B-Raf

Summary

Gene Symbol: B-Raf
Description: B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase
Alias: B-RAF1, B-raf, BRAF1, NS7, RAFB1, serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf, 94 kDa B-raf protein, B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (p94), B-Raf serine/threonine-protein, murine sarcoma viral (v-raf) oncogene homolog B1, proto-oncogene B-Raf, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1
Species: human
Products:     B-Raf

Top Publications

  1. Klein R, Spofford L, Abel E, Ortiz A, Aplin A. B-RAF regulation of Rnd3 participates in actin cytoskeletal and focal adhesion organization. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:498-508 pubmed
    ..Together, our results identify Rnd3 as a regulator of cross talk between the RAF/MEK/ERK and Rho/ROCK signaling pathways, and a key contributor to oncogene-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions. ..
  2. Bagadi S, Sanghvi M, Nair S, Das B. Combined mutational analysis of KRAS, NRAS and BRAF genes in Indian patients with colorectal carcinoma. Int J Biol Markers. 2012;27:27-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, combined evaluation of genetic biomarkers (KRAS, NRAS and BRAF) was able to classify 42% of colorectal cancer patients as likely non-responders to anti-EGFR therapy...
  3. Mathur A, Moses W, Rahbari R, Khanafshar E, Duh Q, Clark O, et al. Higher rate of BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer over time: a single-institution study. Cancer. 2011;117:4390-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that a higher rate of BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer may contribute to the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer. ..
  4. Girotti M, Pedersen M, Sanchez Laorden B, Viros A, Turajlic S, Niculescu Duvaz D, et al. Inhibiting EGF receptor or SRC family kinase signaling overcomes BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma. Cancer Discov. 2013;3:158-67 pubmed publisher
  5. Dougherty M, Santi M, Brose M, Ma C, Resnick A, Sievert A, et al. Activating mutations in BRAF characterize a spectrum of pediatric low-grade gliomas. Neuro Oncol. 2010;12:621-30 pubmed publisher
    ..BRAF mutations constitute a major genetic alteration in this histologic group of pediatric brain tumors and may serve as a molecular target for biologically based inhibitors. ..
  6. Shull A, Latham Schwark A, Ramasamy P, Leskoske K, Oroian D, Birtwistle M, et al. Novel somatic mutations to PI3K pathway genes in metastatic melanoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43369 pubmed publisher
    ..They therefore may be potential chemotherapeutic targets for melanoma patients who exhibit resistance to BRAF(V600) inhibitors. ..
  7. Chen B, Tardell C, Higgins B, Packman K, Boylan J, Niu H. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42598 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways. ..
  8. Siroy A, Boland G, Milton D, Roszik J, Frankian S, Malke J, et al. Beyond BRAF(V600): clinical mutation panel testing by next-generation sequencing in advanced melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:508-515 pubmed publisher
    ..These results enrich our understanding of the patterns and clinical associations of oncogenic mutations in melanoma. ..
  9. Bozzao C, Varvara D, Piglionica M, Bagnulo R, Forte G, Patruno M, et al. Survey of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutational status in 209 consecutive Italian colorectal cancer patients. Int J Biol Markers. 2012;27:e366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Further correlations of specific clinical features with tumor mutational profile could be helpful to predict the response of CRC patients to monoclonal antibody therapy...

More Information

Publications404 found, 100 shown here

  1. Ogino S, Shima K, Meyerhardt J, McCleary N, Ng K, Hollis D, et al. Predictive and prognostic roles of BRAF mutation in stage III colon cancer: results from intergroup trial CALGB 89803. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:890-900 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effect of BRAF mutation on survival and treatment efficacy in patients with stage III colon cancer...
  2. Tang K, Lee C. BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma: pathogenic role and clinical implications. J Chin Med Assoc. 2010;73:113-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we review the pathogenesis of PTC, and the clinical implications of BRAF(V600E) mutation in the diagnosis, prognosis and potential targeted therapeutic strategies for thyroid cancers. ..
