B2M

Summary

Gene Symbol: B2M
Description: beta-2-microglobulin
Alias: IMD43, beta-2-microglobulin, beta chain of MHC class I molecules, beta-2-microglobin
Species: human
Products:     B2M

Top Publications

  1. Ricagno S, Raimondi S, Giorgetti S, Bellotti V, Bolognesi M. Human beta-2 microglobulin W60V mutant structure: Implications for stability and amyloid aggregation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;380:543-7 pubmed publisher
    ..8A resolution. The W60V mutant structural features are discussed, focusing on the roles of the DE loop and of residue 60 in relation to ?2m structure and its amyloid aggregation trends. ..
  2. Betser Cohen G, Mizrahi S, Elboim M, Alsheich Bartok O, Mandelboim O. The association of MHC class I proteins with the 2B4 receptor inhibits self-killing of human NK cells. J Immunol. 2010;184:2761-8 pubmed publisher
  3. Huang W, Zhau H, Chung L. Androgen receptor survival signaling is blocked by anti-beta2-microglobulin monoclonal antibody via a MAPK/lipogenic pathway in human prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7947-56 pubmed publisher
  4. Liu C, Sawaya M, Eisenberg D. β₂-microglobulin forms three-dimensional domain-swapped amyloid fibrils with disulfide linkages. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of the dimer and the zipper spine fit well into an atomic model for this fibrillar form of β₂m, which assembles slowly under physiological conditions. ..
  5. Bhatt L, Horgan C, McCaffrey M. Knockdown of beta2-microglobulin perturbs the subcellular distribution of HFE and hepcidin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:727-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data suggest that beta2M is essential for the correct subcellular distribution of both HFE and hepcidin, two proteins, which are critical for iron homeostasis. ..
  6. Kad N, Myers S, Smith D, Smith D, Radford S, Thomson N. Hierarchical assembly of beta2-microglobulin amyloid in vitro revealed by atomic force microscopy. J Mol Biol. 2003;330:785-97 pubmed
    ..Comparative height analysis from the TM-AFM data allows each of the mature fibril types and single protofilaments to be identified unambiguously, and reveals that the assembly occurs via a hierarchy of morphological states. ..
  7. Calabrese M, Eakin C, Wang J, Miranker A. A regulatable switch mediates self-association in an immunoglobulin fold. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:965-71 pubmed
    ..The consequences of this isomerization are evident and reveal a molecular basis for the conversion of this robust monomeric protein into an amyloid-competent state. ..
  8. Kals J, Zagura M, Serg M, Kampus P, Zilmer K, Unt E, et al. ?2-microglobulin, a novel biomarker of peripheral arterial disease, independently predicts aortic stiffness in these patients. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2011;71:257-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that ?2M may influence the pathogenesis of aortic stiffness in atherosclerosis. ..
  9. Ivanova M, Sawaya M, Gingery M, Attinger A, Eisenberg D. An amyloid-forming segment of beta2-microglobulin suggests a molecular model for the fibril. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10584-9 pubmed
    ..These observations are consistent with a proposed Zipper-spine model for beta2M amyloid, in which the spine of the fibril consists of an anhydrous beta-sheet. ..

More Information

Publications72

  1. Iwata K, Fujiwara T, Matsuki Y, Akutsu H, Takahashi S, Naiki H, et al. 3D structure of amyloid protofilaments of beta2-microglobulin fragment probed by solid-state NMR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18119-24 pubmed
    ..By revealing the structure of beta(2)-microglobulin protofilament-like fibrils, this work represents technical progress in analyzing amyloid fibrils in general through solid-state NMR. ..
