BAD

Summary

Gene Symbol: BAD
Description: BCL2 associated agonist of cell death
Alias: BBC2, BCL2L8, bcl2-associated agonist of cell death, BCL-X/BCL-2 binding protein, BCL2-antagonist of cell death protein, BCL2-binding component 6, BCL2-binding protein, bcl-2-binding component 6, bcl-2-like protein 8, bcl-XL/Bcl-2-associated death promoter, bcl2 antagonist of cell death, bcl2-L-8
Species: human
Products:     BAD

Top Publications

  1. Tan Y, Demeter M, Ruan H, Comb M. BAD Ser-155 phosphorylation regulates BAD/Bcl-XL interaction and cell survival. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:25865-9 pubmed
    The BH3 domain of BAD mediates its death-promoting activities via heterodimerization to the Bcl-XL family of death regulators...
  2. Jin S, Zhuo Y, Guo W, Field J. p21-activated Kinase 1 (Pak1)-dependent phosphorylation of Raf-1 regulates its mitochondrial localization, phosphorylation of BAD, and Bcl-2 association. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24698-705 pubmed
    ..of its signals to MEK and ERK, by translocating to the mitochondria where it binds Bcl-2 and displaces BAD. However, the answer to the question of how Raf-1 is normally lured to the mitochondria and becomes activated ..
  3. Zha J, Harada H, Yang E, Jockel J, Korsmeyer S. Serine phosphorylation of death agonist BAD in response to survival factor results in binding to 14-3-3 not BCL-X(L). Cell. 1996;87:619-28 pubmed
    ..One distant member, BAD, heterodimerizes with BCL-X(L) or BCL-2, neutralizing their protective effect and promoting cell death...
  4. Wolf D, Witte V, Laffert B, Blume K, Stromer E, Trapp S, et al. HIV-1 Nef associated PAK and PI3-kinases stimulate Akt-independent Bad-phosphorylation to induce anti-apoptotic signals. Nat Med. 2001;7:1217-24 pubmed
    ..The Nef-associated phosphatidylinositol-3-PAK complex phosphorylated the pro-apoptotic Bad protein without involving the protein kinase B-Akt kinase, which is generally believed to inactivate Bad by serine ..
  5. Datta S, Katsov A, Hu L, Petros A, Fesik S, Yaffe M, et al. 14-3-3 proteins and survival kinases cooperate to inactivate BAD by BH3 domain phosphorylation. Mol Cell. 2000;6:41-51 pubmed
    ..We report that survival factors trigger the phosphorylation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member BAD at a site (Ser-155) within the BAD BH3 domain...
  6. Schurmann A, Mooney A, Sanders L, Sells M, Wang H, Reed J, et al. p21-activated kinase 1 phosphorylates the death agonist bad and protects cells from apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:453-61 pubmed
    b>Bad is a critical regulatory component of the intrinsic cell death machinery that exerts its death-promoting effect upon heterodimerization with the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L)...
  7. Wang H, Rapp U, Reed J. Bcl-2 targets the protein kinase Raf-1 to mitochondria. Cell. 1996;87:629-38 pubmed
    ..from an outer mitochondrial membrane protein protected cells from apoptosis and resulted in phosphorylation of BAD, a proapoptotic Bcl-2 homolog...
  8. Dramsi S, Scheid M, Maiti A, Hojabrpour P, Chen X, Schubert K, et al. Identification of a novel phosphorylation site, Ser-170, as a regulator of bad pro-apoptotic activity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6399-405 pubmed
    b>Bad is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins that is thought to exert a death-promoting effect by heterodimerization with Bcl-X(L), nullifying its anti-apoptotic activity...
  9. Ying S, Seiffert B, Hacker G, Fischer S. Broad degradation of proapoptotic proteins with the conserved Bcl-2 homology domain 3 during infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect Immun. 2005;73:1399-403 pubmed
    ..by the proteolytic degradation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members (BH3-only proteins) Bim, Puma, and Bad upon chlamydial infection. In this study, we further explore this antiapoptotic mechanism...
  10. Seo S, Chen Y, Ivanovska I, Ranger A, Hong S, Dawson V, et al. BAD is a pro-survival factor prior to activation of its pro-apoptotic function. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42240-9 pubmed
    The mammalian BAD protein belongs to the BH3-only subgroup of the BCL-2 family. In contrast to its known pro-apoptotic function, we found that endogenous and overexpressed BAD(L) can inhibit cell death in neurons and other cell types...

Detail Information

Publications97

  1. Tan Y, Demeter M, Ruan H, Comb M. BAD Ser-155 phosphorylation regulates BAD/Bcl-XL interaction and cell survival. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:25865-9 pubmed
    The BH3 domain of BAD mediates its death-promoting activities via heterodimerization to the Bcl-XL family of death regulators...
