Bak

Summary

Gene Symbol: Bak
Description: BCL2 antagonist/killer 1
Alias: BAK, BAK-LIKE, BCL2L7, CDN1, bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer, BCL2-like 7 protein, apoptosis regulator BAK, bcl-2-like protein 7, bcl2-L-7, pro-apoptotic protein BAK
Species: human
Products:     Bak

Top Publications

  1. Westphal D, Kluck R, Dewson G. Building blocks of the apoptotic pore: how Bax and Bak are activated and oligomerize during apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:196-205 pubmed publisher
    ..this review we focus on the recent progress made in characterizing the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, Bax and Bak. This progress has resolved longstanding controversies, but has also challenged established theories in the ..
  2. Herberg J, Phillips S, Beck S, Jones T, Sheer D, Wu J, et al. Genomic structure and domain organisation of the human Bak gene. Gene. 1998;211:87-94 pubmed
    The Bcl-2 homologue, Bak, is a potent inducer of apoptosis. FISH data presented here located the gene to 6p21.3. Mapping was consistent with its location centromeric of the HSET locus and approximately 400kb from the MHC...
  3. Rapley E, Turnbull C, Al Olama A, Dermitzakis E, Linger R, Huddart R, et al. A genome-wide association study of testicular germ cell tumor. Nat Genet. 2009;41:807-10 pubmed publisher
    ..05-3.19), P = 10(-31)). KITLG, encoding the ligand for the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT, which has previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of TGCT and the biology of germ cells, may explain the association on chromosome 12. ..
  4. von Haefen C, Gillissen B, Hemmati P, Wendt J, Güner D, Mrozek A, et al. Multidomain Bcl-2 homolog Bax but not Bak mediates synergistic induction of apoptosis by TRAIL and 5-FU through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Oncogene. 2004;23:8320-32 pubmed
    ..Notably, both DU145 and HCT116 Bax-deficient cells still express Bak. This indicates that Bak is not sufficient to mediate cross-sensitization and synergism between 5-FU and TRAIL...
  5. Fox J, Ismail F, Azad A, Ternette N, Leverrier S, Edelmann M, et al. Tyrosine dephosphorylation is required for Bak activation in apoptosis. EMBO J. 2010;29:3853-68 pubmed publisher
    Activation of the cell-death mediator Bak commits a cell to mitochondrial apoptosis. The initial steps that govern Bak activation are poorly understood...
  6. Banadyga L, Gerig J, Stewart T, Barry M. Fowlpox virus encodes a Bcl-2 homologue that protects cells from apoptotic death through interaction with the proapoptotic protein Bak. J Virol. 2007;81:11032-45 pubmed publisher
    ..addition, coimmunoprecipitation revealed that FPV039 interacted constitutively with the proapoptotic Bcl-2 protein, Bak, in both human and chicken cells...
  7. Gong Y, Somwar R, Politi K, Balak M, Chmielecki J, Jiang X, et al. Induction of BIM is essential for apoptosis triggered by EGFR kinase inhibitors in mutant EGFR-dependent lung adenocarcinomas. PLoS Med. 2007;4:e294 pubmed
    ..Manipulation of the intrinsic pathway could be a therapeutic strategy to enhance further the clinical outcomes of patients with EGFR mutant lung tumors. ..
  8. Dewson G, Kratina T, Sim H, Puthalakath H, Adams J, Colman P, et al. To trigger apoptosis, Bak exposes its BH3 domain and homodimerizes via BH3:groove interactions. Mol Cell. 2008;30:369-80 pubmed publisher
    The Bcl-2 relative Bak is thought to drive apoptosis by forming homo-oligomers that permeabilize mitochondria, but how it is activated and oligomerizes is unclear...
  9. Pearce A, Lyles D. Vesicular stomatitis virus induces apoptosis primarily through Bak rather than Bax by inactivating Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL. J Virol. 2009;83:9102-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the relative importance of the multidomain proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bak and Bax, HeLa cells were transfected with Bak and/or Bax small interfering RNA (siRNA) and subsequently infected ..