  2. Jones S, Manning J, Kad N, Radford S. Amyloid-forming peptides from beta2-microglobulin-Insights into the mechanism of fibril formation in vitro. J Mol Biol. 2003;325:249-57 pubmed
  3. Sakata M, Chatani E, Kameda A, Sakurai K, Naiki H, Goto Y. Kinetic coupling of folding and prolyl isomerization of beta2-microglobulin studied by mutational analysis. J Mol Biol. 2008;382:1242-55 pubmed publisher
  4. Ladner C, Chen M, Smith D, Platt G, Radford S, Langen R. Stacked sets of parallel, in-register beta-strands of beta2-microglobulin in amyloid fibrils revealed by site-directed spin labeling and chemical labeling. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17137-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest an organization more complex than the accordion-like beta-sandwich structure commonly proposed for amyloid fibrils. ..
  5. Jahn T, Parker M, Homans S, Radford S. Amyloid formation under physiological conditions proceeds via a native-like folding intermediate. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:195-201 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that aggregation pathways can involve self-assembly of highly native-like folding intermediates, and have implications for the prevention of this, and other, amyloid disorders. ..
  6. Verdone G, Corazza A, Viglino P, Pettirossi F, Giorgetti S, Mangione P, et al. The solution structure of human beta2-microglobulin reveals the prodromes of its amyloid transition. Protein Sci. 2002;11:487-99 pubmed
  7. Gussow D, Rein R, Ginjaar I, Hochstenbach F, Seemann G, Kottman A, et al. The human beta 2-microglobulin gene. Primary structure and definition of the transcriptional unit. J Immunol. 1987;139:3132-8 pubmed
    The human genomic clone pb2m13 contains a functional beta 2-microglobulin (B2m) gene, which upon transfection is readily expressed in murine fibroblasts...
  8. Yanagi K, Sakurai K, Yoshimura Y, Konuma T, Lee Y, Sugase K, et al. The monomer-seed interaction mechanism in the formation of the ?2-microglobulin amyloid fibril clarified by solution NMR techniques. J Mol Biol. 2012;422:390-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide general information about the extension of amyloid fibrils. ..
  9. Myers S, Jones S, Jahn T, Morten I, Tennent G, Hewitt E, et al. A systematic study of the effect of physiological factors on beta2-microglobulin amyloid formation at neutral pH. Biochemistry. 2006;45:2311-21 pubmed
  10. Ricagno S, Colombo M, de Rosa M, Sangiovanni E, Giorgetti S, Raimondi S, et al. DE loop mutations affect beta2-microglobulin stability and amyloid aggregation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;377:146-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental evidences gathered on the two mutants reinforce the hypothesis that conformational strain in the DE loop can affect beta2m stability and amyloid aggregation properties. ..
  11. Huang W, Havel J, Zhau H, Qian W, Lue H, Chu C, et al. Beta2-microglobulin signaling blockade inhibited androgen receptor axis and caused apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:5341-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The beta2M antibody is a novel and promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of human prostate cancers. ..
  12. Federico M, Guglielmi C, Luminari S, Mammi C, Marcheselli L, Gianelli U, et al. Prognostic relevance of serum beta2 microglobulin in patients with follicular lymphoma treated with anthracycline-containing regimens. A GISL study. Haematologica. 2007;92:1482-8 pubmed
    ..We thus suggest that beta2M be routinely assessed and tested in future prognostic studies of FL patients treated with combination chemotherapy and anti-CD20 agents. ..
  13. Platt G, Routledge K, Homans S, Radford S. Fibril growth kinetics reveal a region of beta2-microglobulin important for nucleation and elongation of aggregation. J Mol Biol. 2008;378:251-63 pubmed publisher
  14. Mangione P, Esposito G, Relini A, Raimondi S, Porcari R, Giorgetti S, et al. Structure, folding dynamics, and amyloidogenesis of D76N β2-microglobulin: roles of shear flow, hydrophobic surfaces, and α-crystallin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:30917-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidation of this crucial causative event in clinical amyloidosis should also help to explain the hitherto mysterious timing and location of amyloid deposition. ..