  2. Jin S, Zhuo Y, Guo W, Field J. p21-activated Kinase 1 (Pak1)-dependent phosphorylation of Raf-1 regulates its mitochondrial localization, phosphorylation of BAD, and Bcl-2 association. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24698-705 pubmed
    ..of its signals to MEK and ERK, by translocating to the mitochondria where it binds Bcl-2 and displaces BAD. However, the answer to the question of how Raf-1 is normally lured to the mitochondria and becomes activated ..
  3. Zha J, Harada H, Yang E, Jockel J, Korsmeyer S. Serine phosphorylation of death agonist BAD in response to survival factor results in binding to 14-3-3 not BCL-X(L). Cell. 1996;87:619-28 pubmed
    ..One distant member, BAD, heterodimerizes with BCL-X(L) or BCL-2, neutralizing their protective effect and promoting cell death...
  4. Wolf D, Witte V, Laffert B, Blume K, Stromer E, Trapp S, et al. HIV-1 Nef associated PAK and PI3-kinases stimulate Akt-independent Bad-phosphorylation to induce anti-apoptotic signals. Nat Med. 2001;7:1217-24 pubmed
    ..The Nef-associated phosphatidylinositol-3-PAK complex phosphorylated the pro-apoptotic Bad protein without involving the protein kinase B-Akt kinase, which is generally believed to inactivate Bad by serine ..
  5. Datta S, Katsov A, Hu L, Petros A, Fesik S, Yaffe M, et al. 14-3-3 proteins and survival kinases cooperate to inactivate BAD by BH3 domain phosphorylation. Mol Cell. 2000;6:41-51 pubmed
    ..We report that survival factors trigger the phosphorylation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member BAD at a site (Ser-155) within the BAD BH3 domain...
  6. Schurmann A, Mooney A, Sanders L, Sells M, Wang H, Reed J, et al. p21-activated kinase 1 phosphorylates the death agonist bad and protects cells from apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:453-61 pubmed
    b>Bad is a critical regulatory component of the intrinsic cell death machinery that exerts its death-promoting effect upon heterodimerization with the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L)...
  7. Wang H, Rapp U, Reed J. Bcl-2 targets the protein kinase Raf-1 to mitochondria. Cell. 1996;87:629-38 pubmed
    ..from an outer mitochondrial membrane protein protected cells from apoptosis and resulted in phosphorylation of BAD, a proapoptotic Bcl-2 homolog...
  8. Dramsi S, Scheid M, Maiti A, Hojabrpour P, Chen X, Schubert K, et al. Identification of a novel phosphorylation site, Ser-170, as a regulator of bad pro-apoptotic activity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6399-405 pubmed
    b>Bad is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins that is thought to exert a death-promoting effect by heterodimerization with Bcl-X(L), nullifying its anti-apoptotic activity...
  9. Ying S, Seiffert B, Hacker G, Fischer S. Broad degradation of proapoptotic proteins with the conserved Bcl-2 homology domain 3 during infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect Immun. 2005;73:1399-403 pubmed
    ..by the proteolytic degradation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members (BH3-only proteins) Bim, Puma, and Bad upon chlamydial infection. In this study, we further explore this antiapoptotic mechanism...
  10. Seo S, Chen Y, Ivanovska I, Ranger A, Hong S, Dawson V, et al. BAD is a pro-survival factor prior to activation of its pro-apoptotic function. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42240-9 pubmed
    The mammalian BAD protein belongs to the BH3-only subgroup of the BCL-2 family. In contrast to its known pro-apoptotic function, we found that endogenous and overexpressed BAD(L) can inhibit cell death in neurons and other cell types...
  11. Zhang B, Zhang Y, Shacter E. Rac1 inhibits apoptosis in human lymphoma cells by stimulating Bad phosphorylation on Ser-75. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6205-14 pubmed
    ..In this report, constitutively active Rac1 is shown to stimulate the phosphorylation of the Bcl-2 family member Bad, thereby suppressing drug-induced caspase activation and apoptosis in human lymphoma cells...
  12. Yu C, Minemoto Y, Zhang J, Liu J, Tang F, Bui T, et al. JNK suppresses apoptosis via phosphorylation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein BAD. Mol Cell. 2004;13:329-40 pubmed
    ..for IL-3-mediated cell survival through phosphorylation and inactivation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein BAD. IL-3 withdrawal-induced apoptosis is promoted by inhibition of JNK but suppressed by expression of a ..
  13. Yan B, Zemskova M, Holder S, Chin V, Kraft A, Koskinen P, et al. The PIM-2 kinase phosphorylates BAD on serine 112 and reverses BAD-induced cell death. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:45358-67 pubmed
    ..However, the kinase can phosphorylate the pro-apoptotic protein BAD on serine 112, which accounts in part for its ability to reverse Bad-induced cell death...