  3. Corcoran R, Dias Santagata D, Bergethon K, Iafrate A, Settleman J, Engelman J. BRAF gene amplification can promote acquired resistance to MEK inhibitors in cancer cells harboring the BRAF V600E mutation. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra84 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate BRAF amplification as a mechanism of resistance to both MEK and BRAF inhibitors and suggest combined MEK and BRAF inhibition as a clinical strategy to overcome, or possibly prevent, this mechanism of resistance. ..
  4. Lasota J, Kowalik A, Wasag B, Wang Z, Felisiak Golabek A, Coates T, et al. Detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in colon carcinoma: critical evaluation of the imunohistochemical approach. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38:1235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Although VE1 antibody can be useful in the screening of colon carcinomas for BRAF V600E-mutant proteins, molecular genetic confirmation is always necessary for mutation diagnosis. ..
  5. Ihle M, Fassunke J, König K, Grünewald I, Schlaak M, Kreuzberg N, et al. Comparison of high resolution melting analysis, pyrosequencing, next generation sequencing and immunohistochemistry to conventional Sanger sequencing for the detection of p.V600E and non-p.V600E BRAF mutations. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:13 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, at present, a combination of HRM and IHC is recommended to increase sensitivity and specificity for routine diagnostic to fulfill the European requirements concerning vemurafenib therapy of melanoma patients. ..
  6. Chang Y, Chang S, Yeh K, Lin T, Chang J. RAS, BRAF, and TP53 gene mutations in Taiwanese colorectal cancer patients. Onkologie. 2013;36:719-24 pubmed publisher
    ..036). The KRAS mutation is not present in about one-third of CRC patients, and therefore other gene mutations need to be investigated to better understand the molecular mechanisms of CRC and its treatment. ..
  7. Mason C, Springer C, Cooper R, Superti Furga G, Marshall C, Marais R. Serine and tyrosine phosphorylations cooperate in Raf-1, but not B-Raf activation. EMBO J. 1999;18:2137-48 pubmed
    ..Thus, there are considerable differences between the activation of the Raf proteins; Ras-GTP mediates two phosphorylation events required for Raf-1 activation but does not regulate such events for B-Raf. ..
  8. Edlundh Rose E, Egyhazi S, Omholt K, Månsson Brahme E, Platz A, Hansson J, et al. NRAS and BRAF mutations in melanoma tumours in relation to clinical characteristics: a study based on mutation screening by pyrosequencing. Melanoma Res. 2006;16:471-8 pubmed
    ..7). In conclusion, the separate genotypes were associated with differences in several key clinical and pathological parameters, indicating differences in the biology of melanoma tumours with different proto-oncogene mutations. ..
  9. Dias Santagata D, Lam Q, Vernovsky K, Vena N, Lennerz J, Borger D, et al. BRAF V600E mutations are common in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17948 pubmed publisher
    ..1%) giant cell GBM (gcGBM). The finding that BRAF V600E mutations are common in the majority of PXA has important therapeutic implications and may help in differentiating less aggressive PXAs from lethal gcGBMs and GBMs. ..
  10. Daniotti M, Vallacchi V, Rivoltini L, Patuzzo R, Santinami M, Arienti F, et al. Detection of mutated BRAFV600E variant in circulating DNA of stage III-IV melanoma patients. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:2439-44 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this method can be utilized for monitoring the disease in stage IV melanoma patients but it appears unsatisfactory for the early detection of melanoma. ..
  11. Hou P, Liu D, Xing M. Genome-wide alterations in gene methylation by the BRAF V600E mutation in papillary thyroid cancer cells. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2011;18:687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study uncovered a prominent epigenetic mechanism through which BRAF V600E can promote PTC tumorigenesis by altering the methylation and hence the expression of numerous important genes. ..
  12. Liao W, Liao Y, Zhou J, Xie J, Chen J, Huang W, et al. Gene mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor signaling network and their association with survival in Chinese patients with metastatic colorectal cancers. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1506-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that EGFR signaling network genes are frequently mutated in Chinese mCRC patients, and these gene mutations do not seem to be associated with patients' overall survival. ..
