Gene Symbol: B-Raf
Description: B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase
Alias: B-RAF1, B-raf, BRAF1, NS7, RAFB1, serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf, 94 kDa B-raf protein, B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (p94), B-Raf serine/threonine-protein, murine sarcoma viral (v-raf) oncogene homolog B1, proto-oncogene B-Raf, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1
Species: human
Products:     B-Raf

Top Publications

  1. Gouveia C, Can N, Bostrom A, Grenert J, van Zante A, Orloff L. Lack of association of BRAF mutation with negative prognostic indicators in papillary thyroid carcinoma: the University of California, San Francisco, experience. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;139:1164-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In this, the largest US study to date, BRAF status was not significantly associated with most clinicopathologic features suggestive of more aggressive disease. ..
  2. Klein R, Spofford L, Abel E, Ortiz A, Aplin A. B-RAF regulation of Rnd3 participates in actin cytoskeletal and focal adhesion organization. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:498-508 pubmed
    ..Together, our results identify Rnd3 as a regulator of cross talk between the RAF/MEK/ERK and Rho/ROCK signaling pathways, and a key contributor to oncogene-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions. ..
  3. Li C, Lee K, Schneider E, Zeiger M. BRAF V600E mutation and its association with clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:4559-70 pubmed publisher
  4. Knauf J, Sartor M, Medvedovic M, Lundsmith E, Ryder M, Salzano M, et al. Progression of BRAF-induced thyroid cancer is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition requiring concomitant MAP kinase and TGFβ signaling. Oncogene. 2011;30:3153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, tumor initiation by oncogenic BRAF renders thyroid cells susceptible to TGFβ-induced EMT, through a MAPK-dependent process. ..
  5. Stanojevic B, Dzodic R, Saenko V, Milovanovic Z, Pupic G, Zivkovic O, et al. Mutational and clinico-pathological analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma in Serbia. Endocr J. 2011;58:381-93 pubmed
    ..However, it has a potential to contribute to patients stratification into high- and low-risk groups. ..
  6. Bagadi S, Sanghvi M, Nair S, Das B. Combined mutational analysis of KRAS, NRAS and BRAF genes in Indian patients with colorectal carcinoma. Int J Biol Markers. 2012;27:27-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, combined evaluation of genetic biomarkers (KRAS, NRAS and BRAF) was able to classify 42% of colorectal cancer patients as likely non-responders to anti-EGFR therapy...
  7. Colanta A, Lin O, Tafe L, Ghossein R, Nafa K, Mitchell T, et al. BRAF mutation analysis of fine-needle aspiration biopsies of papillary thyroid carcinoma: impact on diagnosis and prognosis. Acta Cytol. 2011;55:563-9 pubmed publisher
    ..BRAF mutation analysis did not provide a significant increase in the accuracy of thyroid FNABs diagnosed as suspicious or atypical in our institution. ..
  8. Hou P, Liu D, Xing M. Genome-wide alterations in gene methylation by the BRAF V600E mutation in papillary thyroid cancer cells. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2011;18:687-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study uncovered a prominent epigenetic mechanism through which BRAF V600E can promote PTC tumorigenesis by altering the methylation and hence the expression of numerous important genes. ..
  9. Kim T, Park Y, Lim J, Ahn H, Lee E, Lee Y, et al. The association of the BRAF(V600E) mutation with prognostic factors and poor clinical outcome in papillary thyroid cancer: a meta-analysis. Cancer. 2012;118:1764-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained here suggest that the BRAF(V600E) mutation should be considered as a poor prognostic marker in PTC and may lead to better management for individual patients. ..

More Information

Publications414 found, 100 shown here

  1. Kim S, Lee K, Myong J, Park J, Jeon Y, Min H, et al. BRAF V600E mutation is associated with tumor aggressiveness in papillary thyroid cancer. World J Surg. 2012;36:310-7 pubmed publisher
    ..001). The BRAF(V600E) mutation was associated with high-risk clinicopathologic characteristics in patients with PTC. The BRAF(V600E) mutation may be a potential prognostic factor in PTC patients. ..
  2. Lee E, Song K, Kim D, Jang Y, Hwang T, Kim S. The BRAF(V600E) mutation is associated with malignant ultrasonographic features in thyroid nodules. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2011;75:844-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in US-guided FNAB can improve the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid nodules. ..