  15. Debelouchina G, Platt G, Bayro M, Radford S, Griffin R. Magic angle spinning NMR analysis of beta2-microglobulin amyloid fibrils in two distinct morphologies. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:10414-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the distinct macroscopic morphological features observed for the two types of fibrils result from variations in structure and dynamics at the molecular level. ..
  16. Iwata K, Matsuura T, Sakurai K, Nakagawa A, Goto Y. High-resolution crystal structure of beta2-microglobulin formed at pH 7.0. J Biochem. 2007;142:413-9 pubmed
    ..We consider that the enhanced fibrillation is more directly coupled with the decreased stability leading to the increased propensity of exposing amyloidogenic regions. ..
  17. Sasahara K, Yagi H, Naiki H, Goto Y. Heat-induced conversion of beta(2)-microglobulin and hen egg-white lysozyme into amyloid fibrils. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:981-91 pubmed
  18. Jahn T, Tennent G, Radford S. A common beta-sheet architecture underlies in vitro and in vivo beta2-microglobulin amyloid fibrils. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:17279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results endorse the relevance of biophysical studies for the investigation of the molecular mechanisms of beta(2)-microglobulin fibrillogenesis, knowledge about which may inform understanding of the pathobiology of this protein. ..
  19. Xue W, Homans S, Radford S. Systematic analysis of nucleation-dependent polymerization reveals new insights into the mechanism of amyloid self-assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8926-31 pubmed publisher
  20. Sarell C, Woods L, Su Y, Debelouchina G, Ashcroft A, Griffin R, et al. Expanding the repertoire of amyloid polymorphs by co-polymerization of related protein precursors. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:7327-37 pubmed publisher
  21. Valleix S, Gillmore J, Bridoux F, Mangione P, Dogan A, Nedelec B, et al. Hereditary systemic amyloidosis due to Asp76Asn variant ?2-microglobulin. N Engl J Med. 2012;366:2276-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Comprehensive biophysical characterization of the ?(2)-microglobulin variant, including its 1.40-Å, three-dimensional structure, should allow further elucidation of fibrillogenesis and protein misfolding. ..
  22. Mendoza V, Antwi K, Barón Rodríguez M, Blanco C, Vachet R. Structure of the preamyloid dimer of beta-2-microglobulin from covalent labeling and mass spectrometry. Biochemistry. 2010;49:1522-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our data clearly indicate that a dimer interface involving the interactions of D-D strands from separate protein units as seen in the recent crystal structures of two mutant beta2m oligomers is unlikely. ..
  23. Giorgetti S, Raimondi S, Pagano K, Relini A, Bucciantini M, Corazza A, et al. Effect of tetracyclines on the dynamics of formation and destructuration of beta2-microglobulin amyloid fibrils. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:2121-31 pubmed publisher
    ..In these tissues, the doxycycline concentration reaches values several folds higher than those resulting in inhibition of amyloidogenesis and amyloid destructuration in vitro. ..
  24. Smith D, Radford S, Ashcroft A. Elongated oligomers in beta2-microglobulin amyloid assembly revealed by ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:6794-8 pubmed publisher
  25. Kloor M, Michel S, Buckowitz B, Ruschoff J, Buttner R, Holinski Feder E, et al. Beta2-microglobulin mutations in microsatellite unstable colorectal tumors. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:454-8 pubmed
    ..However, no beta2m mutations were observed in metastasized CRCs (UICC stage IV, p=0.04). These results suggest that functional beta2m may be necessary for distant metastasis formation in CRC patients. ..
  26. Kihara M, Chatani E, Iwata K, Yamamoto K, Matsuura T, Nakagawa A, et al. Conformation of amyloid fibrils of beta2-microglobulin probed by tryptophan mutagenesis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:31061-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, the fluorescence spectra of fibrils prepared at pH 2.5 and 7.0 revealed a large difference in the fluorescence intensity for W60-beta2-m, implying a major structural difference between them. ..