More Information

Publications75

  1. Gillissen B, Wendt J, Richter A, Richter A, Müer A, Overkamp T, et al. Endogenous Bak inhibitors Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL: differential impact on TRAIL resistance in Bax-deficient carcinoma. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:851-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, Bax deficiency confers resistance against TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Despite expression of Bak, Bax-deficient cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis...
  2. Koda M, Kanczuga Koda L, Reszec J, Sulkowska M, Famulski W, Baltaziak M, et al. Expression of the apoptotic markers in normal breast epithelium, benign mammary dysplasia and in breast cancer. Folia Morphol (Warsz). 2004;63:337-41 pubmed
    ..The expression of Bak and Bcl-2 was examined using an immunohistochemical method in 71 primary breast cancers...
  3. Zhou M, Liu Z, Zhao Y, Ding Y, Liu H, Xi Y, et al. MicroRNA-125b confers the resistance of breast cancer cells to paclitaxel through suppression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (Bak1) expression. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21496-507 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding has important implications in the development of targeted therapeutics for overcoming Taxol resistance in a number of different tumor histologies. ..
  4. Zohny S, El Shinawi M. Significance of survivin and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer mRNA in detection of bone metastasis in patients with breast cancer. Med Oncol. 2011;28 Suppl 1:S108-14 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of survivin and Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer (Bak) mRNA in the detection of patients with bone metastatic breast cancer...
  5. Du H, Wolf J, Schafer B, Moldoveanu T, Chipuk J, Kuwana T. BH3 domains other than Bim and Bid can directly activate Bax/Bak. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:491-501 pubmed publisher
    ..of a subgroup of the Bcl-2 family, known as the BH3-only proteins, activate pro-apoptotic effectors (Bax and Bak) to initiate MOMP. They do so by neutralizing pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins and/or directly activating Bax/Bak...
  6. Kazi A, Sun J, Doi K, Sung S, Takahashi Y, Yin H, et al. The BH3 alpha-helical mimic BH3-M6 disrupts Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2, and MCL-1 protein-protein interactions with Bax, Bak, Bad, or Bim and induces apoptosis in a Bax- and Bim-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:9382-92 pubmed publisher
    ..such as Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and Mcl-1, which bind to the BH3 α-helical domain of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax, Bak, Bad, and Bim, and inhibit their function...
  7. Dai H, Smith A, Meng X, Schneider P, Pang Y, Kaufmann S. Transient binding of an activator BH3 domain to the Bak BH3-binding groove initiates Bak oligomerization. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:39-48 pubmed publisher
    The mechanism by which the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bak release cytochrome c from mitochondria is incompletely understood...
  8. Wei M, Zong W, Cheng E, Lindsten T, Panoutsakopoulou V, Ross A, et al. Proapoptotic BAX and BAK: a requisite gateway to mitochondrial dysfunction and death. Science. 2001;292:727-30 pubmed
    ..family member, triggers the homooligomerization of "multidomain" conserved proapoptotic family members BAK or BAX, resulting in the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria...
  9. Wei M, Lindsten T, Mootha V, Weiler S, Gross A, Ashiya M, et al. tBID, a membrane-targeted death ligand, oligomerizes BAK to release cytochrome c. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2060-71 pubmed
    ..b>Bak-deficient mitochondria and blocking antibodies reveal tBID binds to its mitochondrial partner BAK to release ..
  10. Wang C, Youle R. Predominant requirement of Bax for apoptosis in HCT116 cells is determined by Mcl-1's inhibitory effect on Bak. Oncogene. 2012;31:3177-89 pubmed publisher
    ..mitochondrial apoptotic pathway acts through two core pro-apoptotic proteins Bax (Bcl2-associated X protein) and Bak (Bcl2-antagonist/killer 1)...
  11. Kiefer M, Brauer M, Powers V, Wu J, Umansky S, Tomei L, et al. Modulation of apoptosis by the widely distributed Bcl-2 homologue Bak. Nature. 1995;374:736-9 pubmed
    ..and characterization of a complementary DNA that encodes a previously unknown Bcl-2 homologue designated Bak. Like Bax, the bak gene product primarily enhances apoptotic cell death following an appropriate stimulus...
