto K, Fox D, Fukuda M, et al. Binding and recognition in the assembly of an active BRCA1/BARD1 ubiquitin-ligase complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:5646-51 pubmed
    BRCA1 is a breast and ovarian cancer tumor suppressor protein that associates with BARD1 to form a RINGRING heterodimer...
  50. Wu W, Nishikawa H, Hayami R, Sato K, Honda A, Aratani S, et al. BRCA1 ubiquitinates RPB8 in response to DNA damage. Cancer Res. 2007;67:951-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that BRCA1-BARD1 mediates polyubiquitination of RPB8, a common subunit of RNA polymerases, in response to DNA damage...
  51. Nelson A, Holt J. Impact of RING and BRCT domain mutations on BRCA1 protein stability, localization and recruitment to DNA damage. Radiat Res. 2010;174:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..However, both mutant forms of BRCA1 fail to colocalize in nuclear foci with the known BRCA1-interacting proteins BARD1 and BACH1, which are important for DNA repair...
  52. Johnson N, Johnson S, Yao W, Li Y, Choi Y, Bernhardy A, et al. Stabilization of mutant BRCA1 protein confers PARP inhibitor and platinum resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:17041-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence for a two-event mechanism by which BRCA1-mutant tumors acquire anticancer therapy resistance. ..
  53. Ren Z, Aerts J, Vandenplas H, Wang J, Gorbenko O, Chen J, et al. Phosphorylated STAT5 regulates p53 expression via BRCA1/BARD1-NPM1 and MDM2. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2560 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, we show that NPM1 downregulation by P-STAT5 is mediated by impairing the BRCA1-BARD1 ubiquitin ligase, which controls the stability of NPM1...
  54. Ding D, Zhang Y, Ma W, He X, Wang W, Yu H, et al. Lack of association between BARD1 Cys557Ser variant and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 11,870 cases and 7,687 controls. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011;137:1463-8 pubmed publisher
    The BRCA1-associated RING domain (BARD1) gene has been identified as a high-penetrance gene for breast cancer, whose germline and somatic mutations were reported in both non-BRCA1/2 hereditary site-specific and sporadic breast cancer ..
  55. Li M, Yu X. Function of BRCA1 in the DNA damage response is mediated by ADP-ribosylation. Cancer Cell. 2013;23:693-704 pubmed publisher
    ..BRCA1 forms a Ring-domain heterodimer with BARD1, a major partner of BRCA1 that contains tandem BRCA1 C-terminus (BRCT) motifs...
  56. Boukerroucha M, Josse C, ElGuendi S, Boujemla B, Frères P, Marée R, et al. Evaluation of BRCA1-related molecular features and microRNAs as prognostic factors for triple negative breast cancers. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:755 pubmed publisher
    ..Maintenance of expressed BRCA1 protein interaction with BARD1 was quantified, as a marker of BRCA1 functionality, and the tumor expression profiles of 27 microRNAs were ..
  57. Yoon K, Kong S, Lee E, Cho J, Chang S, Lee E. A Novel Germline Mutation in BRCA1 Causes Exon 20 Skipping in a Korean Family with a History of Breast Cancer. J Breast Cancer. 2017;20:310-313 pubmed publisher
    ..Ectopically expressed mutant BRCA1 protein interacted with the BARD1 protein, but showed a reduced transcriptional function, as demonstrated by the expression of cyclin B1...