  13. Oxnard G, Binder A, Janne P. New targetable oncogenes in non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:1097-104 pubmed publisher
  14. Dhomen N, Marais R. BRAF signaling and targeted therapies in melanoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2009;23:529-45, ix pubmed publisher
    ..The authors discuss what they learned from clinical trials using first- and second-generation inhibitors to this pathway. ..
  15. Kim Y, Kakar S, Cun L, Deng G, Kim Y. Distinct CpG island methylation profiles and BRAF mutation status in serrated and adenomatous colorectal polyps. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:2587-93 pubmed publisher
    ..BRAF mutation occurs independently of CIMP and MSI in all types of serrated polyps and may serve as a marker of serrated pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis. ..
  16. Garnett M, Rana S, Paterson H, Barford D, Marais R. Wild-type and mutant B-RAF activate C-RAF through distinct mechanisms involving heterodimerization. Mol Cell. 2005;20:963-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have identified a B-RAF-C-RAF-MEK-ERK cascade that signals not only in cancer but also in normal cells. ..
  17. Sensi M, Nicolini G, Petti C, Bersani I, Lozupone F, Molla A, et al. Mutually exclusive NRASQ61R and BRAFV600E mutations at the single-cell level in the same human melanoma. Oncogene. 2006;25:3357-64 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the presence of NRASQ61R or BRAFV600E is associated with distinct in vitro and in vivo growth properties of neoplastic cells. ..
  18. Michaloglou C, Vredeveld L, Soengas M, Denoyelle C, Kuilman T, van der Horst C, et al. BRAFE600-associated senescence-like cell cycle arrest of human naevi. Nature. 2005;436:720-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, both in vitro and in vivo, BRAF(V600E)-expressing melanocytes display classical hallmarks of senescence, suggesting that oncogene-induced senescence represents a genuine protective physiological process. ..
  19. Kim S, Lee K, Myong J, Park J, Jeon Y, Min H, et al. BRAF V600E mutation is associated with tumor aggressiveness in papillary thyroid cancer. World J Surg. 2012;36:310-7 pubmed publisher
    ..001). The BRAF(V600E) mutation was associated with high-risk clinicopathologic characteristics in patients with PTC. The BRAF(V600E) mutation may be a potential prognostic factor in PTC patients. ..
  20. Li H, Lu Y, An Y, Wang X, Zhao Q. KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in human colorectal cancer: relationship with metastatic colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:1691-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, our data indicated that colorectal cancers with KRAS and PIK3CA bi-mutations are more likely to develop into liver metastasis. ..
  21. Kim I, Park J, Kang H, Shin Y, Park H, Park H, et al. Mutational analysis of BRAF and K-ras in gastric cancers: absence of BRAF mutations in gastric cancers. Hum Genet. 2003;114:118-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, BRAF mutations, which are present in a variety of other human cancers, do not seem to be involved in gastric cancer development. ..
  22. Lin C, Lin J, Lin T, Chen W, Yang S, Wang H, et al. The prognostic role of microsatellite instability, codon-specific KRAS, and BRAF mutations in colon cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2014;110:451-7 pubmed publisher
    ..MSI and the BRAF(V600E) mutation have a prognostic impact in colon cancer. Variable KRAS mutations may have different effects on colon cancers; further studies are needed to verify these results. ..
  23. Klein O, Clements A, Menzies A, O Toole S, Kefford R, Long G. BRAF inhibitor activity in V600R metastatic melanoma. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:1073-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experience suggests that patients with V600R BRAF mutations can be treated successfully with oral BRAF inhibitors, and molecular diagnostic assays should include detection of this type of mutation. ..
  24. Nam S, Han B, Ko E, Kang S, Hahn S, Hwang J, et al. BRAF V600E mutation analysis of thyroid nodules needle aspirates in relation to their ultrasongraphic classification: a potential guide for selection of samples for molecular analysis. Thyroid. 2010;20:273-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of the AS-PCR is more valuable as compared with the direct DNA sequencing to refine the diagnosis in a clinical setting. ..
