B-Raf

Summary

Gene Symbol: B-Raf
Description: B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase
Alias: B-RAF1, B-raf, BRAF1, NS7, RAFB1, serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf, 94 kDa B-raf protein, B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (p94), B-Raf serine/threonine-protein, murine sarcoma viral (v-raf) oncogene homolog B1, proto-oncogene B-Raf, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1
Species: human
Products:     B-Raf

Top Publications

  1. Klein R, Spofford L, Abel E, Ortiz A, Aplin A. B-RAF regulation of Rnd3 participates in actin cytoskeletal and focal adhesion organization. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:498-508 pubmed
    ..Together, our results identify Rnd3 as a regulator of cross talk between the RAF/MEK/ERK and Rho/ROCK signaling pathways, and a key contributor to oncogene-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions. ..
  2. Bagadi S, Sanghvi M, Nair S, Das B. Combined mutational analysis of KRAS, NRAS and BRAF genes in Indian patients with colorectal carcinoma. Int J Biol Markers. 2012;27:27-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, combined evaluation of genetic biomarkers (KRAS, NRAS and BRAF) was able to classify 42% of colorectal cancer patients as likely non-responders to anti-EGFR therapy...
  3. Mathur A, Moses W, Rahbari R, Khanafshar E, Duh Q, Clark O, et al. Higher rate of BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer over time: a single-institution study. Cancer. 2011;117:4390-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that a higher rate of BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer may contribute to the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer. ..
  4. Girotti M, Pedersen M, Sanchez Laorden B, Viros A, Turajlic S, Niculescu Duvaz D, et al. Inhibiting EGF receptor or SRC family kinase signaling overcomes BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma. Cancer Discov. 2013;3:158-67 pubmed publisher
  5. Shull A, Latham Schwark A, Ramasamy P, Leskoske K, Oroian D, Birtwistle M, et al. Novel somatic mutations to PI3K pathway genes in metastatic melanoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43369 pubmed publisher
    ..They therefore may be potential chemotherapeutic targets for melanoma patients who exhibit resistance to BRAF(V600) inhibitors. ..
  6. Chen B, Tardell C, Higgins B, Packman K, Boylan J, Niu H. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42598 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways. ..
  7. Siroy A, Boland G, Milton D, Roszik J, Frankian S, Malke J, et al. Beyond BRAF(V600): clinical mutation panel testing by next-generation sequencing in advanced melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:508-515 pubmed publisher
    ..These results enrich our understanding of the patterns and clinical associations of oncogenic mutations in melanoma. ..
  8. Bozzao C, Varvara D, Piglionica M, Bagnulo R, Forte G, Patruno M, et al. Survey of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutational status in 209 consecutive Italian colorectal cancer patients. Int J Biol Markers. 2012;27:e366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Further correlations of specific clinical features with tumor mutational profile could be helpful to predict the response of CRC patients to monoclonal antibody therapy...
  9. Ogino S, Shima K, Meyerhardt J, McCleary N, Ng K, Hollis D, et al. Predictive and prognostic roles of BRAF mutation in stage III colon cancer: results from intergroup trial CALGB 89803. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:890-900 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effect of BRAF mutation on survival and treatment efficacy in patients with stage III colon cancer...

More Information

Publications347 found, 100 shown here

  1. Corcoran R, Dias Santagata D, Bergethon K, Iafrate A, Settleman J, Engelman J. BRAF gene amplification can promote acquired resistance to MEK inhibitors in cancer cells harboring the BRAF V600E mutation. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra84 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate BRAF amplification as a mechanism of resistance to both MEK and BRAF inhibitors and suggest combined MEK and BRAF inhibition as a clinical strategy to overcome, or possibly prevent, this mechanism of resistance. ..
  2. Lasota J, Kowalik A, Wasag B, Wang Z, Felisiak Golabek A, Coates T, et al. Detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in colon carcinoma: critical evaluation of the imunohistochemical approach. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38:1235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Although VE1 antibody can be useful in the screening of colon carcinomas for BRAF V600E-mutant proteins, molecular genetic confirmation is always necessary for mutation diagnosis. ..