  14. Cotteret S, Jaffer Z, Beeser A, Chernoff J. p21-Activated kinase 5 (Pak5) localizes to mitochondria and inhibits apoptosis by phosphorylating BAD. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5526-39 pubmed
    ..Third, Pak5 prevents apoptosis induced by camptothecin and C2-ceramide by phosphorylating BAD on Ser-112 in a protein kinase A-independent manner and prevents the localization of BAD to mitochondria, thereby ..
  15. Danial N. BAD: undertaker by night, candyman by day. Oncogene. 2008;27 Suppl 1:S53-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on BAD, which was the first BH3-only protein linked to proximal survival signals through phosphorylation by survival ..
  16. Blume Jensen P, Janknecht R, Hunter T. The kit receptor promotes cell survival via activation of PI 3-kinase and subsequent Akt-mediated phosphorylation of Bad on Ser136. Curr Biol. 1998;8:779-82 pubmed
    ..of the serine/threonine, we found that, in response to SCF Akt became activated and mediated phosphorylation of Bad, a pro-apoptotic molecule, in a PI-3-kinase-dependent manner...
  17. Marchion D, Cottrill H, Xiong Y, Chen N, Bicaku E, Fulp W, et al. BAD phosphorylation determines ovarian cancer chemosensitivity and patient survival. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:6356-66 pubmed publisher
    ..expression changes that underlie the evolution of OVCA chemoresistance and characterized the BCL2 antagonist of cell death (BAD) apoptosis pathway as a determinant of chemosensitivity and patient survival...
  18. Petros A, Nettesheim D, Wang Y, Olejniczak E, Meadows R, Mack J, et al. Rationale for Bcl-xL/Bad peptide complex formation from structure, mutagenesis, and biophysical studies. Protein Sci. 2000;9:2528-34 pubmed
    ..structure of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL complexed to a 25-residue peptide from the death promoting region of Bad was determined using NMR spectroscopy...
  19. Lizcano J, Morrice N, Cohen P. Regulation of BAD by cAMP-dependent protein kinase is mediated via phosphorylation of a novel site, Ser155. Biochem J. 2000;349:547-57 pubmed
    The interaction of BAD (Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L)-antagonist, causing cell death) with Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) is thought to neutralize the anti-apoptotic effects of the latter proteins, and may represent one of the mechanisms by which BAD promotes ..
  20. del Peso L, Gonzalez Garcia M, Page C, Herrera R, Nunez G. Interleukin-3-induced phosphorylation of BAD through the protein kinase Akt. Science. 1997;278:687-9 pubmed
    b>BAD is a distant member of the Bcl-2 family that promotes cell death. Phosphorylation of BAD prevents this...
  21. Holmgreen S, Huang D, Adams J, Cory S. Survival activity of Bcl-2 homologs Bcl-w and A1 only partially correlates with their ability to bind pro-apoptotic family members. Cell Death Differ. 1999;6:525-32 pubmed
    ..activity, we have compared the abilities of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-w and A1 to bind to the pro-apoptotic Bax, Bak, Bad and Bik and to protect cells from their cytotoxic action...
  22. Polzien L, Baljuls A, Rennefahrt U, Fischer A, Schmitz W, Zahedi R, et al. Identification of novel in vivo phosphorylation sites of the human proapoptotic protein BAD: pore-forming activity of BAD is regulated by phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28004-20 pubmed publisher
    b>BAD is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by phosphorylation in response to survival factors...
  23. Chen L, Willis S, Wei A, Smith B, Fletcher J, Hinds M, et al. Differential targeting of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins by their BH3-only ligands allows complementary apoptotic function. Mol Cell. 2005;17:393-403 pubmed
    ..Bim and Puma potently engaged all the prosurvival proteins comparably. Bad, however, bound tightly to Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-w but only weakly to A1 and not to Mcl-1...
  24. Sastry K, Smith A, Karpova Y, Datta S, Kulik G. Diverse antiapoptotic signaling pathways activated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, epidermal growth factor, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in prostate cancer cells converge on BAD. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:20891-901 pubmed
    ..phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activate independent signaling pathways that phosphorylate the proapoptotic protein BAD. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide operated via protein kinase A, epidermal growth factor required Ras activity, ..
  25. Yang E, Zha J, Jockel J, Boise L, Thompson C, Korsmeyer S. Bad, a heterodimeric partner for Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, displaces Bax and promotes cell death. Cell. 1995;80:285-91 pubmed
    ..Both yeast two-hybrid screening and lambda expression cloning identified a novel interacting protein, Bad, whose homology to Bcl-2 is limited to the BH1 and BH2 domains...
  26. Bonni A, Brunet A, West A, Datta S, Takasu M, Greenberg M. Cell survival promoted by the Ras-MAPK signaling pathway by transcription-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Science. 1999;286:1358-62 pubmed
    ..The MAPK-activated kinases, the Rsks, catalyzed the phosphorylation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD at serine 112 both in vitro and in vivo...