  3. Koperek O, Kornauth C, Capper D, Berghoff A, Asari R, Niederle B, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of the BRAF V600E-mutated protein in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:844-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the investigation of BRAF V600E protein expression might be of clinical interest especially in therapy-resistant disease, as new therapeutics inhibiting the mutated protein are clinically available. ..
  4. Matsuse M, Mitsutake N, Tanimura S, Ogi T, Nishihara E, Hirokawa M, et al. Functional characterization of the novel BRAF complex mutation, BRAF(V600delinsYM) , identified in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:738-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the novel BRAF mutation, BRAF(V600delinsYM) , is a gain-of-function mutation and plays an important role in PTC development. ..
  5. Mathur A, Moses W, Rahbari R, Khanafshar E, Duh Q, Clark O, et al. Higher rate of BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer over time: a single-institution study. Cancer. 2011;117:4390-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that a higher rate of BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer may contribute to the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer. ..
  6. de Biase D, Cesari V, Visani M, Casadei G, Cremonini N, Gandolfi G, et al. High-sensitivity BRAF mutation analysis: BRAF V600E is acquired early during tumor development but is heterogeneously distributed in a subset of papillary thyroid carcinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:E1530-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05). BRAF V600E is heterogeneously distributed in some PTCs. The large BRAF V600E neoplastic cell subpopulations found in mutated cases is consistent with the view that the BRAF V600E is acquired early during PTC development. ..
  7. Girotti M, Pedersen M, Sanchez Laorden B, Viros A, Turajlic S, Niculescu Duvaz D, et al. Inhibiting EGF receptor or SRC family kinase signaling overcomes BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma. Cancer Discov. 2013;3:158-67 pubmed publisher
  8. Dougherty M, Santi M, Brose M, Ma C, Resnick A, Sievert A, et al. Activating mutations in BRAF characterize a spectrum of pediatric low-grade gliomas. Neuro Oncol. 2010;12:621-30 pubmed publisher
    ..BRAF mutations constitute a major genetic alteration in this histologic group of pediatric brain tumors and may serve as a molecular target for biologically based inhibitors. ..
  9. Xing M, Liu R, Liu X, Murugan A, Zhu G, Zeiger M, et al. BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations cooperatively identify the most aggressive papillary thyroid cancer with highest recurrence. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32:2718-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Coexisting BRAF V600E and TERT C228T mutations form a novel genetic background that defines PTC with the worst clinicopathologic outcomes, providing unique prognostic and therapeutic implications. ..
  10. Shull A, Latham Schwark A, Ramasamy P, Leskoske K, Oroian D, Birtwistle M, et al. Novel somatic mutations to PI3K pathway genes in metastatic melanoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43369 pubmed publisher
    ..They therefore may be potential chemotherapeutic targets for melanoma patients who exhibit resistance to BRAF(V600) inhibitors. ..
  11. Guerra A, Sapio M, Marotta V, Campanile E, Rossi S, Forno I, et al. The primary occurrence of BRAF(V600E) is a rare clonal event in papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:517-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that BRAF mutation in PTC is a later subclonal event, its intratumoral heterogeneity may hamper the efficacy of targeted pharmacotherapy, and its association with a more aggressive disease should be reevaluated. ..
  12. Chen B, Tardell C, Higgins B, Packman K, Boylan J, Niu H. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42598 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways. ..
  13. Siroy A, Boland G, Milton D, Roszik J, Frankian S, Malke J, et al. Beyond BRAF(V600): clinical mutation panel testing by next-generation sequencing in advanced melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:508-515 pubmed publisher
    ..These results enrich our understanding of the patterns and clinical associations of oncogenic mutations in melanoma. ..
  14. Baquero P, Sánchez Hernández I, Jiménez Mora E, Orgaz J, Jimenez B, Chiloeches A. (V600E)BRAF promotes invasiveness of thyroid cancer cells by decreasing E-cadherin expression through a Snail-dependent mechanism. Cancer Lett. 2013;335:232-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a novel (V600E)BRAF-induced mechanism in thyroid tumours progression and provides a rationale for using the PLX4720 inhibitor to target (V600E)BRAF signalling to effectively control progression of thyroid cancer. ..
  15. Elisei R, Viola D, Torregrossa L, Giannini R, Romei C, Ugolini C, et al. The BRAF(V600E) mutation is an independent, poor prognostic factor for the outcome of patients with low-risk intrathyroid papillary thyroid carcinoma: single-institution results from a large cohort study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:4390-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, the high negative predictive value of the BRAF(V600E) mutation could be useful to identify, among low-risk PTC patients, those who could avoid 131-I treatment. ..