  3. Ogino S, Nosho K, Kirkner G, Shima K, Irahara N, Kure S, et al. PIK3CA mutation is associated with poor prognosis among patients with curatively resected colon cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:1477-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The adverse effect of PIK3CA mutation may be potentially limited to patients with KRAS wild-type tumors. ..
  4. Fariña Sarasqueta A, van Lijnschoten G, Moerland E, Creemers G, Lemmens V, Rutten H, et al. The BRAF V600E mutation is an independent prognostic factor for survival in stage II and stage III colon cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:2396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..22-0.99]. KRAS mutation conferred a poorer disease-free survival (HR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.38-0.97). The V600E BRAF mutation confers a worse prognosis to stage II and stage III colon cancer patients independently of disease stage and therapy. ..
  5. Tran B, Kopetz S, Tie J, Gibbs P, Jiang Z, Lieu C, et al. Impact of BRAF mutation and microsatellite instability on the pattern of metastatic spread and prognosis in metastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer. 2011;117:4623-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors demonstrated that, unlikely early stage disease, MSI is associated with poorer survival in metastatic CRC, although this is driven by its association with BRAF mutation. ..
  6. Tiacci E, Schiavoni G, Martelli M, Boveri E, Pacini R, Tabarrini A, et al. Constant activation of the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway as a diagnostic and therapeutic target in hairy cell leukemia. Haematologica. 2013;98:635-9 pubmed publisher
  7. Cohen Y, Rosenbaum E, Begum S, Goldenberg D, Esche C, Lavie O, et al. Exon 15 BRAF mutations are uncommon in melanomas arising in nonsun-exposed sites. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:3444-7 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, patients with melanomas should not be collectively regarded as a uniform group as new strategies are developed that target specific genetic alterations. ..
  8. Nakamura N, Carney J, Jin L, Kajita S, Pallares J, Zhang H, et al. RASSF1A and NORE1A methylation and BRAFV600E mutations in thyroid tumors. Lab Invest. 2005;85:1065-75 pubmed
    ..BRAF mutation occurs later in thyroid tumor progression and is restricted mainly to PTC and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. ..
  9. Wellbrock C, Marais R. Elevated expression of MITF counteracts B-RAF-stimulated melanocyte and melanoma cell proliferation. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:703-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that MITF is an anti-proliferation factor that is down-regulated by B-RAF signaling and that this is a crucial event for the progression of melanomas that harbor oncogenic B-RAF. ..
  10. Grbovic O, Basso A, Sawai A, Ye Q, Friedlander P, Solit D, et al. V600E B-Raf requires the Hsp90 chaperone for stability and is degraded in response to Hsp90 inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:57-62 pubmed
    ..Hsp90 inhibition represents a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of melanoma. ..
  11. Nakanishi R, Harada J, Tuul M, Zhao Y, Ando K, Saeki H, et al. Prognostic relevance of KRAS and BRAF mutations in Japanese patients with colorectal cancer. Int J Clin Oncol. 2013;18:1042-8 pubmed publisher
    ..KRAS mutation status could be a novel biomarker for predicting disease recurrence in Japanese patients with stage II CRC. ..
  12. Xie P, Streu C, Qin J, Bregman H, Pagano N, Meggers E, et al. The crystal structure of BRAF in complex with an organoruthenium inhibitor reveals a mechanism for inhibition of an active form of BRAF kinase. Biochemistry. 2009;48:5187-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of CS292 bound to the active form of the BRAF kinase also provides a novel scaffold for the design of BRAF(V600E) oncogene selective BRAF inhibitors for therapeutic application. ..
  13. Karagkounis G, Torbenson M, Daniel H, Azad N, Diaz L, Donehower R, et al. Incidence and prognostic impact of KRAS and BRAF mutation in patients undergoing liver surgery for colorectal metastases. Cancer. 2013;119:4137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the incidence and prognostic significance of KRAS and BRAF mutations were determined in patients undergoing surgical therapy of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM)...