  27. Gosal W, Morten I, Hewitt E, Smith D, Thomson N, Radford S. Competing pathways determine fibril morphology in the self-assembly of beta2-microglobulin into amyloid. J Mol Biol. 2005;351:850-64 pubmed
  28. Kad N, Thomson N, Smith D, Smith D, Radford S. Beta(2)-microglobulin and its deamidated variant, N17D form amyloid fibrils with a range of morphologies in vitro. J Mol Biol. 2001;313:559-71 pubmed
    ..Using kinetic experiments we suggest that the immature fibrils observed previously do not represent intermediates in the assembly of fully mature amyloid, at least under the conditions studied here. ..
  29. Hong D, Gozu M, Hasegawa K, Naiki H, Goto Y. Conformation of beta 2-microglobulin amyloid fibrils analyzed by reduction of the disulfide bond. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:21554-60 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the disulfide bond once exposed to the solvent upon acid denaturation may be progressively buried in the interior of the amyloid fibrils during its formation. ..
  30. Paschen A, Méndez R, Jimenez P, Sucker A, Ruiz Cabello F, Song M, et al. Complete loss of HLA class I antigen expression on melanoma cells: a result of successive mutational events. Int J Cancer. 2003;103:759-67 pubmed
    ..Antigen presentation was not inducible with IFN-gamma but could be restored after transfection of tumor cells with b2m cDNA, indicating a defect in b2m expression...
  31. Nomura T, Huang W, Seo S, Zhau H, Mimata H, Chung L. Targeting beta2-microglobulin mediated signaling as a novel therapeutic approach for human renal cell carcinoma. J Urol. 2007;178:292-300 pubmed
  32. Vanderhaegen S, Fislage M, Domanska K, Versées W, Pardon E, Bellotti V, et al. Structure of an early native-like intermediate of ?2-microglobulin amyloidogenesis. Protein Sci. 2013;22:1349-57 pubmed publisher
  33. Juraschek S, Coresh J, Inker L, Levey A, Kottgen A, Foster M, et al. Comparison of serum concentrations of ?-trace protein, ?2-microglobulin, cystatin C, and creatinine in the US population. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013;8:584-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should examine these markers with measured GFR to determine their diagnostic and prognostic utility. ..
  34. Gattoni Celli S, Kirsch K, Timpane R, Isselbacher K. Beta 2-microglobulin gene is mutated in a human colon cancer cell line (HCT) deficient in the expression of HLA class I antigens on the cell surface. Cancer Res. 1992;52:1201-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it would appear that in HCT cells the beta 2m genes have undergone two different mutational changes. This is the first molecular demonstration of beta 2m mutations in a human epithelial cell line. ..
  35. Saper M, Bjorkman P, Wiley D. Refined structure of the human histocompatibility antigen HLA-A2 at 2.6 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1991;219:277-319 pubmed
    ..A possible role for beta 2m in stabilizing permissible peptide complexes during folding and assembly is presented. ..
  36. Li Z, Zhu Y, Sun J, Xia Y, Huang J, Zou B, et al. Serum beta2-microglobin is a predictor of prognosis in patients with upper aerodigestive tract NK/T-cell lymphoma. Ann Hematol. 2012;91:1265-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggested high serum ?2-M was a novel predictor of prognosis in patients with UNKTL. A simply and regular way might be established to identify UNKTL patients of different risks at diagnosis. ..
  37. McParland V, Kalverda A, Homans S, Radford S. Structural properties of an amyloid precursor of beta(2)-microglobulin. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:326-31 pubmed
    ..The data offer a rationale as to why these proteins are both amyloidogenic at low pH and suggest that amyloidosis of these and other proteins may involve ordered assembly from a precursor with similar conformational features. ..
  38. Chatani E, Kato M, Kawai T, Naiki H, Goto Y. Main-chain dominated amyloid structures demonstrated by the effect of high pressure. J Mol Biol. 2005;352:941-51 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the amyloid structure without optimal packing will enable various isoforms to form, suggesting the structural basis of multiple forms of amyloid fibrils in contrast to the unique native-fold. ..