  16. Bozzao C, Varvara D, Piglionica M, Bagnulo R, Forte G, Patruno M, et al. Survey of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutational status in 209 consecutive Italian colorectal cancer patients. Int J Biol Markers. 2012;27:e366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Further correlations of specific clinical features with tumor mutational profile could be helpful to predict the response of CRC patients to monoclonal antibody therapy...
  17. Ogino S, Shima K, Meyerhardt J, McCleary N, Ng K, Hollis D, et al. Predictive and prognostic roles of BRAF mutation in stage III colon cancer: results from intergroup trial CALGB 89803. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:890-900 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effect of BRAF mutation on survival and treatment efficacy in patients with stage III colon cancer...
  18. Guerra A, Fugazzola L, Marotta V, Cirillo M, Rossi S, Cirello V, et al. A high percentage of BRAFV600E alleles in papillary thyroid carcinoma predicts a poorer outcome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:2333-40 pubmed publisher
    ..002). A high percentage of BRAF(V600E) alleles defines a PTC molecular subtype and predicts a poorer disease outcome. The analysis of BRAF mutations by pyrosequencing is useful to refine the risk stratification of patients with PTC. ..
  19. Tufano R, Bishop J, Wu G. Reoperative central compartment dissection for patients with recurrent/persistent papillary thyroid cancer: efficacy, safety, and the association of the BRAF mutation. Laryngoscope. 2012;122:1634-40 pubmed publisher
  20. Tufano R, Teixeira G, Bishop J, Carson K, Xing M. BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer and its value in tailoring initial treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2012;91:274-86 pubmed publisher
  21. Xing M, Alzahrani A, Carson K, Viola D, Elisei R, Bendlova B, et al. Association between BRAF V600E mutation and mortality in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. JAMA. 2013;309:1493-501 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support further investigation of the prognostic and therapeutic implications of BRAF V600E status in PTC. ..
  22. Pai R, Jayachandran P, Koong A, Chang D, Kwok S, Ma L, et al. BRAF-mutated, microsatellite-stable adenocarcinoma of the proximal colon: an aggressive adenocarcinoma with poor survival, mucinous differentiation, and adverse morphologic features. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:744-52 pubmed publisher
  23. Tang K, Lee C. BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma: pathogenic role and clinical implications. J Chin Med Assoc. 2010;73:113-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we review the pathogenesis of PTC, and the clinical implications of BRAF(V600E) mutation in the diagnosis, prognosis and potential targeted therapeutic strategies for thyroid cancers. ..
  24. Corcoran R, Dias Santagata D, Bergethon K, Iafrate A, Settleman J, Engelman J. BRAF gene amplification can promote acquired resistance to MEK inhibitors in cancer cells harboring the BRAF V600E mutation. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra84 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate BRAF amplification as a mechanism of resistance to both MEK and BRAF inhibitors and suggest combined MEK and BRAF inhibition as a clinical strategy to overcome, or possibly prevent, this mechanism of resistance. ..
  25. Lasota J, Kowalik A, Wasag B, Wang Z, Felisiak Golabek A, Coates T, et al. Detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in colon carcinoma: critical evaluation of the imunohistochemical approach. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38:1235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Although VE1 antibody can be useful in the screening of colon carcinomas for BRAF V600E-mutant proteins, molecular genetic confirmation is always necessary for mutation diagnosis. ..
  26. Platz A, Egyhazi S, Ringborg U, Hansson J. Human cutaneous melanoma; a review of NRAS and BRAF mutation frequencies in relation to histogenetic subclass and body site. Mol Oncol. 2008;1:395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Common alterations of the signal transducing network seem to represent molecular hallmarks of cutaneous melanomas and therefore should continue to strongly stimulate design and testing of targeted molecular interventions. ..
  27. Hao H, Muniz Medina V, Mehta H, Thomas N, Khazak V, Der C, et al. Context-dependent roles of mutant B-Raf signaling in melanoma and colorectal carcinoma cell growth. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:2220-9 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that Raf and MEK inhibitors may be effective for the treatment of B-RAF mutation-positive colorectal carcinomas as well as melanomas. ..