  14. Lin J, Takata M, Murata H, Goto Y, Kido K, Ferrone S, et al. Polyclonality of BRAF mutations in acquired melanocytic nevi. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:1423-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The polyclonality of BRAF mutations in acquired melanocytic nevi suggests that mutation of BRAF may not be an initial event in melanocyte transformation. ..
  15. Gopal Y, Deng W, Woodman S, Komurov K, Ram P, Smith P, et al. Basal and treatment-induced activation of AKT mediates resistance to cell death by AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) in Braf-mutant human cutaneous melanoma cells. Cancer Res. 2010;70:8736-47 pubmed publisher
  16. Brose M, Volpe P, Feldman M, Kumar M, Rishi I, Gerrero R, et al. BRAF and RAS mutations in human lung cancer and melanoma. Cancer Res. 2002;62:6997-7000 pubmed
    ..Although uncommon, BRAF mutations in human lung cancers may identify a subset of tumors sensitive to targeted therapy. ..
  17. Loewe R, Kittler H, Fischer G, Fae I, Wolff K, Petzelbauer P. BRAF kinase gene V599E mutation in growing melanocytic lesions. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123:733-6 pubmed
    ..This raises the question if the V599E mutation determines lesions at risk developing into melanoma and if not, what are the mechanisms controlling growth stop in benign lesions? ..
  18. Johansson P, Pavey S, Hayward N. Confirmation of a BRAF mutation-associated gene expression signature in melanoma. Pigment Cell Res. 2007;20:216-21 pubmed
    ..778; Zurich AUC=0.719; Mannheim AUC=0.564). Taken together, these data support the existence of a BRAF mutation-specific expression signature. ..
  19. Chou C, Chen R, Chou F, Chang H, Chen Y, Lee Y, et al. miR-146b is highly expressed in adult papillary thyroid carcinomas with high risk features including extrathyroidal invasion and the BRAF(V600E) mutation. Thyroid. 2010;20:489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show the potential importance of miR-221, miR-222, and miR-146b in determining the aggressive properties of PTCs and highlight the need to identify the gene targets of these miRNAs. ..
  20. Lin L, Asthana S, Chan E, Bandyopadhyay S, Martins M, Olivas V, et al. Mapping the molecular determinants of BRAF oncogene dependence in human lung cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E748-57 pubmed publisher
  21. Long G, Menzies A, Nagrial A, Haydu L, Hamilton A, Mann G, et al. Prognostic and clinicopathologic associations of oncogenic BRAF in metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:1239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of mutant BRAF had no impact on the disease-free interval from diagnosis of first-ever melanoma to first distant metastasis; however, it may have impacted survival thereafter. ..
  22. Weber C, Slupsky J, Kalmes H, Rapp U. Active Ras induces heterodimerization of cRaf and BRaf. Cancer Res. 2001;61:3595-8 pubmed
  23. Souglakos J, Philips J, Wang R, Marwah S, Silver M, Tzardi M, et al. Prognostic and predictive value of common mutations for treatment response and survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:465-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The adverse significance of BRAF mutation should inform patient selection and stratification in clinical trials. ..
  24. Mann G, Pupo G, Campain A, Carter C, Schramm S, Pianova S, et al. BRAF mutation, NRAS mutation, and the absence of an immune-related expressed gene profile predict poor outcome in patients with stage III melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:509-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the presence of BRAF mutation, NRAS mutation, and the absence of an immune-related expressed gene profile predict poor outcome in melanoma patients with macroscopic stage III disease. ..
  25. Casula M, Colombino M, Satta M, Cossu A, Ascierto P, Bianchi Scarra G, et al. BRAF gene is somatically mutated but does not make a major contribution to malignant melanoma susceptibility: the Italian Melanoma Intergroup Study. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:286-92 pubmed
    ..The present study further suggests that patient origin may account for different mutation rates in candidate genes. ..