  12. Farrow S, White J, Martinou I, Raven T, Pun K, Grinham C, et al. Cloning of a bcl-2 homologue by interaction with adenovirus E1B 19K. Nature. 1995;374:731-3 pubmed
    ..One of these is a new member of the bcl-2 family, which we have called bak (for bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer)...
  13. Chittenden T, Harrington E, O CONNOR R, Flemington C, Lutz R, Evan G, et al. Induction of apoptosis by the Bcl-2 homologue Bak. Nature. 1995;374:733-6 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the complementary DNA cloning and functional analysis of a new Bcl-2 homologue, Bak, which promotes cell death and counteracts the protection from apoptosis provided by Bcl-2...
  14. Wei G, Margolin A, Haery L, Brown E, Cucolo L, Julian B, et al. Chemical genomics identifies small-molecule MCL1 repressors and BCL-xL as a predictor of MCL1 dependency. Cancer Cell. 2012;21:547-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Repression of MCL1 released the proapoptotic protein BAK from MCL1, and Bak deficiency conferred resistance to transcriptional repressors...
  15. Pietsch E, Perchiniak E, Canutescu A, Wang G, Dunbrack R, Murphy M. Oligomerization of BAK by p53 utilizes conserved residues of the p53 DNA binding domain. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21294-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Using immunopurification protocols and mass spectrometry, we previously identified the proapoptotic protein BAK as a mitochondrial p53-binding protein and showed that recombinant p53 directly binds to BAK and can induce its ..
  16. Moldoveanu T, Grace C, Llambi F, Nourse A, Fitzgerald P, Gehring K, et al. BID-induced structural changes in BAK promote apoptosis. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013;20:589-97 pubmed publisher
    The BCL-2-family protein BAK is responsible for mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which leads to apoptosis. The BCL-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only protein BID activates BAK to perform this function...
  17. Zhai D, Jin C, Huang Z, Satterthwait A, Reed J. Differential regulation of Bax and Bak by anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bcl-B and Mcl-1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:9580-6 pubmed publisher
    ..that contain only BH3 domains and downstream effector multi-BH domain-containing proteins, including Bax and Bak. In this report, we compared the ability of the six human anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members to suppress apoptosis ..
  18. Shi X, Xue L, Yang J, Ma A, Zhao J, Xu M, et al. An androgen-regulated miRNA suppresses Bak1 expression and induces androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:19983-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that miR-125b acts as an oncogene, contributing to the pathogenesis of CaP. ..
  19. Neise D, Graupner V, Gillissen B, Daniel P, Schulze Osthoff K, Jänicke R, et al. Activation of the mitochondrial death pathway is commonly mediated by a preferential engagement of Bak. Oncogene. 2008;27:1387-96 pubmed
    Among the members of the Bcl-2 family, the multidomain proteins Bax and Bak are crucial for the activation of mitochondria...
  20. Postigo A, Cross J, Downward J, Way M. Interaction of F1L with the BH3 domain of Bak is responsible for inhibiting vaccinia-induced apoptosis. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:1651-62 pubmed
    ..has no sequence homology to Bcl-2 family members, inhibits apoptosis at the level of mitochondria by binding to Bak. As a consequence, F1L prevents Bak activation, oligomerization and interaction with active Bax, all critical steps ..
  21. Leu J, Dumont P, Hafey M, Murphy M, George D. Mitochondrial p53 activates Bak and causes disruption of a Bak-Mcl1 complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:443-50 pubmed
    ..Here we show that, after cell stress, p53 interacts with the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial membrane protein Bak. Interaction of p53 with Bak causes oligomerization of Bak and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria...
  22. Wang G, Barrett J, Nazarian S, Everett H, Gao X, Bleackley C, et al. Myxoma virus M11L prevents apoptosis through constitutive interaction with Bak. J Virol. 2004;78:7097-111 pubmed
    ..of M11L is the ability to constitutively form inhibitory complexes with the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bak in human cells...
  23. Cartron P, Juin P, Oliver L, Martin S, Meflah K, Vallette F. Nonredundant role of Bax and Bak in Bid-mediated apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4701-12 pubmed
    Animal models suggest that Bax and Bak play an essential role in the implementation of apoptosis and as a result can hinder tumorigenesis. We analyzed the expression of these proteins in 50 human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors...
