Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: B-Raf
Description: B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase
Alias: B-RAF1, B-raf, BRAF1, NS7, RAFB1, serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf, 94 kDa B-raf protein, B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (p94), B-Raf serine/threonine-protein, murine sarcoma viral (v-raf) oncogene homolog B1, proto-oncogene B-Raf, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1
Publications347 found, 100 shown here
- Corcoran R, Dias Santagata D, Bergethon K, Iafrate A, Settleman J, Engelman J. BRAF gene amplification can promote acquired resistance to MEK inhibitors in cancer cells harboring the BRAF V600E mutation. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra84 pubmed publisher..These findings implicate BRAF amplification as a mechanism of resistance to both MEK and BRAF inhibitors and suggest combined MEK and BRAF inhibition as a clinical strategy to overcome, or possibly prevent, this mechanism of resistance. ..
- Lasota J, Kowalik A, Wasag B, Wang Z, Felisiak Golabek A, Coates T, et al. Detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in colon carcinoma: critical evaluation of the imunohistochemical approach. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38:1235-41 pubmed publisher..Although VE1 antibody can be useful in the screening of colon carcinomas for BRAF V600E-mutant proteins, molecular genetic confirmation is always necessary for mutation diagnosis. ..
- Ogino S, Nosho K, Kirkner G, Shima K, Irahara N, Kure S, et al. PIK3CA mutation is associated with poor prognosis among patients with curatively resected colon cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:1477-84 pubmed publisher..The adverse effect of PIK3CA mutation may be potentially limited to patients with KRAS wild-type tumors. ..
- Fariña Sarasqueta A, van Lijnschoten G, Moerland E, Creemers G, Lemmens V, Rutten H, et al. The BRAF V600E mutation is an independent prognostic factor for survival in stage II and stage III colon cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:2396-402 pubmed publisher..22-0.99]. KRAS mutation conferred a poorer disease-free survival (HR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.38-0.97). The V600E BRAF mutation confers a worse prognosis to stage II and stage III colon cancer patients independently of disease stage and therapy. ..
- Tran B, Kopetz S, Tie J, Gibbs P, Jiang Z, Lieu C, et al. Impact of BRAF mutation and microsatellite instability on the pattern of metastatic spread and prognosis in metastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer. 2011;117:4623-32 pubmed publisher..The authors demonstrated that, unlikely early stage disease, MSI is associated with poorer survival in metastatic CRC, although this is driven by its association with BRAF mutation. ..
- Cohen Y, Rosenbaum E, Begum S, Goldenberg D, Esche C, Lavie O, et al. Exon 15 BRAF mutations are uncommon in melanomas arising in nonsun-exposed sites. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:3444-7 pubmed..Accordingly, patients with melanomas should not be collectively regarded as a uniform group as new strategies are developed that target specific genetic alterations. ..
- Nakamura N, Carney J, Jin L, Kajita S, Pallares J, Zhang H, et al. RASSF1A and NORE1A methylation and BRAFV600E mutations in thyroid tumors. Lab Invest. 2005;85:1065-75 pubmed..BRAF mutation occurs later in thyroid tumor progression and is restricted mainly to PTC and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. ..
- Wellbrock C, Marais R. Elevated expression of MITF counteracts B-RAF-stimulated melanocyte and melanoma cell proliferation. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:703-8 pubmed..These data suggest that MITF is an anti-proliferation factor that is down-regulated by B-RAF signaling and that this is a crucial event for the progression of melanomas that harbor oncogenic B-RAF. ..
- Grbovic O, Basso A, Sawai A, Ye Q, Friedlander P, Solit D, et al. V600E B-Raf requires the Hsp90 chaperone for stability and is degraded in response to Hsp90 inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:57-62 pubmed..Hsp90 inhibition represents a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of melanoma. ..