  26. Chakravarty D, Santos E, Ryder M, Knauf J, Liao X, West B, et al. Small-molecule MAPK inhibitors restore radioiodine incorporation in mouse thyroid cancers with conditional BRAF activation. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4700-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have potentially significant clinical ramifications. ..
  27. Ciampi R, Nikiforov Y. RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF mutations in thyroid tumorigenesis. Endocrinology. 2007;148:936-41 pubmed
    ..Molecular inhibitors that block RET/PTC or BRAF kinase activity have shown substantial therapeutic effects in the experimental systems and are currently being tested in clinical trials. ..
  28. Lee J, Lee E, Kim Y. Clinicopathologic significance of BRAF V600E mutation in papillary carcinomas of the thyroid: a meta-analysis. Cancer. 2007;110:38-46 pubmed
    ..The effect of the BRAF mutation on the poor prognosis of PTC patients was evident from the current meta-analysis. The detection of the BRAF mutation may be used as an important prognostic marker of patients with PTC. ..
  29. Troncone G, Cozzolino I, Fedele M, Malapelle U, Palombini L. Preparation of thyroid FNA material for routine cytology and BRAF testing: a validation study. Diagn Cytopathol. 2010;38:172-6 pubmed publisher
    ..7%) or without (79/84; 94%) the dedicated pass. Thus, our protocol is suitable for both tests. Whenever necessary BRAF testing may also be performed on the residual samples of thyroid nodules, without interfering with routine cytology. ..
  30. Wan P, Garnett M, Roe S, Lee S, Niculescu Duvaz D, Good V, et al. Mechanism of activation of the RAF-ERK signaling pathway by oncogenic mutations of B-RAF. Cell. 2004;116:855-67 pubmed
    ..The high activity mutants signal to ERK by directly phosphorylating MEK, whereas the impaired activity mutants stimulate MEK by activating endogenous C-RAF, possibly via an allosteric or transphosphorylation mechanism. ..
  31. Musholt T, Schönefeld S, Schwarz C, Watzka F, Musholt P, Fottner C, et al. Impact of pathognomonic genetic alterations on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. ESES vienna presentation. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2010;395:877-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides further evidence that patients harboring BRAF-V600E-positive PTCs may experience an unfavorable course of the disease compared to patients with tumors carrying other genetic alterations. ..
  32. Sahm F, Capper D, Preusser M, Meyer J, Stenzinger A, Lasitschka F, et al. BRAFV600E mutant protein is expressed in cells of variable maturation in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Blood. 2012;120:e28-34 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we identify and characterize the neoplastic cells in LCH with BRAFV600E mutations by applying a mutation-specific marker and demonstrate feasibility for routine screening. ..
  33. Davies H, Bignell G, Cox C, Stephens P, Edkins S, Clegg S, et al. Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer. Nature. 2002;417:949-54 pubmed
    ..As BRAF is a serine/threonine kinase that is commonly activated by somatic point mutation in human cancer, it may provide new therapeutic opportunities in malignant melanoma. ..
  34. Ricarte Filho J, Ryder M, Chitale D, Rivera M, Heguy A, Ladanyi M, et al. Mutational profile of advanced primary and metastatic radioactive iodine-refractory thyroid cancers reveals distinct pathogenetic roles for BRAF, PIK3CA, and AKT1. Cancer Res. 2009;69:4885-93 pubmed publisher
  35. Tie J, Gibbs P, Lipton L, Christie M, Jorissen R, Burgess A, et al. Optimizing targeted therapeutic development: analysis of a colorectal cancer patient population with the BRAF(V600E) mutation. Int J Cancer. 2011;128:2075-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are timely and will help inform the rational development of BRAF(V600E) inhibitors in CRC. ..
  36. Marchetti I, Lessi F, Mazzanti C, Bertacca G, Elisei R, Coscio G, et al. A morpho-molecular diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma: BRAF V600E detection as an important tool in preoperative evaluation of fine-needle aspirates. Thyroid. 2009;19:837-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased sensitivity of this preoperative morpho-molecular analysis should provide information that is useful in deciding the extent of thyroid surgery for thyroid nodules that are indeterminate or suspicious on cytology. ..