  27. Solomon V, Almnayan D, Lee H. Design, synthesis and characterization of novel quinacrine analogs that preferentially kill cancer over non-cancer cells through the down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax and Bad. Eur J Med Chem. 2017;137:156-166 pubmed publisher
    ..by apoptosis through the down-regulation of Bcl-2 (but not Bcl-XL) survival protein and up-regulation of Bad and Bax pro-apoptotic proteins...
  28. Satpute A, Nook E, Narayanan S, Shu J, Weber J, Ochsner K. Emotions in "Black and White" or Shades of Gray? How We Think About Emotion Shapes Our Perception and Neural Representation of Emotion. Psychol Sci. 2016;27:1428-1442 pubmed
    ..facial movements express "calm" or "fear," or whether one's fluctuating internal states mean one feels "good" or "bad." In two studies, we asked whether this kind of categorical, "black and white," thinking can shape the perception ..
  29. Lai M, Lin J, Pai P, Lai M, Lin Y, Yeh Y, et al. Effects of rhodiola crenulata on mice hearts under severe sleep apnea. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:198 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein levels of Bad, Bax, t-Bid, activated caspase 9, activated caspase 3 (mitochondria dependent apoptotic pathway) were less in ..
  30. Joubrel C, Tazi A, Six A, Dmytruk N, Touak G, Bidet P, et al. Group B streptococcus neonatal invasive infections, France 2007-2012. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015;21:910-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bad outcome risk factors were low gestational age and low birthweight...
  31. Chapman P. Environmental quality benchmarks-the good, the bad, and the ugly. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018;25:3043-3046 pubmed publisher
    ..The "bad" includes perception that they are absolutes (i.e...
  32. Buenz E, Parry G. Chronic Lead Intoxication From Eating Wild-Harvested Game. Am J Med. 2018;131:e181-e184 pubmed publisher
    ..Supersonic injection of toxin-leeching frangible projectiles into food is intuitively bad. As much as 95% of the ~13...
  33. Sentilhes L, Maillard F, Brun S, Madar H, Merlot B, Goffinet F, et al. Risk factors for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder development one year after vaginal delivery: a prospective, observational study. Sci Rep. 2017;7:8724 pubmed publisher
    ..3, 95%CI 1.3-21.4), and postpartum hemoglobin <9?g/dl (aOR 2.7, 95%CI 1.0-7.5). Among 56 women (10.3%) reporting bad childbirth memories at day 2 postpartum, 11 (21.1%) met PTSD diagnosis and 11 (21...
  34. Mulik J, Sukumaran S, Srinivas T, Vijapure T. Comparative efficacy of benthic biotic indices in assessing the Ecological Quality Status (EcoQS) of the stressed Ulhas estuary, India. Mar Pollut Bull. 2017;120:192-202 pubmed publisher
    ..The mesohaline zone, which presented eutrophic conditions, was classified as 'bad' by all indices due to the azoic status...
  35. Barnhart K. Introduction: Noncontraceptive use of steroid sex hormones in reproductive medicine. Fertil Steril. 2016;106:1551 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Views and Reviews, old and new indications for the use of ovarian sex steroids are examined with attention to updating knowledge, breaking bad habits, and providing evidence for use (or nonuse).
  36. Zhang S, Kan X, Li Y, Li P, Zhang C, Li G, et al. Deficiency of γδT cells protects against abdominal aortic aneurysms by regulating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling. J Vasc Surg. 2018;67:899-908.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..that proliferation-related genes (Sos1, Mtor, Myc) were upregulated whereas apoptosis-related genes (Pten, Bcl1, Bad) were downregulated in elastase-perfused γδT KO mice...
  37. Calder Dawe O, Gavey N. Authentic feminist? Authenticity and feminist identity in teenage feminists' talk. Br J Soc Psychol. 2017;56:782-798 pubmed publisher
    ..Rather than seeking to categorize authentic feminism as an instance of either 'good/collective' or 'bad/individualized' feminist politics, we use discourse analysis to examine how the identity position of authentic ..
  38. Gomes V, Fernandes A, Martins Lopes P, Pereira L, Mendes Faia A, Melo Pinto P. Characterization of neural network generalization in the determination of pH and anthocyanin content of wine grape in new vintages and varieties. Food Chem. 2017;218:40-46 pubmed publisher
    ..For pH, the results are state-of-the-art for the new vintage and varieties tested. For anthocyanin, generalization is bad for TB from 2013 but presents state-of-the-art absolute percentage error for TF and TN from 2013.
  39. Valdovinos E, Le S, Hsia R. In California, not-for-profit hospitals spent more operating expenses on charity care than for-profit hospitals spent. Health Aff (Millwood). 2015;34:1296-303 pubmed publisher
    ..The provision of charity care-free care to those unable to pay-can help meet that standard. Bad debt, the other form of uncompensated care, cannot be used to meet the standard, although Medicaid shortfalls can...