  24. Chandra D, Choy G, Daniel P, Tang D. Bax-dependent regulation of Bak by voltage-dependent anion channel 2. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:19051-61 pubmed
    Many studies have demonstrated a critical role of Bax in mediating apoptosis, but the role of Bak in regulating cancer cell apoptotic sensitivities in the presence or absence of Bax remains incompletely understood...
  25. Willis S, Chen L, Dewson G, Wei A, Naik E, Fletcher J, et al. Proapoptotic Bak is sequestered by Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL, but not Bcl-2, until displaced by BH3-only proteins. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1294-305 pubmed
    ..proteins trigger apoptosis by binding via their BH3 domain to prosurvival relatives, while the proapoptotic Bax and Bak have an essential downstream role involving permeabilization of organellar membranes and induction of caspase ..
  26. Griffiths G, Dubrez L, Morgan C, Jones N, Whitehouse J, Corfe B, et al. Cell damage-induced conformational changes of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak in vivo precede the onset of apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 1999;144:903-14 pubmed
    ..of events committing cells to death revealed that a concealed NH2-terminal epitope of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak became exposed in vivo before apoptosis...
  27. Taylor J, Quilty D, Banadyga L, Barry M. The vaccinia virus protein F1L interacts with Bim and inhibits activation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:39728-39 pubmed
    ..We previously showed that F1L interacts with the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bak and inhibits activation of Bak following an apoptotic stimulus (Wasilenko, S. T., Banadyga, L., Bond, D...
  28. Konopleva M, Contractor R, Tsao T, Samudio I, Ruvolo P, Kitada S, et al. Mechanisms of apoptosis sensitivity and resistance to the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 in acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Cell. 2006;10:375-88 pubmed
    ..ABT-737 induced the disruption of the BCL-2/BAX complex and BAK-dependent but BIM-independent activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway...
  29. Sattler M, Liang H, Nettesheim D, Meadows R, Harlan J, Eberstadt M, et al. Structure of Bcl-xL-Bak peptide complex: recognition between regulators of apoptosis. Science. 1997;275:983-6 pubmed
    ..of a complex between the survival protein Bcl-xL and the death-promoting region of the Bcl-2-related protein Bak. The structure and binding affinities of mutant Bak peptides indicate that the Bak peptide adopts an amphipathic ..
  30. Azad A, Fox J, Leverrier S, Storey A. Blockade of the BAK hydrophobic groove by inhibitory phosphorylation regulates commitment to apoptosis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49601 pubmed publisher
    The BCL-2 family protein BAK is a key regulator of mitochondrial apoptosis...
  31. Kepp O, Rajalingam K, Kimmig S, Rudel T. Bak and Bax are non-redundant during infection- and DNA damage-induced apoptosis. EMBO J. 2007;26:825-34 pubmed
    ..Previous work has shown that MOMP depends on the functionally redundant multidomain proapoptotic proteins, Bak and Bax...
  32. Graupner V, Alexander E, Overkamp T, Rothfuss O, De Laurenzi V, Gillissen B, et al. Differential regulation of the proapoptotic multidomain protein Bak by p53 and p73 at the promoter level. Cell Death Differ. 2011;18:1130-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Essential gatekeepers for cytochrome c release are the proapoptotic multidomain proteins, Bax, and Bak. The expression of Bax is upregulated upon cellular stress by the tumor suppressor p53...
  33. Leshchiner E, Braun C, Bird G, Walensky L. Direct activation of full-length proapoptotic BAK. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E986-95 pubmed publisher
    Proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) antagonist/killer (BAK) and BCL-2-associated X (BAX) form toxic mitochondrial pores in response to cellular stress...
  34. Sarosiek K, Chi X, Bachman J, Sims J, Montero J, Patel L, et al. BID preferentially activates BAK while BIM preferentially activates BAX, affecting chemotherapy response. Mol Cell. 2013;51:751-65 pubmed publisher
    ..to death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway requires activation of the mitochondrial pore-forming proteins BAK or BAX...
  35. Cheng E, Sheiko T, Fisher J, Craigen W, Korsmeyer S. VDAC2 inhibits BAK activation and mitochondrial apoptosis. Science. 2003;301:513-7 pubmed
    The multidomain proapoptotic molecules BAK or BAX are required to initiate the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis...