  25. De Roock W, Claes B, Bernasconi D, De Schutter J, Biesmans B, Fountzilas G, et al. Effects of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective consortium analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:753-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Objective response rates could be improved by additional genotyping of BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA exon 20 mutations in a KRAS wild-type population. Belgian Federation against Cancer (Stichting tegen Kanker). ..
  26. Affolter K, Samowitz W, Tripp S, Bronner M. BRAF V600E mutation detection by immunohistochemistry in colorectal carcinoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013;52:748-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall sensitivity and specificity of the immunohistochemical BRAF V600E assay was 100%. Detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in colorectal cancer by immunohistochemistry is a viable alternative to molecular methods. ..
  27. De Falco V, Giannini R, Tamburrino A, Ugolini C, Lupi C, Puxeddu E, et al. Functional characterization of the novel T599I-VKSRdel BRAF mutation in a follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:4398-402 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underscore the importance of functional studies to characterize the role of BRAF mutations associated with thyroid cancer. ..
  28. Vaughn C, Zobell S, Furtado L, Baker C, Samowitz W. Frequency of KRAS, BRAF, and NRAS mutations in colorectal cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011;50:307-12 pubmed publisher
  29. Greene V, Johnson M, Grimm E, Ellerhorst J. Frequencies of NRAS and BRAF mutations increase from the radial to the vertical growth phase in cutaneous melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:1483-8 pubmed publisher
    ..JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers, and open discussion about this article, please go to http://network.nature.com/group/jidclub. ..
  30. Hwang J, Shin J, Han B, Ko E, Kang S, Kim J, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma with BRAFV600E mutation: sonographic prediction. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194:W425-30 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these findings are not specific enough to predict the presence or absence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation of a papillary thyroid carcinoma. ..
  31. Heinzerling L, Baiter M, Kühnapfel S, Schuler G, Keikavoussi P, Agaimy A, et al. Mutation landscape in melanoma patients clinical implications of heterogeneity of BRAF mutations. Br J Cancer. 2013;109:2833-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of heterogeneity in testing and for clinical response to therapy with a BRAF inhibitor needs to be further investigated. ..
  32. Narumi Y, Aoki Y, Niihori T, Neri G, Cave H, Verloes A, et al. Molecular and clinical characterization of cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome: overlapping clinical manifestations with Costello syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2007;143A:799-807 pubmed
  33. Matsuse M, Mitsutake N, Tanimura S, Ogi T, Nishihara E, Hirokawa M, et al. Functional characterization of the novel BRAF complex mutation, BRAF(V600delinsYM) , identified in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:738-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the novel BRAF mutation, BRAF(V600delinsYM) , is a gain-of-function mutation and plays an important role in PTC development. ..
  34. Feller J, Yang S, Mahalingam M. Immunohistochemistry with a mutation-specific monoclonal antibody as a screening tool for the BRAFV600E mutational status in primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. Mod Pathol. 2013;26:414-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings from the current study support the potential use of immunohistochemistry as an ancillary screening tool to assess the BRAFV600E mutation status in primary cutaneous melanoma. ..
  35. Papp T, Schipper H, Kumar K, Schiffmann D, Zimmermann R. Mutational analysis of the BRAF gene in human congenital and dysplastic melanocytic naevi. Melanoma Res. 2005;15:401-7 pubmed
    ..4%) and five of 18 DMN (27.7%) harboured either BRAF or N-ras mutations. As the BRAF oncogene is frequently found to be mutated in human cutaneous melanomas, it may constitute a risk factor for melanoma formation within CMN and DMN. ..
  36. Basolo F, Torregrossa L, Giannini R, Miccoli M, Lupi C, Sensi E, et al. Correlation between the BRAF V600E mutation and tumor invasiveness in papillary thyroid carcinomas smaller than 20 millimeters: analysis of 1060 cases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:4197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..3 and 67.5%, respectively). We suggest that evaluation of BRAF status would be useful even in pT1 tumors to improve risk stratification and patient management, although follow-up data are necessary to confirm our speculations. ..