  39. Ohhashi Y, Kihara M, Naiki H, Goto Y. Ultrasonication-induced amyloid fibril formation of beta2-microglobulin. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:32843-8 pubmed
    ..5. These results indicate that ultrasonication is one form of agitation triggering the formation of amyloid fibrils of beta2-m, producing fibrils adapted to the respective pH. ..
  40. Tsimberidou A, Kantarjian H, Wen S, O Brien S, Cortes J, Wierda W, et al. The prognostic significance of serum beta2 microglobulin levels in acute myeloid leukemia and prognostic scores predicting survival: analysis of 1,180 patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:721-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum beta2M levels can help predict outcome in patients > or =60 years with untreated AML, and their use is strongly encouraged. ..
  41. Ma B, Nussinov R. Molecular dynamics simulations of the unfolding of beta(2)-microglobulin and its variants. Protein Eng. 2003;16:561-75 pubmed
    ..These conformational changes may relate to polymerization tendencies of these variants. ..
  42. Winchester J, Salsberg J, Levin N. Beta-2 microglobulin in ESRD: an in-depth review. Adv Ren Replace Ther. 2003;10:279-309 pubmed
    ..There seems to be a relative risk reduction in mortality when patients are treated with dialysis membranes that have a higher clearance of beta-2 microglobulin. ..
  43. Rosano C, Zuccotti S, Mangione P, Giorgetti S, Bellotti V, Pettirossi F, et al. beta2-microglobulin H31Y variant 3D structure highlights the protein natural propensity towards intermolecular aggregation. J Mol Biol. 2004;335:1051-64 pubmed
  44. Chiba T, Hagihara Y, Higurashi T, Hasegawa K, Naiki H, Goto Y. Amyloid fibril formation in the context of full-length protein: effects of proline mutations on the amyloid fibril formation of beta2-microglobulin. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:47016-24 pubmed
    ..The present results reveal that, in addition, stability of the amyloid fibrils is a key factor determining the amyloidogenic potential of the proteins. ..
  45. Ozawa D, Hasegawa K, Lee Y, Sakurai K, Yanagi K, Ookoshi T, et al. Inhibition of beta2-microglobulin amyloid fibril formation by alpha2-macroglobulin. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:9668-76 pubmed publisher
  46. Krangel M, Orr H, Strominger J. Assembly and maturation of HLA-A and HLA-B antigens in vivo. Cell. 1979;18:979-91 pubmed
    ..These observations are discussed in relation to in vivo and in vitro studies on the biosynthesis of a variety of secreted proteins and membrane proteins. ..
  47. Rennella E, Cutuil T, Schanda P, Ayala I, Gabel F, Forge V, et al. Oligomeric states along the folding pathways of ?2-microglobulin: kinetics, thermodynamics, and structure. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:2722-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This excited state becomes more populated in the transient I-state due to the destabilization of the native conformation by the trans-Pro32 configuration. ..
  48. Esposito G, Garvey M, Alverdi V, Pettirossi F, Corazza A, Fogolari F, et al. Monitoring the interaction between ?2-microglobulin and the molecular chaperone ?B-crystallin by NMR and mass spectrometry: ?B-crystallin dissociates ?2-microglobulin oligomers. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:17844-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are highly relevant to the emerging view that molecular chaperone action is intimately involved in the prevention of in vivo amyloid fibril formation. ..
  49. Okon M, Bray P, Vucelic D. 1H NMR assignments and secondary structure of human beta 2-microglobulin in solution. Biochemistry. 1992;31:8906-15 pubmed
    ..No evidence for any regular helical structure is found. Amide proton-solvent-exchange rate constants and 3JHN alpha coupling constants are evaluated. ..