- Nakanishi R, Harada J, Tuul M, Zhao Y, Ando K, Saeki H, et al. Prognostic relevance of KRAS and BRAF mutations in Japanese patients with colorectal cancer. Int J Clin Oncol. 2013;18:1042-8 pubmed publisher..KRAS mutation status could be a novel biomarker for predicting disease recurrence in Japanese patients with stage II CRC. ..
- Xie P, Streu C, Qin J, Bregman H, Pagano N, Meggers E, et al. The crystal structure of BRAF in complex with an organoruthenium inhibitor reveals a mechanism for inhibition of an active form of BRAF kinase. Biochemistry. 2009;48:5187-98 pubmed publisher..The structure of CS292 bound to the active form of the BRAF kinase also provides a novel scaffold for the design of BRAF(V600E) oncogene selective BRAF inhibitors for therapeutic application. ..
- Karagkounis G, Torbenson M, Daniel H, Azad N, Diaz L, Donehower R, et al. Incidence and prognostic impact of KRAS and BRAF mutation in patients undergoing liver surgery for colorectal metastases. Cancer. 2013;119:4137-44 pubmed publisher..In this study, the incidence and prognostic significance of KRAS and BRAF mutations were determined in patients undergoing surgical therapy of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM)...
- Lin J, Takata M, Murata H, Goto Y, Kido K, Ferrone S, et al. Polyclonality of BRAF mutations in acquired melanocytic nevi. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:1423-7 pubmed publisher..The polyclonality of BRAF mutations in acquired melanocytic nevi suggests that mutation of BRAF may not be an initial event in melanocyte transformation. ..
- Brose M, Volpe P, Feldman M, Kumar M, Rishi I, Gerrero R, et al. BRAF and RAS mutations in human lung cancer and melanoma. Cancer Res. 2002;62:6997-7000 pubmed..Although uncommon, BRAF mutations in human lung cancers may identify a subset of tumors sensitive to targeted therapy. ..
- Loewe R, Kittler H, Fischer G, Fae I, Wolff K, Petzelbauer P. BRAF kinase gene V599E mutation in growing melanocytic lesions. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123:733-6 pubmed..This raises the question if the V599E mutation determines lesions at risk developing into melanoma and if not, what are the mechanisms controlling growth stop in benign lesions? ..
- Johansson P, Pavey S, Hayward N. Confirmation of a BRAF mutation-associated gene expression signature in melanoma. Pigment Cell Res. 2007;20:216-21 pubmed..778; Zurich AUC=0.719; Mannheim AUC=0.564). Taken together, these data support the existence of a BRAF mutation-specific expression signature. ..
- Chou C, Chen R, Chou F, Chang H, Chen Y, Lee Y, et al. miR-146b is highly expressed in adult papillary thyroid carcinomas with high risk features including extrathyroidal invasion and the BRAF(V600E) mutation. Thyroid. 2010;20:489-94 pubmed publisher..Our results show the potential importance of miR-221, miR-222, and miR-146b in determining the aggressive properties of PTCs and highlight the need to identify the gene targets of these miRNAs. ..
- Long G, Menzies A, Nagrial A, Haydu L, Hamilton A, Mann G, et al. Prognostic and clinicopathologic associations of oncogenic BRAF in metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:1239-46 pubmed publisher..The presence of mutant BRAF had no impact on the disease-free interval from diagnosis of first-ever melanoma to first distant metastasis; however, it may have impacted survival thereafter. ..
- Weber C, Slupsky J, Kalmes H, Rapp U. Active Ras induces heterodimerization of cRaf and BRaf. Cancer Res. 2001;61:3595-8 pubmed
- Souglakos J, Philips J, Wang R, Marwah S, Silver M, Tzardi M, et al. Prognostic and predictive value of common mutations for treatment response and survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:465-72 pubmed publisher..The adverse significance of BRAF mutation should inform patient selection and stratification in clinical trials. ..