  37. Bauer J, Buttner P, Murali R, Okamoto I, Kolaitis N, Landi M, et al. BRAF mutations in cutaneous melanoma are independently associated with age, anatomic site of the primary tumor, and the degree of solar elastosis at the primary tumor site. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011;24:345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of anatomic site on the mutation spectrum further suggests regional differences among cutaneous melanocytes. ..
  38. Colombino M, Sperlongano P, Izzo F, Tatangelo F, Botti G, Lombardi A, et al. BRAF and PIK3CA genes are somatically mutated in hepatocellular carcinoma among patients from South Italy. Cell Death Dis. 2012;3:e259 pubmed publisher
  39. Popovici V, Budinska E, Tejpar S, Weinrich S, Estrella H, Hodgson G, et al. Identification of a poor-prognosis BRAF-mutant-like population of patients with colon cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:1288-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may guide therapeutic strategies for this patient segment and may help in population stratification for clinical trials. ..
  40. Hinoue T, Weisenberger D, Pan F, Campan M, Kim M, Young J, et al. Analysis of the association between CIMP and BRAF in colorectal cancer by DNA methylation profiling. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8357 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data will be useful for future investigations toward understanding CIMP in colorectal cancer and gaining insights into the role of aberrant DNA hypermethylation in colorectal tumorigenesis. ..
  41. Kakar S, Deng G, Sahai V, Matsuzaki K, Tanaka H, Miura S, et al. Clinicopathologic characteristics, CpG island methylator phenotype, and BRAF mutations in microsatellite-stable colorectal cancers without chromosomal instability. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008;132:958-64 pubmed publisher
    ..BRAF mutations in MSS cases are associated with high levels of chromosomal instability that are likely responsible for the adverse outcomes in these cases. ..
  42. Kim S, Lee J, Kim J, Ki C, Oh Y, Choi Y, et al. BRAFV600E mutation analysis in fine-needle aspiration cytology specimens for evaluation of thyroid nodule: a large series in a BRAFV600E-prevalent population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:3693-700 pubmed publisher
    ..However, when using this potentially powerful technique, we must consider both its strengths and its weaknesses. ..
  43. Curtin K, Samowitz W, Wolff R, Herrick J, Caan B, Slattery M. Somatic alterations, metabolizing genes and smoking in rectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..ETS may increase risk of KRAS2 mutations; association with TP53 mutations and ETS may be influenced by NAT2. ..
  44. Samowitz W, Curtin K, Wolff R, Tripp S, Caan B, Slattery M. Microsatellite instability and survival in rectal cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20:1763-8 pubmed publisher
  45. Oliveira C, Pinto M, Duval A, Brennetot C, Domingo E, Espin E, et al. BRAF mutations characterize colon but not gastric cancer with mismatch repair deficiency. Oncogene. 2003;22:9192-6 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, our results show evidences that BRAF mutations characterize colon but not gastric tumors with MMR deficiency and are not involved in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer of the mutator phenotype pathway. ..
  46. Tsao H, Goel V, Wu H, Yang G, Haluska F. Genetic interaction between NRAS and BRAF mutations and PTEN/MMAC1 inactivation in melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;122:337-41 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest the existence of possible cooperation between BRAF activation and PTEN loss in melanoma development. ..
  47. Poynter J, Elder J, Fullen D, Nair R, Soengas M, Johnson T, et al. BRAF and NRAS mutations in melanoma and melanocytic nevi. Melanoma Res. 2006;16:267-73 pubmed
    ..We suggest that BRAF mutations contribute to benign melanocytic hyperplasia, but are likely to contribute to invasive melanoma only in conjunction with other mutations. ..
  48. Liu W, Kelly J, Trivett M, Murray W, Dowling J, Wolfe R, et al. Distinct clinical and pathological features are associated with the BRAF(T1799A(V600E)) mutation in primary melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:900-5 pubmed
    ..Although implicated in the control of the cell cycle, the BRAF(T1799A) mutation is associated with a lower rate of tumor proliferation. ..