  28. Carr N, Mahajan H, Tan K, Hawkins N, Ward R. Serrated and non-serrated polyps of the colorectum: their prevalence in an unselected case series and correlation of BRAF mutation analysis with the diagnosis of sessile serrated adenoma. J Clin Pathol. 2009;62:516-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence of colorectal polyps of different types in an unselected population, and to correlate the morphological diagnoses with BRAF mutation analysis...
  29. Lurkin I, Stoehr R, Hurst C, van Tilborg A, Knowles M, Hartmann A, et al. Two multiplex assays that simultaneously identify 22 possible mutation sites in the KRAS, BRAF, NRAS and PIK3CA genes. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8802 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, these assays are cheaper and easier to interpret. The assays may also be of use for selection of patients with other tumor types. ..
  30. Sievert A, Lang S, Boucher K, Madsen P, Slaunwhite E, Choudhari N, et al. Paradoxical activation and RAF inhibitor resistance of BRAF protein kinase fusions characterizing pediatric astrocytomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5957-62 pubmed publisher
  31. Giordano T, Kuick R, Thomas D, Misek D, Vinco M, Sanders D, et al. Molecular classification of papillary thyroid carcinoma: distinct BRAF, RAS, and RET/PTC mutation-specific gene expression profiles discovered by DNA microarray analysis. Oncogene. 2005;24:6646-56 pubmed
  32. Ihle M, Fassunke J, König K, Grünewald I, Schlaak M, Kreuzberg N, et al. Comparison of high resolution melting analysis, pyrosequencing, next generation sequencing and immunohistochemistry to conventional Sanger sequencing for the detection of p.V600E and non-p.V600E BRAF mutations. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:13 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, at present, a combination of HRM and IHC is recommended to increase sensitivity and specificity for routine diagnostic to fulfill the European requirements concerning vemurafenib therapy of melanoma patients. ..
  33. Jung C, Im S, Kang Y, Lee H, Jung E, Kang C, et al. Mutational patterns and novel mutations of the BRAF gene in a large cohort of Korean patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid. 2012;22:791-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the prevalence of BRAF mutation in microcarcinoma and follicular variants of PTC is relatively high in Korea and its analysis may be clinically useful for managing the patients. ..
  34. Deichmann M, Krahl D, Thome M, Wüst K, Hassanzadeh J, Helmke B. The oncogenic B-raf V599E mutation occurs more frequently in melanomas at sun-protected body sites. Int J Oncol. 2006;29:139-45 pubmed
    ..038; odds ratio, 7.59). Our observation parallels the epidemiological data of intermittent sunlight exposure on unacclimatised skin increasing the risk of melanoma development. ..
  35. Chang Y, Chang S, Yeh K, Lin T, Chang J. RAS, BRAF, and TP53 gene mutations in Taiwanese colorectal cancer patients. Onkologie. 2013;36:719-24 pubmed publisher
    ..036). The KRAS mutation is not present in about one-third of CRC patients, and therefore other gene mutations need to be investigated to better understand the molecular mechanisms of CRC and its treatment. ..
  36. Kansal R, Quintanilla Martinez L, Datta V, Lopategui J, Garshfield G, Nathwani B. Identification of the V600D mutation in Exon 15 of the BRAF oncogene in congenital, benign langerhans cell histiocytosis. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013;52:99-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional clinicopathologic studies in larger numbers of LCH patients may be valuable to ascertain the pathophysiologic role of BRAF mutations in LCH. ..
  37. Maat W, Kilic E, Luyten G, de Klein A, Jager M, Gruis N, et al. Pyrophosphorolysis detects B-RAF mutations in primary uveal melanoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49:23-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the relative scarcity of the B-RAF mutation excludes an elemental role for this mutation in uveal melanoma. ..
  38. Yuan Z, Wang X, Qin Q, Chen D, Zhong Q, Wang L, et al. The prognostic role of BRAF mutation in metastatic colorectal cancer receiving anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies: a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65995 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional large prospective trials are required to confirm the predictive role of BRAF status. ..
  39. Mason C, Springer C, Cooper R, Superti Furga G, Marshall C, Marais R. Serine and tyrosine phosphorylations cooperate in Raf-1, but not B-Raf activation. EMBO J. 1999;18:2137-48 pubmed
    ..Thus, there are considerable differences between the activation of the Raf proteins; Ras-GTP mediates two phosphorylation events required for Raf-1 activation but does not regulate such events for B-Raf. ..