  40. Trang T, Al Hasani R, Salvemini D, Salter M, Gutstein H, Cahill C. Pain and Poppies: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of Opioid Analgesics. J Neurosci. 2015;35:13879-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings will challenge traditional views of the good, the bad, and the ugly of opioids.
  41. Fischinger A, Fischinger J, Fischinger D. Hydrotherapeutic institutions in the Austro-Hungarian health resort Abbazia / Opatija owned by the South Railways Company. Acta Med Hist Adriat. 2015;13:415-26 pubmed
    ..hydrotherapeutic treatment institution the Covered Bath of the Archduke Ludwig Viktor (Erherzog Ludwig Viktor Bad). The leading physician (dirigierender Arzt) of these institutions was Professor Dr...
  42. Alrutz A, Kool B, Robinson T, Moyes S, Huggard P, Hoare K, et al. The psychopathology of James Bond and its implications for the revision of the DSM-(00)7. Med J Aust. 2015;203:452-6 pubmed
    ..A Delphi process identified a cluster of eight behaviours that comprise the Bond Adequacy Disorder (BAD)...
  43. Camargo I, Van Sickels J, Cunningham L. Simultaneous removal of third molars and completion of a sagittal split osteotomy: effects of age and presence of third molars. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016;121:468-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence or absence of M3, degree of impaction, age, sex, and occurrence of bad splits were noted...
  44. Pécot J, Maillet L, Le Pen J, Vuillier C, Trécesson S, Fétiveau A, et al. Tight Sequestration of BH3 Proteins by BCL-xL at Subcellular Membranes Contributes to Apoptotic Resistance. Cell Rep. 2016;17:3347-3358 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the membrane localization of BCL-xL enforces its control over cell survival and, importantly, limits the pro-apoptotic effects of BH3 mimetics by selectively influencing BCL-xL binding to key pro-apoptotic effectors. ..
  45. Shankar Hari M, Rubenfeld G. Understanding Long-Term Outcomes Following Sepsis: Implications and Challenges. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2016;18:37 pubmed
    ..For optimal design of interventional trials to reduce these bad outcomes in sepsis survivors, in-depth understanding of major risk factors for these morbid events, their ..
  46. Antonopoulos D, Chang E. Transplanting a Microbial Organ: the Good, the Bad, and the Unknown. MBio. 2016;7: pubmed publisher
    ..doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00322-16). While the clinical significance of these findings remains unclear, nothing short of a diligent and persistent effort is needed to define the intended and unintended consequences of FMT. ..
  47. Solberg C, Gamlund E. The badness of death and priorities in health. BMC Med Ethics. 2016;17:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Two questions regarding death are especially relevant to health priorities. The first question is why death is bad. Death is clearly bad for others, such as family, friends and society...
  48. Koning F. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten. Ann Nutr Metab. 2015;67 Suppl 2:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak...
  49. Cowburn A, Cadwallader K, Reed B, Farahi N, Chilvers E. Role of PI3-kinase-dependent Bad phosphorylation and altered transcription in cytokine-mediated neutrophil survival. Blood. 2002;100:2607-16 pubmed
    Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)-dependent phosphorylation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bad has been proposed as an important regulator of apoptotic cell death...
  50. Graziano A, Parenti R, Avola R, Cardile V. Krabbe disease: involvement of connexin43 in the apoptotic effects of sphingolipid psychosine on mouse oligodendrocyte precursors. Apoptosis. 2016;21:25-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, some apoptotic markers such as apoptotic index (AI), DNA fragmentation, caspase-3, PTEN, Bad, and PI3K were determined in oligodendrocyte precursors from wild type or twitcher mice untreated or treated with ..
  51. Yi Y, Lee J, Kwon S, Kim J. Arthroscopic proximal versus open subpectoral biceps tenodesis with arthroscopic repair of small- or medium-sized rotator cuff tears. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2016;24:3772-3778 pubmed
    ..failure and degree of deformity were evaluated by the pain in the bicipital groove and biceps apex distance (BAD)...
  52. Guo S, Som A, Waeber C, Lo E. Vascular neuroprotection via TrkB- and Akt-dependent cell survival signaling. J Neurochem. 2012;123 Suppl 2:58-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Downstream of Akt signaling, activation of GSK-3? (glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta), caspase 9, caspase 3 and Bad pathways were detected...
  53. Calderón Sánchez E, Díaz I, Ordóñez A, Smani T. Urocortin-1 Mediated Cardioprotection Involves XIAP and CD40-Ligand Recovery: Role of EPAC2 and ERK1/2. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0147375 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-qPCR and protein analyses of apoptotic genes showed that Ucn-1 upregulated the expression of CD40lg, Xiap and BAD in cells undergoing I/R, involving Epac2 and ERK1/2 activation...