  49. Henriquez F, Janssen C, Kemp E, Roberts F. The T1799A BRAF mutation is present in iris melanoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:4897-900 pubmed
    ..To date, no study has been conducted to investigate the T1799A mutation in iris melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the T1799A BRAF mutation is present in iris melanoma...
  50. Sala E, Mologni L, Truffa S, Gaetano C, Bollag G, Gambacorti Passerini C. BRAF silencing by short hairpin RNA or chemical blockade by PLX4032 leads to different responses in melanoma and thyroid carcinoma cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we suggest that a BRAF-independent mechanism of cell survival exists in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. ..
  51. Makrodouli E, Oikonomou E, Koc M, Andera L, Sasazuki T, Shirasawa S, et al. BRAF and RAS oncogenes regulate Rho GTPase pathways to mediate migration and invasion properties in human colon cancer cells: a comparative study. Mol Cancer. 2011;10:118 pubmed publisher
    ..This study discriminates oncogene-specific cell migration and invasion pathways mediated by Rho GTPases in colon cancer cells and reveals potential new oncogene-specific characteristics for targeted therapeutics. ..
  52. Abubaker J, Jehan Z, Bavi P, Sultana M, Al Harbi S, Ibrahim M, et al. Clinicopathological analysis of papillary thyroid cancer with PIK3CA alterations in a Middle Eastern population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:611-8 pubmed
  53. Barault L, Veyrie N, Jooste V, Lecorre D, Chapusot C, Ferraz J, et al. Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI(3)K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:2255-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the role of this signaling network on anticancer agents, the evaluation of its mutations could have clinical implications. ..
  54. Lim J, Hong S, Lee Y, Kim B, Park C, Chang H, et al. Clinicopathologic implications of the BRAF(V600E) mutation in papillary thyroid cancer: a subgroup analysis of 3130 cases in a single center. Thyroid. 2013;23:1423-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of the BRAF mutation with clinicopathologic factors in a large group of homogenous PTC patients...
  55. Bando H, Yoshino T, Shinozaki E, Nishina T, Yamazaki K, Yamaguchi K, et al. Simultaneous identification of 36 mutations in KRAS codons 61 and 146, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA in a single reaction by multiplex assay kit. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:405 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, mutations in KRAS codon 61, KRAS codon 146, BRAF, NRAS, or PIK3CA detected in Asian patients were not predictive of clinical benefits from cetuximab treatment, similar to the result obtained in European studies. ..
  56. Ogino S, Nosho K, Kirkner G, Kawasaki T, Meyerhardt J, Loda M, et al. CpG island methylator phenotype, microsatellite instability, BRAF mutation and clinical outcome in colon cancer. Gut. 2009;58:90-6 pubmed publisher
    ..KRAS mutation was unrelated to prognostic significance. CIMP-high appears to be an independent predictor of a low colon cancer-specific mortality, while BRAF mutation is associated with a high colon cancer-specific mortality. ..
  57. Ogino S, Nosho K, Kirkner G, Shima K, Irahara N, Kure S, et al. PIK3CA mutation is associated with poor prognosis among patients with curatively resected colon cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:1477-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The adverse effect of PIK3CA mutation may be potentially limited to patients with KRAS wild-type tumors. ..
  58. Fariña Sarasqueta A, van Lijnschoten G, Moerland E, Creemers G, Lemmens V, Rutten H, et al. The BRAF V600E mutation is an independent prognostic factor for survival in stage II and stage III colon cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:2396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..22-0.99]. KRAS mutation conferred a poorer disease-free survival (HR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.38-0.97). The V600E BRAF mutation confers a worse prognosis to stage II and stage III colon cancer patients independently of disease stage and therapy. ..
  59. Tran B, Kopetz S, Tie J, Gibbs P, Jiang Z, Lieu C, et al. Impact of BRAF mutation and microsatellite instability on the pattern of metastatic spread and prognosis in metastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer. 2011;117:4623-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors demonstrated that, unlikely early stage disease, MSI is associated with poorer survival in metastatic CRC, although this is driven by its association with BRAF mutation. ..