  37. Riesco Eizaguirre G, Rodríguez I, De La Vieja A, Costamagna E, Carrasco N, Nistal M, et al. The BRAFV600E oncogene induces transforming growth factor beta secretion leading to sodium iodide symporter repression and increased malignancy in thyroid cancer. Cancer Res. 2009;69:8317-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study describes a novel mechanism of NIS repression in thyroid cancer and provides evidence that TGFbeta may play a key role in promoting radioiodide resistance and tumor invasion during PTC progression. ..
  38. Koperek O, Kornauth C, Capper D, Berghoff A, Asari R, Niederle B, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of the BRAF V600E-mutated protein in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:844-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the investigation of BRAF V600E protein expression might be of clinical interest especially in therapy-resistant disease, as new therapeutics inhibiting the mutated protein are clinically available. ..
  39. Samowitz W, Sweeney C, Herrick J, Albertsen H, Levin T, Murtaugh M, et al. Poor survival associated with the BRAF V600E mutation in microsatellite-stable colon cancers. Cancer Res. 2005;65:6063-9 pubmed
  40. Hatzivassiliou G, Song K, Yen I, Brandhuber B, Anderson D, Alvarado R, et al. RAF inhibitors prime wild-type RAF to activate the MAPK pathway and enhance growth. Nature. 2010;464:431-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this work provides new insights into the therapeutic use of ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors...
  41. Bruckman K, Schönleben F, Qiu W, Woo V, Su G. Mutational analyses of the BRAF, KRAS, and PIK3CA genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;110:632-7 pubmed publisher
  42. Tufano R, Teixeira G, Bishop J, Carson K, Xing M. BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer and its value in tailoring initial treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2012;91:274-86 pubmed publisher
  43. Karram S, Novy M, Saroufim M, Loya A, Taraif S, Houreih M, et al. Predictors of BRAF mutation in melanocytic nevi: analysis across regions with different UV radiation exposure. Am J Dermatopathol. 2013;35:412-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased BRAF mutation with age along with the lack of a UVR magnitude-BRAF mutation association suggests that duration of exposure rather than UVR exposure dose is the more likely link to acquiring the mutation. ..
  44. Garnett M, Marais R. Guilty as charged: B-RAF is a human oncogene. Cancer Cell. 2004;6:313-9 pubmed
    ..Here we review the rapid progress made in our understanding of B-RAF as an oncogene and of its role in cancer. ..
  45. Menzies A, Haydu L, Visintin L, Carlino M, Howle J, Thompson J, et al. Distinguishing clinicopathologic features of patients with V600E and V600K BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:3242-9 pubmed publisher
    ..001), or patients with BRAF wild-type melanoma (37%, P < 0.001). Different genotypes exist within BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma, representing biologically and clinically discrete subtypes, suggesting distinct etiology and behavior. ..
  46. Zhang B, Tang E, Zhu T, Greenberg M, Vojtek A, Guan K. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK phosphorylates and negatively regulates B-Raf. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:31620-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that B-Raf kinase activity is negatively regulated by Akt and SGK, suggesting that the cross-talk between the B-Raf and other signaling pathways can be mediated by both Akt and SGK. ..
  47. Lievre A, Bachet J, Le Corre D, Boige V, Landi B, Emile J, et al. KRAS mutation status is predictive of response to cetuximab therapy in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:3992-5 pubmed
    ..The EGFR amplification, which is not as frequent as initially reported, is also associated with response to this treatment. ..
  48. Pfister S, Janzarik W, Remke M, Ernst A, Werft W, Becker N, et al. BRAF gene duplication constitutes a mechanism of MAPK pathway activation in low-grade astrocytomas. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1739-49 pubmed publisher
  49. Nagasaka T, Koi M, Kloor M, Gebert J, Vilkin A, Nishida N, et al. Mutations in both KRAS and BRAF may contribute to the methylator phenotype in colon cancer. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:1950-60, 1960.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, aberrant DNA methylation is a common event not only in sporadic CRC but also in Lynch syndrome CRCs. ..