  54. Asena L, Altinors D, Cezairlioğlu Ş, Bölük S. Effect of dry eye on Scheimpflug imaging of the cornea and elevation data. Can J Ophthalmol. 2017;52:313-317 pubmed publisher
    ..Twelve eyes of 12 patients with abnormal Belin/Ambrosio enhanced ectasia display (BAD) anterior elevation difference were included in the study...
  55. Lua W, Ling W, Su C, Yeo J, Verma C, Eisenhaber B, et al. Discovery of a novel splice variant of Fcar (CD89) unravels sequence segments necessary for efficient secretion: A story of bad signal peptides and good ones that nevertheless do not make it. Cell Cycle. 2017;16:457-467 pubmed publisher
  56. Liu R, Men C, Yu W, Xu F, Wang Q, Shen Z. Uncertainty in positive matrix factorization solutions for PAHs in surface sediments of the Yangtze River Estuary in different seasons. Chemosphere. 2018;191:922-936 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the signal-to-noise ratios, the PAHs categorized as "Bad" might drop out of the estimation of bootstrap...
  57. Cullen M, Konia M, Borman Shoap E, Braman J, Tiryaki E, Marcus Blank B, et al. Not all unprofessional behaviors are equal: The creation of a checklist of bad behaviors. Med Teach. 2017;39:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Medical educators can use the professionalism checklists developed in this study to aid in the early identification and subsequent remediation of unprofessional behavior in medical students and residents. ..
  58. Swanson A, Wolf T, Sitzmann A, Willette A. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease: Pleiotropic roles for cytokines and neuronal pentraxins. Behav Brain Res. 2018;347:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..roles of these cytokines in modulating neuroinflammation in which they cannot be labeled as a strictly "good" or "bad" biomarker phenotype...
  59. Rodríguez Conde S, Molina L, González P, García Puente A, Segura A. Degradation of phenanthrene by Novosphingobium sp. HS2a improved plant growth in PAHs-contaminated environments. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:10627-10636 pubmed
    ..This variability is frequently due to a bad establishment of foreign degrading populations in soil. We have demonstrated that Novosphingobium sp...
  60. Okon I, Zou M. Mitochondrial ROS and cancer drug resistance: Implications for therapy. Pharmacol Res. 2015;100:170-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The influence of ROS within malignant cells, whether for good or bad may depend on several factors, such as tumor and tissue type, disease stage, treatment strategy, as well as ..
  61. Guthrie B, Donnan P, Murphy D, Makubate B, Dreischulte T. Bad apples or spoiled barrels? Multilevel modelling analysis of variation in high-risk prescribing in Scotland between general practitioners and between the practices they work in. BMJ Open. 2015;5:e008270 pubmed publisher
    ..care high-risk prescribing causes significant harm, but it is unclear if it is largely driven by individuals (a 'bad apple' problem) or by practices having higher or lower risk prescribing cultures (a 'spoiled barrel' problem)...
  62. Ye W, Jiang Z, Lu X, Ren X, Deng M, Lin S, et al. GZD824 suppresses the growth of human B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by inhibiting the SRC kinase and PI3K/AKT pathways. Oncotarget. 2017;8:87002-87015 pubmed publisher
    ..Many lead to neutropenia, leaving patients at risk of life-threatening infections and result in bad outcomes. New treatment options are needed to improve overall survival...
  63. Gurczynski S, Moore B. IL-17 in the lung: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;:ajplung.00344.2017 pubmed publisher
    ..This review covers the good, bad and ugly aspects of IL-17 in the lung.
  64. Hahn C, Tyka K, Saba J, Lenzen S, Gurgul Convey E. Overexpression of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase protects insulin-secreting cells against cytokine toxicity. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:20292-20304 pubmed publisher
    ..levels, higher expression of the ER protein Sec61a, decreased dephosphorylation of Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bad) protein, and weaker caspase-3 activation in cytokine-treated (IL-1?, TNF?, and IFN?) cells...
  65. Dalal S, Moore J, Gallagher C. "We Didn't Consent to This". Narrat Inq Bioeth. 2017;7:171-178 pubmed publisher
    ..this communication is extremely important, clinicians are uneasy and find themselves inadequately trained to "break bad news" and manage emotional responses from the patient/family...
  66. Draghi C, Viger L, Denis F, Letellier C. How the growth rate of host cells affects cancer risk in a deterministic way. Chaos. 2017;27:093101 pubmed publisher
    ..tissue can be explained without evoking random mutation arising during DNA replications in nonmalignant cells or "bad luck"...
  67. Ismail A, Mohamad M, Abdul Majid H, Abas K, Deris S, Zaki N, et al. An improved hybrid of particle swarm optimization and the gravitational search algorithm to produce a kinetic parameter estimation of aspartate biochemical pathways. Biosystems. 2017;162:81-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These local solutions can lead to a bad fit when calibrating with a model...