- Mann G, Pupo G, Campain A, Carter C, Schramm S, Pianova S, et al. BRAF mutation, NRAS mutation, and the absence of an immune-related expressed gene profile predict poor outcome in patients with stage III melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:509-17 pubmed publisher..We conclude that the presence of BRAF mutation, NRAS mutation, and the absence of an immune-related expressed gene profile predict poor outcome in melanoma patients with macroscopic stage III disease. ..
- Casula M, Colombino M, Satta M, Cossu A, Ascierto P, Bianchi Scarra G, et al. BRAF gene is somatically mutated but does not make a major contribution to malignant melanoma susceptibility: the Italian Melanoma Intergroup Study. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:286-92 pubmed..The present study further suggests that patient origin may account for different mutation rates in candidate genes. ..
- Chakravarty D, Santos E, Ryder M, Knauf J, Liao X, West B, et al. Small-molecule MAPK inhibitors restore radioiodine incorporation in mouse thyroid cancers with conditional BRAF activation. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4700-11 pubmed publisher..These findings have potentially significant clinical ramifications. ..
- Ciampi R, Nikiforov Y. RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF mutations in thyroid tumorigenesis. Endocrinology. 2007;148:936-41 pubmed..Molecular inhibitors that block RET/PTC or BRAF kinase activity have shown substantial therapeutic effects in the experimental systems and are currently being tested in clinical trials. ..
- Lee J, Lee E, Kim Y. Clinicopathologic significance of BRAF V600E mutation in papillary carcinomas of the thyroid: a meta-analysis. Cancer. 2007;110:38-46 pubmed..The effect of the BRAF mutation on the poor prognosis of PTC patients was evident from the current meta-analysis. The detection of the BRAF mutation may be used as an important prognostic marker of patients with PTC. ..
- Troncone G, Cozzolino I, Fedele M, Malapelle U, Palombini L. Preparation of thyroid FNA material for routine cytology and BRAF testing: a validation study. Diagn Cytopathol. 2010;38:172-6 pubmed publisher..7%) or without (79/84; 94%) the dedicated pass. Thus, our protocol is suitable for both tests. Whenever necessary BRAF testing may also be performed on the residual samples of thyroid nodules, without interfering with routine cytology. ..
- Wan P, Garnett M, Roe S, Lee S, Niculescu Duvaz D, Good V, et al. Mechanism of activation of the RAF-ERK signaling pathway by oncogenic mutations of B-RAF. Cell. 2004;116:855-67 pubmed..The high activity mutants signal to ERK by directly phosphorylating MEK, whereas the impaired activity mutants stimulate MEK by activating endogenous C-RAF, possibly via an allosteric or transphosphorylation mechanism. ..
- Musholt T, Schönefeld S, Schwarz C, Watzka F, Musholt P, Fottner C, et al. Impact of pathognomonic genetic alterations on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. ESES vienna presentation. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2010;395:877-83 pubmed publisher..This study provides further evidence that patients harboring BRAF-V600E-positive PTCs may experience an unfavorable course of the disease compared to patients with tumors carrying other genetic alterations. ..
- Sahm F, Capper D, Preusser M, Meyer J, Stenzinger A, Lasitschka F, et al. BRAFV600E mutant protein is expressed in cells of variable maturation in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Blood. 2012;120:e28-34 pubmed..In conclusion, we identify and characterize the neoplastic cells in LCH with BRAFV600E mutations by applying a mutation-specific marker and demonstrate feasibility for routine screening. ..
- Davies H, Bignell G, Cox C, Stephens P, Edkins S, Clegg S, et al. Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer. Nature. 2002;417:949-54 pubmed..As BRAF is a serine/threonine kinase that is commonly activated by somatic point mutation in human cancer, it may provide new therapeutic opportunities in malignant melanoma. ..