  50. Yancovitz M, Litterman A, Yoon J, Ng E, Shapiro R, Berman R, et al. Intra- and inter-tumor heterogeneity of BRAF(V600E))mutations in primary and metastatic melanoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29336 pubmed publisher
  51. Phipps A, Buchanan D, Makar K, Burnett Hartman A, Coghill A, Passarelli M, et al. BRAF mutation status and survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis according to patient and tumor characteristics. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012;21:1792-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of a BRAF c.1799T>A (p.V600E) mutation is associated with significantly poorer prognosis after CRC diagnosis among subgroups of patients. ..
  52. Calistri D, Rengucci C, Seymour I, Lattuneddu A, Polifemo A, Monti F, et al. Mutation analysis of p53, K-ras, and BRAF genes in colorectal cancer progression. J Cell Physiol. 2005;204:484-8 pubmed
  53. Di Nicolantonio F, Martini M, Molinari F, Sartore Bianchi A, Arena S, Saletti P, et al. Wild-type BRAF is required for response to panitumumab or cetuximab in metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:5705-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Double-hit therapies aimed at simultaneous inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and BRAF warrant exploration in CRC patients carrying the V600E oncogenic mutation. ..
  54. Daniels M, Lurkin I, Pauli R, Erbstösser E, Hildebrandt U, Hellwig K, et al. Spectrum of KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF mutations and Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase pathway gene alterations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Cancer Lett. 2011;312:43-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that BRAF mutations are of pathogenetic significance in wild type GISTs. The PI3K pathway should be assessed in future studies. ..
  55. Shi H, Moriceau G, Kong X, Lee M, Lee H, Koya R, et al. Melanoma whole-exome sequencing identifies (V600E)B-RAF amplification-mediated acquired B-RAF inhibitor resistance. Nat Commun. 2012;3:724 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, alternative clinical strategies may potentially overcome distinct modes of extracellular signal-regulated kinase reactivation underlying acquired B-RAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma. ..
  56. Kalady M, Dejulius K, Sanchez J, Jarrar A, Liu X, Manilich E, et al. BRAF mutations in colorectal cancer are associated with distinct clinical characteristics and worse prognosis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2012;55:128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..79, CI 1.05-3.05, p = 0.03) independent of microsatellite instability status. BRAF mutations in colorectal cancers are associated with distinct clinical characteristics and worse prognosis. ..
  57. Lubomierski N, Plotz G, Wormek M, Engels K, Kriener S, Trojan J, et al. BRAF mutations in colorectal carcinoma suggest two entities of microsatellite-unstable tumors. Cancer. 2005;104:952-61 pubmed
  58. Beadling C, Jacobson Dunlop E, Hodi F, Le C, Warrick A, Patterson J, et al. KIT gene mutations and copy number in melanoma subtypes. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:6821-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening for KIT mutations may open up new treatment options for melanoma patients. ..
  59. Zatelli M, Trasforini G, Leoni S, Frigato G, Buratto M, Tagliati F, et al. BRAF V600E mutation analysis increases diagnostic accuracy for papillary thyroid carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;161:467-73 pubmed publisher
    ..3 to 86.7% (P<0.01). These data indicate that BRAF V600E mutation analysis can significantly improve FNAB diagnostic accuracy. However, biomolecular analysis is complementary to cytology, which should always be performed. ..
  60. Maddodi N, Huang W, Havighurst T, Kim K, Longley B, Setaluri V. Induction of autophagy and inhibition of melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo by hyperactivation of oncogenic BRAF. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:1657-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that high oncogenic BRAF levels trigger autophagy, which may have a role in melanoma tumor progression. ..
  61. Guedes J, Veiga I, Rocha P, Pinto P, Pinto C, Pinheiro M, et al. High resolution melting analysis of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA in KRAS exon 2 wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:169 pubmed publisher
  62. de Vogel S, Weijenberg M, Herman J, Wouters K, de Goeij A, van den Brandt P, et al. MGMT and MLH1 promoter methylation versus APC, KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in colorectal cancer: indications for distinct pathways and sequence of events. Ann Oncol. 2009;20:1216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..MLH1-hypermethylated tumors harbor fewer APC and KRAS mutations and more BRAF mutations, suggesting that they develop distinctly from an MGMT methylator pathway. ..