  68. Chen G, Wang Y. [Updates of 2017 ESMO guideline for rectal cancer]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2017;20:1236-1242 pubmed
    ..These patients were classified as "bad group" in the old 2013 version...
  69. Matar E, Lewis S. REM sleep behaviour disorder: not just a bad dream. Med J Aust. 2017;207:262-268 pubmed
    ..They should educate idiopathic RBD patients to recognise the symptoms of these conditions and refer as appropriate for further testing and enrolment into research trials focused on neuroprotective measures. ..
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    ..Inactivation of FOXO proteins and elevation of intracellular ROS are characteristics common to many cancers, and hence these findings are likely to be of relevance beyond the MPN field. ..
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    ..Although its effect on tumor cell microenvironment remains poorly understood, its presence is correlated with bad diagnosis...
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    ..Taken together, VPA sensitized TRAIL-resistant PTC cells to apoptotic cell death through involvement of Nrf2 and Bcl-xL. Thus, the combination of VPA and TRAIL may be a promising therapy for TRAIL-resistant PTC. ..
  73. Goes A, Reis L, Silva M, Kahlow B, Skare T. Rheumatoid arthritis and sleep quality. Rev Bras Reumatol Engl Ed. 2017;57:294-298 pubmed publisher
    ..Only 18.5% of RA patients had sleep of good quality. In univariate analysis a bad sleep measured by Pittsburg index was associated with daily doses of prednisone (p=0.03), DAS-28 (p=0...
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    ..The expression of Akt, Bad, phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and Bad (p-Bad) as well as cytochrome c in mitochondria and cytosol were examined by ..
  75. Chiu Y, Yang J, Hsu H, Tsai C, Ma H. Adipose-derived stem cell conditioned medium attenuates cisplatin-triggered apoptosis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analyses indicated that cisplatin-induced reductions in pro?caspase?3, pro?caspase?9, phospho-BAD, phospho-IGF-1R, phospho-AKT, and phospho-ERK in CAL?27 cells were reversed by adipose-derived stem cell ..
  76. Torres Sospedra J, Moreira A. Analysis of Sources of Large Positioning Errors in Deterministic Fingerprinting. Sensors (Basel). 2017;17: pubmed publisher
    ..combination of technologies, it is crucial to identify when large errors occur and prevent the use of extremely bad positioning estimations in hybrid algorithms...
  77. Wang Z, Bu J, Yao X, Liu C, Shen H, Li X, et al. Phosphorylation at S153 as a Functional Switch of Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein 1 in Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats. Front Mol Neurosci. 2017;10:358 pubmed publisher
    ..exerted a better rescue effect on I/R injury, which further proved that PEBP1 may be a good protein gone bad with phosphorylation at S153 as a functional switch following I/R...
  78. Ma F, Ai H. Chinese Learners of English See Chinese Words When Reading English Words. J Psycholinguist Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..g., , pronounced as /bei 1/) of an L2 word (e.g., cup) in orthography (e.g., , bad in Chinese, pronounced as /huai 4/) or phonology (e.g., , sad in Chinese, pronounced as /bei 1/)...
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    ..Accordingly, these data showed the involvement of MBD2 in B1-induced apoptosis and overcoming the resistance conferred by Bcl-2, which suggested that MBD2 might guide the development of future anticancer agents. ..
  80. White A, Giblin L, Boyd L. The Prevalence of Dental Anxiety in Dental Practice Settings. J Dent Hyg. 2017;91:30-34 pubmed
    ..anxiety: fear of dental experience, previous negative dental experience, cost of treatment, gag reflex, and fear of bad news.Conclusions: Moderate to high dental anxiety was present in 19% of the population sampled...
  81. Li Z, Li X, Xu L, Tao Y, Yang C, Chen X, et al. Inhibition of neuroblastoma proliferation by PF-3758309, a small-molecule inhibitor that targets p21-activated kinase 4. Oncol Rep. 2017;38:2705-2716 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, the inhibition of PAK4 by PF-3758309 increased the expression of CDKN1A, BAD and BAK1 and decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax...
  82. Karimi Rozveh A, Nabi Amjad R, Karimi Rozveh J, Rasouli D. Attitudes toward Telling the Truth to Cancer Patients in Iran: A Review Article. Int J Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Res. 2017;11:178-184 pubmed
    ..Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology with key terms such as truth disclosure, breaking bad news, death awareness and disclosure of diagnosis without any time restriction...
  83. Akl H, Badran B, Zein N, Zein N, Bex F, Sotiriou C, et al. HTLV-I infection of WE17/10 CD4+ cell line leads to progressive alteration of Ca2+ influx that eventually results in loss of CD7 expression and activation of an antiapoptotic pathway involving AKT and BAD which paves the way for malignant transformat. Leukemia. 2007;21:788-96 pubmed
    ..Western blotting revealed increasing Akt and Bad phosphorylation, timely correlated with CD7 loss...