- Tie J, Gibbs P, Lipton L, Christie M, Jorissen R, Burgess A, et al. Optimizing targeted therapeutic development: analysis of a colorectal cancer patient population with the BRAF(V600E) mutation. Int J Cancer. 2011;128:2075-84 pubmed publisher..Our findings are timely and will help inform the rational development of BRAF(V600E) inhibitors in CRC. ..
- Marchetti I, Lessi F, Mazzanti C, Bertacca G, Elisei R, Coscio G, et al. A morpho-molecular diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma: BRAF V600E detection as an important tool in preoperative evaluation of fine-needle aspirates. Thyroid. 2009;19:837-42 pubmed publisher..The increased sensitivity of this preoperative morpho-molecular analysis should provide information that is useful in deciding the extent of thyroid surgery for thyroid nodules that are indeterminate or suspicious on cytology. ..
- Riesco Eizaguirre G, Rodríguez I, De La Vieja A, Costamagna E, Carrasco N, Nistal M, et al. The BRAFV600E oncogene induces transforming growth factor beta secretion leading to sodium iodide symporter repression and increased malignancy in thyroid cancer. Cancer Res. 2009;69:8317-25 pubmed publisher..Our study describes a novel mechanism of NIS repression in thyroid cancer and provides evidence that TGFbeta may play a key role in promoting radioiodide resistance and tumor invasion during PTC progression. ..
- Koperek O, Kornauth C, Capper D, Berghoff A, Asari R, Niederle B, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of the BRAF V600E-mutated protein in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:844-50 pubmed publisher..Nevertheless, the investigation of BRAF V600E protein expression might be of clinical interest especially in therapy-resistant disease, as new therapeutics inhibiting the mutated protein are clinically available. ..
- Samowitz W, Sweeney C, Herrick J, Albertsen H, Levin T, Murtaugh M, et al. Poor survival associated with the BRAF V600E mutation in microsatellite-stable colon cancers. Cancer Res. 2005;65:6063-9 pubmed
- Hatzivassiliou G, Song K, Yen I, Brandhuber B, Anderson D, Alvarado R, et al. RAF inhibitors prime wild-type RAF to activate the MAPK pathway and enhance growth. Nature. 2010;464:431-5 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, this work provides new insights into the therapeutic use of ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors...
- Karram S, Novy M, Saroufim M, Loya A, Taraif S, Houreih M, et al. Predictors of BRAF mutation in melanocytic nevi: analysis across regions with different UV radiation exposure. Am J Dermatopathol. 2013;35:412-8 pubmed publisher..Increased BRAF mutation with age along with the lack of a UVR magnitude-BRAF mutation association suggests that duration of exposure rather than UVR exposure dose is the more likely link to acquiring the mutation. ..
- Garnett M, Marais R. Guilty as charged: B-RAF is a human oncogene. Cancer Cell. 2004;6:313-9 pubmed..Here we review the rapid progress made in our understanding of B-RAF as an oncogene and of its role in cancer. ..
- Menzies A, Haydu L, Visintin L, Carlino M, Howle J, Thompson J, et al. Distinguishing clinicopathologic features of patients with V600E and V600K BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:3242-9 pubmed publisher..001), or patients with BRAF wild-type melanoma (37%, P < 0.001). Different genotypes exist within BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma, representing biologically and clinically discrete subtypes, suggesting distinct etiology and behavior. ..
- Zhang B, Tang E, Zhu T, Greenberg M, Vojtek A, Guan K. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK phosphorylates and negatively regulates B-Raf. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:31620-6 pubmed..These results indicate that B-Raf kinase activity is negatively regulated by Akt and SGK, suggesting that the cross-talk between the B-Raf and other signaling pathways can be mediated by both Akt and SGK. ..
- Lievre A, Bachet J, Le Corre D, Boige V, Landi B, Emile J, et al. KRAS mutation status is predictive of response to cetuximab therapy in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:3992-5 pubmed..The EGFR amplification, which is not as frequent as initially reported, is also associated with response to this treatment. ..