  50. Heegaard N, Jørgensen T, Rozlosnik N, Corlin D, Pedersen J, Tempesta A, et al. Unfolding, aggregation, and seeded amyloid formation of lysine-58-cleaved beta 2-microglobulin. Biochemistry. 2005;44:4397-407 pubmed
  51. Kardos J, Yamamoto K, Hasegawa K, Naiki H, Goto Y. Direct measurement of the thermodynamic parameters of amyloid formation by isothermal titration calorimetry. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:55308-14 pubmed
  52. Bjorkman P, Saper M, Samraoui B, Bennett W, Strominger J, Wiley D. Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2. Nature. 1987;329:506-12 pubmed
    ..A large groove between the alpha-helices provides a binding site for processed foreign antigens. An unknown 'antigen' is found in this site in crystals of purified HLA-A2. ..
  53. Domanska K, Vanderhaegen S, Srinivasan V, Pardon E, Dupeux F, Marquez J, et al. Atomic structure of a nanobody-trapped domain-swapped dimer of an amyloidogenic beta2-microglobulin variant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1314-9 pubmed publisher
  54. Hoshino M, Katou H, Hagihara Y, Hasegawa K, Naiki H, Goto Y. Mapping the core of the beta(2)-microglobulin amyloid fibril by H/D exchange. Nat Struct Biol. 2002;9:332-6 pubmed
    ..The present method could be used to obtain residue-specific conformational information of various amyloid fibrils, even though it does not provide a high resolution three-dimensional structure. ..
  55. Trinh C, Smith D, Kalverda A, Phillips S, Radford S. Crystal structure of monomeric human beta-2-microglobulin reveals clues to its amyloidogenic properties. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9771-6 pubmed
  56. Katou H, Kanno T, Hoshino M, Hagihara Y, Tanaka H, Kawai T, et al. The role of disulfide bond in the amyloidogenic state of beta(2)-microglobulin studied by heteronuclear NMR. Protein Sci. 2002;11:2218-29 pubmed
  57. Chen C, Su C, Chien C, Huang C, Chuang H, Fang F, et al. Overexpression of beta2-microglobulin is associated with poor survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and contributes to oral cancer cell migration and invasion. Br J Cancer. 2008;99:1453-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that beta2M expression in the tissues is associated with survival and may be involved in tumour progression and metastasis in OCSCC. ..
  58. Jones S, Smith D, Radford S. Role of the N and C-terminal strands of beta 2-microglobulin in amyloid formation at neutral pH. J Mol Biol. 2003;330:935-41 pubmed
    ..The data are consistent with the view that perturbation of the N and C-terminal edge strands is an important feature in the generation of assembly-competent states of beta(2)m. ..
  59. Blaho D, Miranker A. Delineating the conformational elements responsible for Cu(2+)-induced oligomerization of beta-2 microglobulin. Biochemistry. 2009;48:6610-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that this strong binding affinity need not be directly coupled to oligomerization. We interpret our results in terms of the known structures of beta2m(apo) and a reversible hexameric state of beta2m(holo). ..
  60. Routledge K, Tartaglia G, Platt G, Vendruscolo M, Radford S. Competition between intramolecular and intermolecular interactions in an amyloid-forming protein. J Mol Biol. 2009;389:776-86 pubmed publisher
  61. Lee Y, Chatani E, Sasahara K, Naiki H, Goto Y. A comprehensive model for packing and hydration for amyloid fibrils of beta2-microglobulin. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:2169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These volumetric differences would result from the nature of main-chain-dominated fibrillogenesis. We suggest comprehensive models for these three types of fibrils illustrating packing and hydrational states. ..
  62. Smith D, Jones S, Serpell L, Sunde M, Radford S. A systematic investigation into the effect of protein destabilisation on beta 2-microglobulin amyloid formation. J Mol Biol. 2003;330:943-54 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we demonstrate that the formation of fibrils with different morphologies in vitro correlates with the relative population of different precursor states. ..
  63. Colombo M, de Rosa M, Bellotti V, Ricagno S, Bolognesi M. A recurrent D-strand association interface is observed in ?-2 microglobulin oligomers. FEBS J. 2012;279:1131-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications for ?2m oligomerization are discussed. ..