  63. Gessi M, Lambert S, Lauriola L, Waha A, Collins V, Pietsch T. Absence of KIAA1549-BRAF fusion in rosette-forming glioneuronal tumors of the fourth ventricle (RGNT). J Neurooncol. 2012;110:21-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the hypothesis that RGNT may represent a distinct entity among the glioneuronal tumors of the central nervous system, with molecular features different from pilocytic astrocytomas. ..
  64. Weber A, Langhanki L, Sommerer F, Markwarth A, Wittekind C, Tannapfel A. Mutations of the BRAF gene in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Oncogene. 2003;22:4757-9 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that BRAF gene mutations are relatively rare events in HNSCC. Although uncommon, BRAF mutations may identify a subset of patients with HNSCC sensitive to targeted therapy. ..
  65. Rajakulendran T, Sahmi M, Lefrancois M, Sicheri F, Therrien M. A dimerization-dependent mechanism drives RAF catalytic activation. Nature. 2009;461:542-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data identify the side-to-side dimer interface of RAF as a potential therapeutic target for intervention in BRAF-dependent tumorigenesis. ..
  66. Karreth F, DeNicola G, Winter S, Tuveson D. C-Raf inhibits MAPK activation and transformation by B-Raf(V600E). Mol Cell. 2009;36:477-86 pubmed publisher
  67. Spendlove H, Damato B, Humphreys J, Barker K, Hiscott P, Houlston R. BRAF mutations are detectable in conjunctival but not uveal melanomas. Melanoma Res. 2004;14:449-52 pubmed
    ..We conclude that uveal melanomas arise independently of oncogenic BRAF mutations, but the development of a proportion of conjunctival tumours involves mutation of this gene...
  68. Lazar V, Ecsedi S, Szöllosi A, Toth R, Vizkeleti L, Rakosy Z, et al. Characterization of candidate gene copy number alterations in the 11q13 region along with BRAF and NRAS mutations in human melanoma. Mod Pathol. 2009;22:1367-78 pubmed publisher
    ..028). We assume that co-amplification of these candidate genes in the 11q13 region or CCND1 gene alterations along with either BRAF or NRAS mutations might be more important for prognosis than the presence of these alterations alone. ..
  69. Ekedahl H, Cirenajwis H, Harbst K, Carneiro A, Nielsen K, Olsson H, et al. The clinical significance of BRAF and NRAS mutations in a clinic-based metastatic melanoma cohort. Br J Dermatol. 2013;169:1049-55 pubmed publisher
  70. Jeong D, Jeong Y, Park J, Han S, Kim S, Kim Y, et al. BRAF (V600E) mutation analysis in papillary thyroid carcinomas by peptide nucleic acid clamp real-time PCR. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013;20:759-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The PNA clamp real-time PCR method for the BRAF (V600E) mutation detection is sensitive and is applicable in a clinical setting. ..
  71. Nikiforova M, Kimura E, Gandhi M, Biddinger P, Knauf J, Basolo F, et al. BRAF mutations in thyroid tumors are restricted to papillary carcinomas and anaplastic or poorly differentiated carcinomas arising from papillary carcinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:5399-404 pubmed
    ..They are associated with distinct phenotypical and biological properties of papillary carcinomas and may participate in progression to poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas. ..
  72. Kim S, Kim D, Han H, Kim W, Kim S, Moon W, et al. Pyrosequencing analysis for detection of a BRAFV600E mutation in an FNAB specimen of thyroid nodules. Diagn Mol Pathol. 2008;17:118-25 pubmed publisher
    ..25). Detecting BRAF mutation by pyrosequencing is more sensitive, faster, and less expensive than direct DNA sequencing and is proposed as an adjunct diagnostic tool in evaluating thyroid nodules of indeterminate cytology. ..
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