- Nagasaka T, Koi M, Kloor M, Gebert J, Vilkin A, Nishida N, et al. Mutations in both KRAS and BRAF may contribute to the methylator phenotype in colon cancer. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:1950-60, 1960.e1 pubmed publisher..Additionally, aberrant DNA methylation is a common event not only in sporadic CRC but also in Lynch syndrome CRCs. ..
- Phipps A, Buchanan D, Makar K, Burnett Hartman A, Coghill A, Passarelli M, et al. BRAF mutation status and survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis according to patient and tumor characteristics. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012;21:1792-8 pubmed publisher..The presence of a BRAF c.1799T>A (p.V600E) mutation is associated with significantly poorer prognosis after CRC diagnosis among subgroups of patients. ..
- Calistri D, Rengucci C, Seymour I, Lattuneddu A, Polifemo A, Monti F, et al. Mutation analysis of p53, K-ras, and BRAF genes in colorectal cancer progression. J Cell Physiol. 2005;204:484-8 pubmed
- Di Nicolantonio F, Martini M, Molinari F, Sartore Bianchi A, Arena S, Saletti P, et al. Wild-type BRAF is required for response to panitumumab or cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:5705-12 pubmed publisher..Double-hit therapies aimed at simultaneous inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and BRAF warrant exploration in CRC patients carrying the V600E oncogenic mutation. ..
- Daniels M, Lurkin I, Pauli R, Erbstösser E, Hildebrandt U, Hellwig K, et al. Spectrum of KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF mutations and Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase pathway gene alterations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Cancer Lett. 2011;312:43-54 pubmed publisher..We suggest that BRAF mutations are of pathogenetic significance in wild type GISTs. The PI3K pathway should be assessed in future studies. ..
- Shi H, Moriceau G, Kong X, Lee M, Lee H, Koya R, et al. Melanoma whole-exome sequencing identifies (V600E)B-RAF amplification-mediated acquired B-RAF inhibitor resistance. Nat Commun. 2012;3:724 pubmed publisher..Thus, alternative clinical strategies may potentially overcome distinct modes of extracellular signal-regulated kinase reactivation underlying acquired B-RAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma. ..
- Kalady M, Dejulius K, Sanchez J, Jarrar A, Liu X, Manilich E, et al. BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer are associated with distinct clinical characteristics and worse prognosis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2012;55:128-33 pubmed publisher..79, CI 1.05-3.05, p = 0.03) independent of microsatellite instability status. BRAF mutations in colorectal cancers are associated with distinct clinical characteristics and worse prognosis. ..
- Lubomierski N, Plotz G, Wormek M, Engels K, Kriener S, Trojan J, et al. BRAF mutations in colorectal carcinoma suggest two entities of microsatellite-unstable tumors. Cancer. 2005;104:952-61 pubmed
- Beadling C, Jacobson Dunlop E, Hodi F, Le C, Warrick A, Patterson J, et al. KIT gene mutations and copy number in melanoma subtypes. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:6821-8 pubmed publisher..Screening for KIT mutations may open up new treatment options for melanoma patients. ..
- Zatelli M, Trasforini G, Leoni S, Frigato G, Buratto M, Tagliati F, et al. BRAF V600E mutation analysis increases diagnostic accuracy for papillary thyroid carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;161:467-73 pubmed publisher..3 to 86.7% (P<0.01). These data indicate that BRAF V600E mutation analysis can significantly improve FNAB diagnostic accuracy. However, biomolecular analysis is complementary to cytology, which should always be performed. ..
- Maddodi N, Huang W, Havighurst T, Kim K, Longley B, Setaluri V. Induction of autophagy and inhibition of melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo by hyperactivation of oncogenic BRAF. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:1657-67 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that high oncogenic BRAF levels trigger autophagy, which may have a role in melanoma tumor progression. ..