  36. Chittenden T, Flemington C, Houghton A, Ebb R, Gallo G, Elangovan B, et al. A conserved domain in Bak, distinct from BH1 and BH2, mediates cell death and protein binding functions. EMBO J. 1995;14:5589-96 pubmed
    ..The Bcl-2 homolog, Bak, promotes apoptosis and binds anti-apoptotic family members including Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL...
  37. Wang H, Takemoto C, Akasaka R, Uchikubo Kamo T, Kishishita S, Murayama K, et al. Novel dimerization mode of the human Bcl-2 family protein Bak, a mitochondrial apoptosis regulator. J Struct Biol. 2009;166:32-7 pubmed publisher
    Interactions of Bcl-2 family proteins play a regulatory role in mitochondrial apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic protein Bak resides in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and the formation of Bak homo- or heterodimers is involved in the ..
  38. Hemmati P, Guner D, Gillissen B, Wendt J, Von Haefen C, Chinnadurai G, et al. Bak functionally complements for loss of Bax during p14ARF-induced mitochondrial apoptosis in human cancer cells. Oncogene. 2006;25:6582-94 pubmed
    ..caspase-9- and caspase-3/7-like activities in p53/Bax-deficient DU145 prostate cancer cells expressing wild-type Bak. Re-expression of Bax in these cells failed to further enhance p14(ARF)-induced apoptosis, suggesting that p14(ARF)-..
  39. Willis S, Fletcher J, Kaufmann T, van Delft M, Chen L, Czabotar P, et al. Apoptosis initiated when BH3 ligands engage multiple Bcl-2 homologs, not Bax or Bak. Science. 2007;315:856-9 pubmed
    ..whether its BH3-only members initiate apoptosis by directly binding to the essential cell-death mediators Bax and Bak, or whether they can act indirectly, by engaging their pro-survival Bcl-2-like relatives...
  40. Meng X, Lee S, Dai H, Loegering D, Yu C, Flatten K, et al. Mcl-1 as a buffer for proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members during TRAIL-induced apoptosis: a mechanistic basis for sorafenib (Bay 43-9006)-induced TRAIL sensitization. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29831-46 pubmed
    ..In contrast, TRAIL caused increased binding between Mcl-1 and Bak that was diminished by treatment with the caspase 8 inhibitor N-(N(alpha)-acetylisoleucylglutamylthreonyl) aspartic ..
  41. Ying Y, Padanilam B. Regulation of necrotic cell death: p53, PARP1 and cyclophilin D-overlapping pathways of regulated necrosis?. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016;73:2309-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The c-subunit of the F1F0ATP synthase on the inner membrane and Bax/Bak on the outer membrane are considered to be the long sought components that form the MPTP...
  42. Mikhailov V, Mikhailova M, Degenhardt K, Venkatachalam M, White E, Saikumar P. Association of Bax and Bak homo-oligomers in mitochondria. Bax requirement for Bak reorganization and cytochrome c release. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:5367-76 pubmed
    ..276, 18361-18374). Here we report that following Bax translocation in ATP-depleted rat proximal tubule cells, Bak, a proapoptotic molecule that normally resides in mitochondria, also reorganizes to form homo-oligomers...
  43. Vela L, Gonzalo O, Naval J, Marzo I. Direct interaction of Bax and Bak proteins with Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins in living cells revealed by fluorescence complementation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:4935-46 pubmed publisher
    The key event in the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is the activation of Bax and Bak by BH3-only proteins through a molecular mechanism that is still a matter of debate...
  44. Kim S, Seo M, Kim Y, Lee Y, Oh J, Cho E, et al. Stimulatory heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis by repressing BAK induction in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1350-61 pubmed
    ..apoptosis of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and reduced the hydrogen peroxide-induced increase in Bak and the decrease in Bcl-x(L) protein expression...
  45. Li X, Zeng X, Sun J, Li H, Wu P, Fung K, et al. Imperatorin induces Mcl-1 degradation to cooperatively trigger Bax translocation and Bak activation to suppress drug-resistant human hepatoma. Cancer Lett. 2014;348:146-55 pubmed publisher
    ..target of imperatorin and determined that imperatorin induces proteosome-dependent Mcl-1 degradation to release Bak and Bax to trigger apoptosis in liver cancer cells...