  40. Edlundh Rose E, Egyhazi S, Omholt K, Månsson Brahme E, Platz A, Hansson J, et al. NRAS and BRAF mutations in melanoma tumours in relation to clinical characteristics: a study based on mutation screening by pyrosequencing. Melanoma Res. 2006;16:471-8 pubmed
    ..7). In conclusion, the separate genotypes were associated with differences in several key clinical and pathological parameters, indicating differences in the biology of melanoma tumours with different proto-oncogene mutations. ..
  41. Dias Santagata D, Lam Q, Vernovsky K, Vena N, Lennerz J, Borger D, et al. BRAF V600E mutations are common in pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17948 pubmed publisher
    ..1%) giant cell GBM (gcGBM). The finding that BRAF V600E mutations are common in the majority of PXA has important therapeutic implications and may help in differentiating less aggressive PXAs from lethal gcGBMs and GBMs. ..
  42. Daniotti M, Vallacchi V, Rivoltini L, Patuzzo R, Santinami M, Arienti F, et al. Detection of mutated BRAFV600E variant in circulating DNA of stage III-IV melanoma patients. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:2439-44 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this method can be utilized for monitoring the disease in stage IV melanoma patients but it appears unsatisfactory for the early detection of melanoma. ..
  43. Liao W, Liao Y, Zhou J, Xie J, Chen J, Huang W, et al. Gene mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor signaling network and their association with survival in Chinese patients with metastatic colorectal cancers. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1506-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that EGFR signaling network genes are frequently mutated in Chinese mCRC patients, and these gene mutations do not seem to be associated with patients' overall survival. ..
  44. Oxnard G, Binder A, Janne P. New targetable oncogenes in non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2013;31:1097-104 pubmed publisher
  45. Dhomen N, Marais R. BRAF signaling and targeted therapies in melanoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2009;23:529-45, ix pubmed publisher
    ..The authors discuss what they learned from clinical trials using first- and second-generation inhibitors to this pathway. ..
  46. Kim Y, Kakar S, Cun L, Deng G, Kim Y. Distinct CpG island methylation profiles and BRAF mutation status in serrated and adenomatous colorectal polyps. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:2587-93 pubmed publisher
    ..BRAF mutation occurs independently of CIMP and MSI in all types of serrated polyps and may serve as a marker of serrated pathway of colorectal carcinogenesis. ..
  47. Garnett M, Rana S, Paterson H, Barford D, Marais R. Wild-type and mutant B-RAF activate C-RAF through distinct mechanisms involving heterodimerization. Mol Cell. 2005;20:963-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, we have identified a B-RAF-C-RAF-MEK-ERK cascade that signals not only in cancer but also in normal cells. ..
  48. Sensi M, Nicolini G, Petti C, Bersani I, Lozupone F, Molla A, et al. Mutually exclusive NRASQ61R and BRAFV600E mutations at the single-cell level in the same human melanoma. Oncogene. 2006;25:3357-64 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the presence of NRASQ61R or BRAFV600E is associated with distinct in vitro and in vivo growth properties of neoplastic cells. ..
  49. Michaloglou C, Vredeveld L, Soengas M, Denoyelle C, Kuilman T, van der Horst C, et al. BRAFE600-associated senescence-like cell cycle arrest of human naevi. Nature. 2005;436:720-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, both in vitro and in vivo, BRAF(V600E)-expressing melanocytes display classical hallmarks of senescence, suggesting that oncogene-induced senescence represents a genuine protective physiological process. ..
  50. Li H, Lu Y, An Y, Wang X, Zhao Q. KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations in human colorectal cancer: relationship with metastatic colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep. 2011;25:1691-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, our data indicated that colorectal cancers with KRAS and PIK3CA bi-mutations are more likely to develop into liver metastasis. ..
  51. Kim I, Park J, Kang H, Shin Y, Park H, Park H, et al. Mutational analysis of BRAF and K-ras in gastric cancers: absence of BRAF mutations in gastric cancers. Hum Genet. 2003;114:118-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, BRAF mutations, which are present in a variety of other human cancers, do not seem to be involved in gastric cancer development. ..
  52. Lin C, Lin J, Lin T, Chen W, Yang S, Wang H, et al. The prognostic role of microsatellite instability, codon-specific KRAS, and BRAF mutations in colon cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2014;110:451-7 pubmed publisher
    ..MSI and the BRAF(V600E) mutation have a prognostic impact in colon cancer. Variable KRAS mutations may have different effects on colon cancers; further studies are needed to verify these results. ..