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    ..In this study, the expression of phosphorylated Akt at Thr308 and Ser473, BCL-2-antagonist of cell death (BAD) at Ser136 and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) at Ser9 in 47 paraffin-embedded human colorectal ..
  85. Yang L, Xue Y, Liu J, Zhuang J, Shen L, Shen B, et al. Long noncoding RNA ASAP1-IT1 promotes cancer stemness and predicts a poor prognosis in patients with bladder cancer. Neoplasma. 2017;64:847-855 pubmed publisher
    ..specimens were correlated with advanced tumor stage, higher clinical stage, poor pathological differentiation and bad overall survival...
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    ..Lower lymphocyte, higher MPV, and PLR may be indicative for the prognosis of HF-SSNHL patients; higher MPV may be related to bad treatment outcome of AF-SSNHL patients.
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    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and FDI World Dental Federation (FDI), malnutrition and bad oral health are of great concern to global health, especially among the older population...
  88. Gonçalves Ferreira A, Rainha Campos A, Franco A, Pimentel J, Bentes C, Peralta A, et al. Amygdalohippocampotomy for mesial temporal lobe sclerosis: Epilepsy outcome 5 years after surgery. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2017;159:2443-2448 pubmed publisher
    ..7%), with Engel class IA-B in 15 (71.4%) and II in 3 (14.3%), and bad in 3 patients, with Engel Class III in 2 (9.5%) and class IV in 1 (4.8%)...
  89. Sawa H, Murakami H, Ohshima Y, Sugino T, Nakajyo T, Kisanuki T, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibitors such as sodium butyrate and trichostatin A induce apoptosis through an increase of the bcl-2-related protein Bad. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2001;18:109-14 pubmed
    ..SB increased the expression of the Bad protein, although the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax, and Fas was not changed by theaddition of SB...
  90. Seow H, Yip W, Loh H, Ithnin H, Por P, Rohaizak M. Immunohistochemical detection of phospho-Akt, phospho-BAD, HER2 and oestrogen receptors alpha and beta in Malaysian breast cancer patients. Pathol Oncol Res. 2010;16:239-48 pubmed publisher
    ..relationship with expression of ER-alpha, ER-beta, HER2, Ki-67 and phosphorylated Bcl-2 associated death domain (p-BAD)...
  91. Stapley J, Feulner P, Johnston S, Santure A, Smadja C. Recombination: the good, the bad and the variable. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2017;372: pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of recombination can be good, as it can facilitate adaptation, but also bad when it breaks apart beneficial combinations of alleles, and recombination is highly variable between ..
  92. Shaklai S, Mimouni Bloch A, Levin M, Friedman J. Development of finger force coordination in children. Exp Brain Res. 2017;235:3709-3720 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the synergy index, a measure of the relationship between "good" and "bad" variance, increased linearly as a function of age...
  93. Szalkai B, Grolmusz V, Grolmusz V. Identifying combinatorial biomarkers by association rule mining in the CAMD Alzheimer's database. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2017;73:300-307 pubmed publisher
    ..normal blood glucose level with either low cholesterol or high serum sodium would also increase the probability of bad cognition with a 3.7 multiplier. The source code of the new SCARF program is publicly available at http://pitgroup...
  94. Bezuidenhout L, Warne N. Should We All be Scientists? Re-thinking Laboratory Research as a Calling. Sci Eng Ethics. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Appealing to notions such as "good hands" or "gut feelings", scientists narrate a distinction between good and bad scientists that cannot be reduced to education, access, or opportunity...
  95. Nair M, Desai K, Prabhu J, Hari P, Remacle J, Sridhar T. ?3 integrin promotes chemoresistance to epirubicin in MDA-MB-231 through repression of the pro-apoptotic protein, BAD. Exp Cell Res. 2016;346:137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..indicate that integrin ?3 helps inhibit epirubicin induced cytotoxicity by repression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD, thus promoting an anti-apoptotic response...
  96. Bujack R, Turton T, Samsel F, Ware C, Rogers D, Ahrens J. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: A Theoretical Framework for the Assessment of Continuous Colormaps. IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph. 2018;24:923-933 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we review current and historical guidelines for colormap design. We propose a specified taxonomy and provide unambiguous mathematical definitions for the most common design rules...
  97. Subramanian R, Masters S, Zhang H, Fu H. Functional conservation of 14-3-3 isoforms in inhibiting bad-induced apoptosis. Exp Cell Res. 2001;271:142-51 pubmed
    ..Here we report that multiple isoforms of 14-3-3 proteins were capable of binding to several ligands, Bad, Raf-1, and Cbl...