  46. Sassone F, Margulets V, Maraschi A, Rodighiero S, Passafaro M, Silani V, et al. Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein (BNip3) has a key role in the mitochondrial dysfunction induced by mutant huntingtin. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:6530-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Bax/Bak and BNip3 are pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family protein whose activation triggers mitochondrial ..
  47. Brasacchio D, Alsop A, Noori T, Lufti M, Iyer S, Simpson K, et al. Epigenetic control of mitochondrial cell death through PACS1-mediated regulation of BAX/BAK oligomerization. Cell Death Differ. 2017;24:961-970 pubmed publisher
    ..mitochondria of protected cells failed to release cytochrome c as a result of perturbed oligomerization of BAX and BAK. We conclude that PCAF and ADA3 transcriptionally regulate PACS1 and that PACS1 is a key regulator of BAX/BAK ..
  48. Lopez Girona E, Zhang Y, Eduardo I, Mora J, Alexiou K, Arus P, et al. A deletion affecting an LRR-RLK gene co-segregates with the fruit flat shape trait in peach. Sci Rep. 2017;7:6714 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR analysis revealed the absence of transcription of the partially deleted allele. The data support PRUPE.6G281100 as a candidate gene for flat shape in peach. ..
  49. Zheng S, Bao R, Zhang Q, Wang S, Lin H. Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Promotes Apoptosis via Mitochondrial Pathways in the Livers of Broilers with Selenium Deficiency Exudative Diathesis Disease. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2018;186:249-257 pubmed publisher
    ..and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST), as well as mitochondrial apoptosis-related genes of Bcl-2, Bax, Bak, Cyt-C, Caspase-9, Caspase-3, and p53, were examined in livers...
  50. Wierzba M, Tax F. An Allelic Series of bak1 Mutations Differentially Alter bir1 Cell Death, Immune Response, Growth, and Root Development Phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics. 2016;202:689-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on our data, we propose a model in which BIR1 functions to regulate BAK1 participation in multiple pathways. ..
  51. Li B, Guo K, Li C, Li H, Zhao P, Chen K, et al. Influence of suppression of CapG gene expression by siRNA on the growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer cells. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:15769-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism with which CapG, with other oncogenes, influences cancer cell cycle remains to be elucidated. ..
  52. Rahmani M, Nkwocha J, Hawkins E, Pei X, Parker R, Kmieciak M, et al. Cotargeting BCL-2 and PI3K Induces BAX-Dependent Mitochondrial Apoptosis in AML Cells. Cancer Res. 2018;78:3075-3086 pubmed publisher
    ..Venetoclax/GDC-0980 activity was partially diminished in BAK-/- cells and failed to induce apoptosis in BAX-/- and BAX-/-BAK-/- ..
  53. Choi S, Kim M, Kang C, Bae S, Cho C, Soh J, et al. Activation of Bak and Bax through c-abl-protein kinase Cdelta-p38 MAPK signaling in response to ionizing radiation in human non-small cell lung cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:7049-59 pubmed
    ..In this study, we showed that c-Abl-PKCdelta-Rac1-p38 MAPK signaling is required for the conformational changes of Bak and Bax during ionizing radiation-induced apoptotic cell death in human non-small cell lung cancer cells...
  54. Luo Y, Wang X, Wang H, Xu Y, Wen Q, Fan S, et al. High Bak Expression Is Associated with a Favorable Prognosis in Breast Cancer and Sensitizes Breast Cancer Cells to Paclitaxel. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0138955 pubmed publisher
    ..Pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 antagonist killer 1 (Bak) plays an important role in Taxol-induced apoptosis in breast cancer...
  55. Zhang X, Weng C, Li Y, Wang X, Jiang C, Li X, et al. Human Bop is a novel BH3-only member of the Bcl-2 protein family. Protein Cell. 2012;3:790-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, Bop might need to function through Bak and Bax, likely by releasing Bak from Bcl-X(L) sequestration...