  53. Klein O, Clements A, Menzies A, O Toole S, Kefford R, Long G. BRAF inhibitor activity in V600R metastatic melanoma. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:1073-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our experience suggests that patients with V600R BRAF mutations can be treated successfully with oral BRAF inhibitors, and molecular diagnostic assays should include detection of this type of mutation. ..
  54. Nam S, Han B, Ko E, Kang S, Hahn S, Hwang J, et al. BRAF V600E mutation analysis of thyroid nodules needle aspirates in relation to their ultrasongraphic classification: a potential guide for selection of samples for molecular analysis. Thyroid. 2010;20:273-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of the AS-PCR is more valuable as compared with the direct DNA sequencing to refine the diagnosis in a clinical setting. ..
  55. De Roock W, Claes B, Bernasconi D, De Schutter J, Biesmans B, Fountzilas G, et al. Effects of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective consortium analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:753-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Objective response rates could be improved by additional genotyping of BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA exon 20 mutations in a KRAS wild-type population. Belgian Federation against Cancer (Stichting tegen Kanker). ..
  56. Affolter K, Samowitz W, Tripp S, Bronner M. BRAF V600E mutation detection by immunohistochemistry in colorectal carcinoma. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013;52:748-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall sensitivity and specificity of the immunohistochemical BRAF V600E assay was 100%. Detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in colorectal cancer by immunohistochemistry is a viable alternative to molecular methods. ..
  57. De Falco V, Giannini R, Tamburrino A, Ugolini C, Lupi C, Puxeddu E, et al. Functional characterization of the novel T599I-VKSRdel BRAF mutation in a follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:4398-402 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings underscore the importance of functional studies to characterize the role of BRAF mutations associated with thyroid cancer. ..
  58. Vaughn C, Zobell S, Furtado L, Baker C, Samowitz W. Frequency of KRAS, BRAF, and NRAS mutations in colorectal cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011;50:307-12 pubmed publisher
  59. Greene V, Johnson M, Grimm E, Ellerhorst J. Frequencies of NRAS and BRAF mutations increase from the radial to the vertical growth phase in cutaneous melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:1483-8 pubmed publisher
    ..JID JOURNAL CLUB ARTICLE: For questions, answers, and open discussion about this article, please go to http://network.nature.com/group/jidclub. ..
  60. Hwang J, Shin J, Han B, Ko E, Kang S, Kim J, et al. Papillary thyroid carcinoma with BRAFV600E mutation: sonographic prediction. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;194:W425-30 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these findings are not specific enough to predict the presence or absence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation of a papillary thyroid carcinoma. ..
  61. Heinzerling L, Baiter M, Kühnapfel S, Schuler G, Keikavoussi P, Agaimy A, et al. Mutation landscape in melanoma patients clinical implications of heterogeneity of BRAF mutations. Br J Cancer. 2013;109:2833-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of heterogeneity in testing and for clinical response to therapy with a BRAF inhibitor needs to be further investigated. ..
  62. Narumi Y, Aoki Y, Niihori T, Neri G, Cave H, Verloes A, et al. Molecular and clinical characterization of cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome: overlapping clinical manifestations with Costello syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2007;143A:799-807 pubmed
  63. Feller J, Yang S, Mahalingam M. Immunohistochemistry with a mutation-specific monoclonal antibody as a screening tool for the BRAFV600E mutational status in primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. Mod Pathol. 2013;26:414-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings from the current study support the potential use of immunohistochemistry as an ancillary screening tool to assess the BRAFV600E mutation status in primary cutaneous melanoma. ..
  64. Papp T, Schipper H, Kumar K, Schiffmann D, Zimmermann R. Mutational analysis of the BRAF gene in human congenital and dysplastic melanocytic naevi. Melanoma Res. 2005;15:401-7 pubmed
    ..4%) and five of 18 DMN (27.7%) harboured either BRAF or N-ras mutations. As the BRAF oncogene is frequently found to be mutated in human cutaneous melanomas, it may constitute a risk factor for melanoma formation within CMN and DMN. ..
  65. Basolo F, Torregrossa L, Giannini R, Miccoli M, Lupi C, Sensi E, et al. Correlation between the BRAF V600E mutation and tumor invasiveness in papillary thyroid carcinomas smaller than 20 millimeters: analysis of 1060 cases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:4197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..3 and 67.5%, respectively). We suggest that evaluation of BRAF status would be useful even in pT1 tumors to improve risk stratification and patient management, although follow-up data are necessary to confirm our speculations. ..