  60. Long G, Wilmott J, Capper D, Preusser M, Zhang Y, Thompson J, et al. Immunohistochemistry is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of V600E BRAF mutation in melanoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37:61-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical use of the V600E BRAF antibody should be a valuable supplement to conventional mutation testing and allow V600E mutant metastatic melanoma patients to be triaged rapidly into appropriate treatment pathways. ..
  61. Tiacci E, Schiavoni G, Martelli M, Boveri E, Pacini R, Tabarrini A, et al. Constant activation of the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway as a diagnostic and therapeutic target in hairy cell leukemia. Haematologica. 2013;98:635-9 pubmed publisher
  62. Cohen Y, Rosenbaum E, Begum S, Goldenberg D, Esche C, Lavie O, et al. Exon 15 BRAF mutations are uncommon in melanomas arising in nonsun-exposed sites. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:3444-7 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, patients with melanomas should not be collectively regarded as a uniform group as new strategies are developed that target specific genetic alterations. ..
  63. Young J, Barker M, Simms L, Walsh M, Biden K, Buchanan D, et al. Evidence for BRAF mutation and variable levels of microsatellite instability in a syndrome of familial colorectal cancer. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;3:254-63 pubmed
    ..High levels of BRAF mutation and MINT31 hypermethylation suggest an origin in the serrated pathway of CRC development. ..
  64. Nakamura N, Carney J, Jin L, Kajita S, Pallares J, Zhang H, et al. RASSF1A and NORE1A methylation and BRAFV600E mutations in thyroid tumors. Lab Invest. 2005;85:1065-75 pubmed
    ..BRAF mutation occurs later in thyroid tumor progression and is restricted mainly to PTC and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. ..
  65. Wellbrock C, Marais R. Elevated expression of MITF counteracts B-RAF-stimulated melanocyte and melanoma cell proliferation. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:703-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that MITF is an anti-proliferation factor that is down-regulated by B-RAF signaling and that this is a crucial event for the progression of melanomas that harbor oncogenic B-RAF. ..
  66. Grbovic O, Basso A, Sawai A, Ye Q, Friedlander P, Solit D, et al. V600E B-Raf requires the Hsp90 chaperone for stability and is degraded in response to Hsp90 inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:57-62 pubmed
    ..Hsp90 inhibition represents a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of melanoma. ..
  67. Nakanishi R, Harada J, Tuul M, Zhao Y, Ando K, Saeki H, et al. Prognostic relevance of KRAS and BRAF mutations in Japanese patients with colorectal cancer. Int J Clin Oncol. 2013;18:1042-8 pubmed publisher
    ..KRAS mutation status could be a novel biomarker for predicting disease recurrence in Japanese patients with stage II CRC. ..
  68. Namba H, Nakashima M, Hayashi T, Hayashida N, Maeda S, Rogounovitch T, et al. Clinical implication of hot spot BRAF mutation, V599E, in papillary thyroid cancers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:4393-7 pubmed
    ..033) and clinical stage (P = 0.049). Our results indicate that activating mutation of BRAF gene could be a potentially useful marker of prognosis of patients with advanced thyroid cancers. ..
  69. Xie P, Streu C, Qin J, Bregman H, Pagano N, Meggers E, et al. The crystal structure of BRAF in complex with an organoruthenium inhibitor reveals a mechanism for inhibition of an active form of BRAF kinase. Biochemistry. 2009;48:5187-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of CS292 bound to the active form of the BRAF kinase also provides a novel scaffold for the design of BRAF(V600E) oncogene selective BRAF inhibitors for therapeutic application. ..
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    ..The adverse significance of BRAF mutation should inform patient selection and stratification in clinical trials. ..
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    ..The effect of the BRAF mutation on the poor prognosis of PTC patients was evident from the current meta-analysis. The detection of the BRAF mutation may be used as an important prognostic marker of patients with PTC. ..