  56. Thomas M, Banks L. Inhibition of Bak-induced apoptosis by HPV-18 E6. Oncogene. 1998;17:2943-54 pubmed
    ..is the regulation provided by the Bcl-2 family; and in differentiating keratinocytes, in which HPV replicates, the Bak protein is highly expressed...
  57. Zong W, Li C, Hatzivassiliou G, Lindsten T, Yu Q, Yuan J, et al. Bax and Bak can localize to the endoplasmic reticulum to initiate apoptosis. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:59-69 pubmed
    Bax and Bak play a redundant but essential role in apoptosis initiated by the mitochondrial release of apoptogenic factors. In addition to their presence at the mitochondrial outer membrane, Bax and Bak can also localize to the ER...
  58. Altamura G, Corteggio A, Pacini L, Conte A, Pierantoni G, Tommasino M, et al. Transforming properties of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in vitro and their transcriptional activity in feline squamous cell carcinoma in vivo. Virology. 2016;496:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ultraviolet B (UVB)-triggered accumulation of p53, p21 and pro-apoptotic markers such as Cleaved Caspase3, Bax and Bak, suggesting a synergistic action of the virus with UV exposure in tumour pathogenesis...
  59. Zhuang Y, Berens Norman H, Leser J, Clarke P, Tyler K. Mitochondrial p53 Contributes to Reovirus-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis and Central Nervous System Injury in a Mouse Model of Viral Encephalitis. J Virol. 2016;90:7684-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, upregulated p53 accumulates in mitochondria. Previous reports demonstrated that the binding of p53 to Bak at mitochondria causes Bak activation and results in apoptosis...
  60. Zhang Z, Song T, Zhang T, Gao J, Wu G, An L, et al. A novel BH3 mimetic S1 potently induces Bax/Bak-dependent apoptosis by targeting both Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Int J Cancer. 2011;128:1724-35 pubmed publisher
    ..fluorescent resonance energy transfer, and shRNA indicated that S1 can disrupt Bcl-2/Bax, Mcl-1/Bak and Bcl-2/Bim heterodimerization in multiple cell lines, activate Bax accompanied by its translocation to ..
  61. Lan T, Zhao H, Xiang B, Wang J, Liu Y. Suture compression induced midpalatal suture chondrocyte apoptosis with increased caspase-3, caspase-9, Bad, Bak, Bax and Bid expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;489:179-186 pubmed publisher
    ..g., Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Bax, Bak, Bid, Bad, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9). Intergroup comparison was made by the rank sum test, and P < 0...
  62. Weng C, Li Y, Xu D, Shi Y, Tang H. Specific cleavage of Mcl-1 by caspase-3 in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10491-500 pubmed
    ..of cleaved Bid (tBid) by the apical caspase-8 to mitochondria to induce oligomerization of multidomain Bax and Bak. However, the roles of prosurvival Bcl-2 family proteins in TRAIL apoptosis remain elusive...
  63. Strasser A, Vaux D. Viewing BCL2 and cell death control from an evolutionary perspective. Cell Death Differ. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 3 November 2017; doi:10.1038/cdd.2017.145...
  64. Bayoumi A, Park K, Wang Y, Teoh J, Aonuma T, Tang Y, et al. A carvedilol-responsive microRNA, miR-125b-5p protects the heart from acute myocardial infarction by repressing pro-apoptotic bak1 and klf13 in cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2018;114:72-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these findings reveal a pivotal role for miR-125b-5p in regulating CM survival during acute myocardial infarction. ..
  65. Gallardo Vera F, Tapia Rodríguez M, Diaz D, Fortoul van der Goes T, Montano L, Rendón Huerta E. Vanadium pentoxide increased PTEN and decreased SHP1 expression in NK-92MI cells, affecting PI3K-AKT-mTOR and Ras-MAPK pathways. J Immunotoxicol. 2018;15:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, ERK1/2, MEK1, PTEN, SHP1, BAD and phosphorylated forms, as well as caspases-3, -8, -9, BAX and BAK in/on the cells were then determined by flow cytometry...
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    ..that GX15-070 induced apoptosis in vitro in MCL cell lines and primary cells from patients with MCL by releasing Bak from Mcl-1 and Bcl-X(L) at short incubation times and low micromolar doses...