  66. Bauer J, Buttner P, Murali R, Okamoto I, Kolaitis N, Landi M, et al. BRAF mutations in cutaneous melanoma are independently associated with age, anatomic site of the primary tumor, and the degree of solar elastosis at the primary tumor site. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011;24:345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of anatomic site on the mutation spectrum further suggests regional differences among cutaneous melanocytes. ..
  67. Colombino M, Sperlongano P, Izzo F, Tatangelo F, Botti G, Lombardi A, et al. BRAF and PIK3CA genes are somatically mutated in hepatocellular carcinoma among patients from South Italy. Cell Death Dis. 2012;3:e259 pubmed publisher
  68. Popovici V, Budinska E, Tejpar S, Weinrich S, Estrella H, Hodgson G, et al. Identification of a poor-prognosis BRAF-mutant-like population of patients with colon cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:1288-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may guide therapeutic strategies for this patient segment and may help in population stratification for clinical trials. ..
  69. Hinoue T, Weisenberger D, Pan F, Campan M, Kim M, Young J, et al. Analysis of the association between CIMP and BRAF in colorectal cancer by DNA methylation profiling. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8357 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data will be useful for future investigations toward understanding CIMP in colorectal cancer and gaining insights into the role of aberrant DNA hypermethylation in colorectal tumorigenesis. ..
  70. Kakar S, Deng G, Sahai V, Matsuzaki K, Tanaka H, Miura S, et al. Clinicopathologic characteristics, CpG island methylator phenotype, and BRAF mutations in microsatellite-stable colorectal cancers without chromosomal instability. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008;132:958-64 pubmed publisher
    ..BRAF mutations in MSS cases are associated with high levels of chromosomal instability that are likely responsible for the adverse outcomes in these cases. ..
  71. Kim S, Lee J, Kim J, Ki C, Oh Y, Choi Y, et al. BRAFV600E mutation analysis in fine-needle aspiration cytology specimens for evaluation of thyroid nodule: a large series in a BRAFV600E-prevalent population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:3693-700 pubmed publisher
    ..However, when using this potentially powerful technique, we must consider both its strengths and its weaknesses. ..
  72. Curtin K, Samowitz W, Wolff R, Herrick J, Caan B, Slattery M. Somatic alterations, metabolizing genes and smoking in rectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..ETS may increase risk of KRAS2 mutations; association with TP53 mutations and ETS may be influenced by NAT2. ..
  73. Samowitz W, Curtin K, Wolff R, Tripp S, Caan B, Slattery M. Microsatellite instability and survival in rectal cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20:1763-8 pubmed publisher
  74. Oliveira C, Pinto M, Duval A, Brennetot C, Domingo E, Espin E, et al. BRAF mutations characterize colon but not gastric cancer with mismatch repair deficiency. Oncogene. 2003;22:9192-6 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, our results show evidences that BRAF mutations characterize colon but not gastric tumors with MMR deficiency and are not involved in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer of the mutator phenotype pathway. ..
  75. Tsao H, Goel V, Wu H, Yang G, Haluska F. Genetic interaction between NRAS and BRAF mutations and PTEN/MMAC1 inactivation in melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;122:337-41 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest the existence of possible cooperation between BRAF activation and PTEN loss in melanoma development. ..
  76. Poynter J, Elder J, Fullen D, Nair R, Soengas M, Johnson T, et al. BRAF and NRAS mutations in melanoma and melanocytic nevi. Melanoma Res. 2006;16:267-73 pubmed
    ..We suggest that BRAF mutations contribute to benign melanocytic hyperplasia, but are likely to contribute to invasive melanoma only in conjunction with other mutations. ..
  77. Liu W, Kelly J, Trivett M, Murray W, Dowling J, Wolfe R, et al. Distinct clinical and pathological features are associated with the BRAF(T1799A(V600E)) mutation in primary melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:900-5 pubmed
    ..Although implicated in the control of the cell cycle, the BRAF(T1799A) mutation is associated with a lower rate of tumor proliferation. ..
  78. Henriquez F, Janssen C, Kemp E, Roberts F. The T1799A BRAF mutation is present in iris melanoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:4897-900 pubmed
    ..To date, no study has been conducted to investigate the T1799A mutation in iris melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the T1799A BRAF mutation is present in iris melanoma...