- de Vogel S, Weijenberg M, Herman J, Wouters K, de Goeij A, van den Brandt P, et al. MGMT and MLH1 promoter methylation versus APC, KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in colorectal cancer: indications for distinct pathways and sequence of events. Ann Oncol. 2009;20:1216-22 pubmed publisher..MLH1-hypermethylated tumors harbor fewer APC and KRAS mutations and more BRAF mutations, suggesting that they develop distinctly from an MGMT methylator pathway. ..
- Gessi M, Lambert S, Lauriola L, Waha A, Collins V, Pietsch T. Absence of KIAA1549-BRAF fusion in rosette-forming glioneuronal tumors of the fourth ventricle (RGNT). J Neurooncol. 2012;110:21-5 pubmed publisher..Our data support the hypothesis that RGNT may represent a distinct entity among the glioneuronal tumors of the central nervous system, with molecular features different from pilocytic astrocytomas. ..
- Weber A, Langhanki L, Sommerer F, Markwarth A, Wittekind C, Tannapfel A. Mutations of the BRAF gene in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Oncogene. 2003;22:4757-9 pubmed..Our data indicate that BRAF gene mutations are relatively rare events in HNSCC. Although uncommon, BRAF mutations may identify a subset of patients with HNSCC sensitive to targeted therapy. ..
- Rajakulendran T, Sahmi M, Lefrancois M, Sicheri F, Therrien M. A dimerization-dependent mechanism drives RAF catalytic activation. Nature. 2009;461:542-5 pubmed publisher..Together, our data identify the side-to-side dimer interface of RAF as a potential therapeutic target for intervention in BRAF-dependent tumorigenesis. ..
- Spendlove H, Damato B, Humphreys J, Barker K, Hiscott P, Houlston R. BRAF mutations are detectable in conjunctival but not uveal melanomas. Melanoma Res. 2004;14:449-52 pubmed..We conclude that uveal melanomas arise independently of oncogenic BRAF mutations, but the development of a proportion of conjunctival tumours involves mutation of this gene...
- Lazar V, Ecsedi S, Szöllosi A, Toth R, Vizkeleti L, Rakosy Z, et al. Characterization of candidate gene copy number alterations in the 11q13 region along with BRAF and NRAS mutations in human melanoma. Mod Pathol. 2009;22:1367-78 pubmed publisher..028). We assume that co-amplification of these candidate genes in the 11q13 region or CCND1 gene alterations along with either BRAF or NRAS mutations might be more important for prognosis than the presence of these alterations alone. ..
- Jeong D, Jeong Y, Park J, Han S, Kim S, Kim Y, et al. BRAF (V600E) mutation analysis in papillary thyroid carcinomas by peptide nucleic acid clamp real-time PCR. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013;20:759-66 pubmed publisher..The PNA clamp real-time PCR method for the BRAF (V600E) mutation detection is sensitive and is applicable in a clinical setting. ..
- Nikiforova M, Kimura E, Gandhi M, Biddinger P, Knauf J, Basolo F, et al. BRAF mutations in thyroid tumors are restricted to papillary carcinomas and anaplastic or poorly differentiated carcinomas arising from papillary carcinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:5399-404 pubmed..They are associated with distinct phenotypical and biological properties of papillary carcinomas and may participate in progression to poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas. ..
- Kim S, Kim D, Han H, Kim W, Kim S, Moon W, et al. Pyrosequencing analysis for detection of a BRAFV600E mutation in an FNAB specimen of thyroid nodules. Diagn Mol Pathol. 2008;17:118-25 pubmed publisher..25). Detecting BRAF mutation by pyrosequencing is more sensitive, faster, and less expensive than direct DNA sequencing and is proposed as an adjunct diagnostic tool in evaluating thyroid nodules of indeterminate cytology. ..