  79. Sala E, Mologni L, Truffa S, Gaetano C, Bollag G, Gambacorti Passerini C. BRAF silencing by short hairpin RNA or chemical blockade by PLX4032 leads to different responses in melanoma and thyroid carcinoma cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we suggest that a BRAF-independent mechanism of cell survival exists in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. ..
  80. Makrodouli E, Oikonomou E, Koc M, Andera L, Sasazuki T, Shirasawa S, et al. BRAF and RAS oncogenes regulate Rho GTPase pathways to mediate migration and invasion properties in human colon cancer cells: a comparative study. Mol Cancer. 2011;10:118 pubmed publisher
    ..This study discriminates oncogene-specific cell migration and invasion pathways mediated by Rho GTPases in colon cancer cells and reveals potential new oncogene-specific characteristics for targeted therapeutics. ..
  81. Abubaker J, Jehan Z, Bavi P, Sultana M, Al Harbi S, Ibrahim M, et al. Clinicopathological analysis of papillary thyroid cancer with PIK3CA alterations in a Middle Eastern population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:611-8 pubmed
  82. Barault L, Veyrie N, Jooste V, Lecorre D, Chapusot C, Ferraz J, et al. Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI(3)K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:2255-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the role of this signaling network on anticancer agents, the evaluation of its mutations could have clinical implications. ..
  83. Lim J, Hong S, Lee Y, Kim B, Park C, Chang H, et al. Clinicopathologic implications of the BRAF(V600E) mutation in papillary thyroid cancer: a subgroup analysis of 3130 cases in a single center. Thyroid. 2013;23:1423-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of the BRAF mutation with clinicopathologic factors in a large group of homogenous PTC patients...
  84. Bando H, Yoshino T, Shinozaki E, Nishina T, Yamazaki K, Yamaguchi K, et al. Simultaneous identification of 36 mutations in KRAS codons 61 and 146, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA in a single reaction by multiplex assay kit. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:405 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, mutations in KRAS codon 61, KRAS codon 146, BRAF, NRAS, or PIK3CA detected in Asian patients were not predictive of clinical benefits from cetuximab treatment, similar to the result obtained in European studies. ..
  85. Ogino S, Nosho K, Kirkner G, Kawasaki T, Meyerhardt J, Loda M, et al. CpG island methylator phenotype, microsatellite instability, BRAF mutation and clinical outcome in colon cancer. Gut. 2009;58:90-6 pubmed publisher
    ..KRAS mutation was unrelated to prognostic significance. CIMP-high appears to be an independent predictor of a low colon cancer-specific mortality, while BRAF mutation is associated with a high colon cancer-specific mortality. ..
  86. Ogino S, Nosho K, Kirkner G, Shima K, Irahara N, Kure S, et al. PIK3CA mutation is associated with poor prognosis among patients with curatively resected colon cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:1477-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The adverse effect of PIK3CA mutation may be potentially limited to patients with KRAS wild-type tumors. ..
  87. Fariña Sarasqueta A, van Lijnschoten G, Moerland E, Creemers G, Lemmens V, Rutten H, et al. The BRAF V600E mutation is an independent prognostic factor for survival in stage II and stage III colon cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:2396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..22-0.99]. KRAS mutation conferred a poorer disease-free survival (HR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.38-0.97). The V600E BRAF mutation confers a worse prognosis to stage II and stage III colon cancer patients independently of disease stage and therapy. ..
  88. Tran B, Kopetz S, Tie J, Gibbs P, Jiang Z, Lieu C, et al. Impact of BRAF mutation and microsatellite instability on the pattern of metastatic spread and prognosis in metastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer. 2011;117:4623-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors demonstrated that, unlikely early stage disease, MSI is associated with poorer survival in metastatic CRC, although this is driven by its association with BRAF mutation. ..
  89. Long G, Wilmott J, Capper D, Preusser M, Zhang Y, Thompson J, et al. Immunohistochemistry is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of V600E BRAF mutation in melanoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37:61-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical use of the V600E BRAF antibody should be a valuable supplement to conventional mutation testing and allow V600E mutant metastatic melanoma patients to be triaged rapidly into appropriate treatment pathways. ..
  90. Tiacci E, Schiavoni G, Martelli M, Boveri E, Pacini R, Tabarrini A, et al. Constant activation of the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway as a diagnostic and therapeutic target in hairy cell leukemia. Haematologica. 2013;98:635-9 pubmed publisher