- Pentheroudakis G, Kotoula V, De Roock W, Kouvatseas G, Papakostas P, Makatsoris T, et al. Biomarkers of benefit from cetuximab-based therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer: interaction of EGFR ligand expression with RAS/RAF, PIK3CA genotypes. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:49 pubmed publisher..AREG mRNA reflects EGFR signalling in KRAS wild type tumours, predicting for cetuximab efficacy when high and failure when low. EREG may have a prognostic role independent of KRAS mutation. ..
- Xing M. Prognostic utility of BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;321:86-93 pubmed publisher..Use of this unique molecular marker, in conjunction with conventional clinicopathological risk factors, to assist the prognostication of PTC is likely to improve the efficiency of contemporary management of thyroid cancer. ..
- Roden A, Hu X, Kip S, PARRILLA CASTELLAR E, Rumilla K, Vrana J, et al. BRAF V600E expression in Langerhans cell histiocytosis: clinical and immunohistochemical study on 25 pulmonary and 54 extrapulmonary cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38:548-51 pubmed publisher..4%). In conclusion, a subset of PLCH with BRAF V600E expression may be a clonal proliferative process, in which cigarette smoking might play a role. ..
- Reuter C, Catling A, Jelinek T, Weber M. Biochemical analysis of MEK activation in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Identification of B-Raf and other activators. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:7644-55 pubmed..These data provide direct evidence that 93-95-kDa B-Raf isozymes and an unidentified 40-50-kDa MEK activator are major agonist-specific MEK activators in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. ..
- Domingo E, Espin E, Armengol M, Oliveira C, Pinto M, Duval A, et al. Activated BRAF targets proximal colon tumors with mismatch repair deficiency and MLH1 inactivation. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2004;39:138-42 pubmed
- Goutas N, Vlachodimitropoulos D, Bouka M, Lazaris A, Nasioulas G, Gazouli M. BRAF and K-RAS mutation in a Greek papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma cohort. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:305-8 pubmed..No significant association between K-RAS and BRAF mutations and clinicopathological parameters was found. These data indicate that K-RAS and BRAF mutations were a frequent genetic event in our samples of sporadic PTC and MTC. ..
- Mao C, Zhou J, Yang Z, Huang Y, Wu X, Shen H, et al. KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations and the loss of PTEN expression in Chinese patients with colorectal cancer. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36653 pubmed publisher..Further studies are warranted to examine their impact on prognosis and response to targeted treatment. ..
- Dougherty M, Santi M, Brose M, Ma C, Resnick A, Sievert A, et al. Activating mutations in BRAF characterize a spectrum of pediatric low-grade gliomas. Neuro Oncol. 2010;12:621-30 pubmed publisher..BRAF mutations constitute a major genetic alteration in this histologic group of pediatric brain tumors and may serve as a molecular target for biologically based inhibitors. ..
- Qi R, He L, Zheng S, Hong Y, Ma L, Zhang S, et al. BRAF exon 15 T1799A mutation is common in melanocytic nevi, but less prevalent in cutaneous malignant melanoma, in Chinese Han. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:1129-38 pubmed publisher..The mutation rate in MM was not affected by region, histological type, gender, pattern of UV exposure, and age. The study suggests that the mutation is not necessarily associated with malignant transformation. ..
- Clancy C, Burke J, Kalady M, Coffey J. BRAF mutation is associated with distinct clinicopathological characteristics in colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Colorectal Dis. 2013;15:e711-8 pubmed publisher..453, 95% CI 0.280-0.733, P = 0.001) and rectal cancer (OR 0.266, 95% CI 0.122-0.422, P < 0.001). BRAF mutation appears to be associated with distinct, unfavourable clinicopathological characteristics in colorectal cancer. ..
- French A, Sargent D, Burgart L, Foster N, Kabat B, Goldberg R, et al. Prognostic significance of defective mismatch repair and BRAF V600E in patients with colon cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:3408-15 pubmed publisher..Results remained significant (P = 0.006) when the two groups were combined for analysis. Overall, these data suggest that the underlying molecular etiology of those tumors having dMMR may influence the disease outcome in these patients. ..