Gene Symbol: B-Raf
Description: B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase
Alias: B-RAF1, B-raf, BRAF1, NS7, RAFB1, serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf, 94 kDa B-raf protein, B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase (p94), B-Raf serine/threonine-protein, murine sarcoma viral (v-raf) oncogene homolog B1, proto-oncogene B-Raf, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B, v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1
Species: human
Products:     B-Raf

Top Publications

  1. Klein R, Spofford L, Abel E, Ortiz A, Aplin A. B-RAF regulation of Rnd3 participates in actin cytoskeletal and focal adhesion organization. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:498-508 pubmed
    ..Together, our results identify Rnd3 as a regulator of cross talk between the RAF/MEK/ERK and Rho/ROCK signaling pathways, and a key contributor to oncogene-mediated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions. ..
  2. Bagadi S, Sanghvi M, Nair S, Das B. Combined mutational analysis of KRAS, NRAS and BRAF genes in Indian patients with colorectal carcinoma. Int J Biol Markers. 2012;27:27-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, combined evaluation of genetic biomarkers (KRAS, NRAS and BRAF) was able to classify 42% of colorectal cancer patients as likely non-responders to anti-EGFR therapy...
  3. Mathur A, Moses W, Rahbari R, Khanafshar E, Duh Q, Clark O, et al. Higher rate of BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer over time: a single-institution study. Cancer. 2011;117:4390-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that a higher rate of BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer may contribute to the increasing incidence of thyroid cancer. ..
  4. Girotti M, Pedersen M, Sanchez Laorden B, Viros A, Turajlic S, Niculescu Duvaz D, et al. Inhibiting EGF receptor or SRC family kinase signaling overcomes BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma. Cancer Discov. 2013;3:158-67 pubmed publisher
  5. Shull A, Latham Schwark A, Ramasamy P, Leskoske K, Oroian D, Birtwistle M, et al. Novel somatic mutations to PI3K pathway genes in metastatic melanoma. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43369 pubmed publisher
    ..They therefore may be potential chemotherapeutic targets for melanoma patients who exhibit resistance to BRAF(V600) inhibitors. ..
  6. Chen B, Tardell C, Higgins B, Packman K, Boylan J, Niu H. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42598 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways. ..
  7. Siroy A, Boland G, Milton D, Roszik J, Frankian S, Malke J, et al. Beyond BRAF(V600): clinical mutation panel testing by next-generation sequencing in advanced melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2015;135:508-515 pubmed publisher
    ..These results enrich our understanding of the patterns and clinical associations of oncogenic mutations in melanoma. ..
  8. Bozzao C, Varvara D, Piglionica M, Bagnulo R, Forte G, Patruno M, et al. Survey of KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutational status in 209 consecutive Italian colorectal cancer patients. Int J Biol Markers. 2012;27:e366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Further correlations of specific clinical features with tumor mutational profile could be helpful to predict the response of CRC patients to monoclonal antibody therapy...
  9. Ogino S, Shima K, Meyerhardt J, McCleary N, Ng K, Hollis D, et al. Predictive and prognostic roles of BRAF mutation in stage III colon cancer: results from intergroup trial CALGB 89803. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:890-900 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effect of BRAF mutation on survival and treatment efficacy in patients with stage III colon cancer...

More Information

Publications365 found, 100 shown here

  1. Corcoran R, Dias Santagata D, Bergethon K, Iafrate A, Settleman J, Engelman J. BRAF gene amplification can promote acquired resistance to MEK inhibitors in cancer cells harboring the BRAF V600E mutation. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra84 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate BRAF amplification as a mechanism of resistance to both MEK and BRAF inhibitors and suggest combined MEK and BRAF inhibition as a clinical strategy to overcome, or possibly prevent, this mechanism of resistance. ..
  2. Lasota J, Kowalik A, Wasag B, Wang Z, Felisiak Golabek A, Coates T, et al. Detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in colon carcinoma: critical evaluation of the imunohistochemical approach. Am J Surg Pathol. 2014;38:1235-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Although VE1 antibody can be useful in the screening of colon carcinomas for BRAF V600E-mutant proteins, molecular genetic confirmation is always necessary for mutation diagnosis. ..
  3. Popovici V, Budinska E, Tejpar S, Weinrich S, Estrella H, Hodgson G, et al. Identification of a poor-prognosis BRAF-mutant-like population of patients with colon cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30:1288-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results may guide therapeutic strategies for this patient segment and may help in population stratification for clinical trials. ..
  4. Hinoue T, Weisenberger D, Pan F, Campan M, Kim M, Young J, et al. Analysis of the association between CIMP and BRAF in colorectal cancer by DNA methylation profiling. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8357 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data will be useful for future investigations toward understanding CIMP in colorectal cancer and gaining insights into the role of aberrant DNA hypermethylation in colorectal tumorigenesis. ..
  5. Kakar S, Deng G, Sahai V, Matsuzaki K, Tanaka H, Miura S, et al. Clinicopathologic characteristics, CpG island methylator phenotype, and BRAF mutations in microsatellite-stable colorectal cancers without chromosomal instability. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008;132:958-64 pubmed publisher
    ..BRAF mutations in MSS cases are associated with high levels of chromosomal instability that are likely responsible for the adverse outcomes in these cases. ..
  6. Kim S, Lee J, Kim J, Ki C, Oh Y, Choi Y, et al. BRAFV600E mutation analysis in fine-needle aspiration cytology specimens for evaluation of thyroid nodule: a large series in a BRAFV600E-prevalent population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:3693-700 pubmed publisher
    ..However, when using this potentially powerful technique, we must consider both its strengths and its weaknesses. ..
  7. Curtin K, Samowitz W, Wolff R, Herrick J, Caan B, Slattery M. Somatic alterations, metabolizing genes and smoking in rectal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..ETS may increase risk of KRAS2 mutations; association with TP53 mutations and ETS may be influenced by NAT2. ..
  8. Samowitz W, Curtin K, Wolff R, Tripp S, Caan B, Slattery M. Microsatellite instability and survival in rectal cancer. Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20:1763-8 pubmed publisher
  9. Oliveira C, Pinto M, Duval A, Brennetot C, Domingo E, Espin E, et al. BRAF mutations characterize colon but not gastric cancer with mismatch repair deficiency. Oncogene. 2003;22:9192-6 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, our results show evidences that BRAF mutations characterize colon but not gastric tumors with MMR deficiency and are not involved in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer of the mutator phenotype pathway. ..
  10. Tsao H, Goel V, Wu H, Yang G, Haluska F. Genetic interaction between NRAS and BRAF mutations and PTEN/MMAC1 inactivation in melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;122:337-41 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest the existence of possible cooperation between BRAF activation and PTEN loss in melanoma development. ..
  11. Poynter J, Elder J, Fullen D, Nair R, Soengas M, Johnson T, et al. BRAF and NRAS mutations in melanoma and melanocytic nevi. Melanoma Res. 2006;16:267-73 pubmed
    ..We suggest that BRAF mutations contribute to benign melanocytic hyperplasia, but are likely to contribute to invasive melanoma only in conjunction with other mutations. ..
  12. Liu W, Kelly J, Trivett M, Murray W, Dowling J, Wolfe R, et al. Distinct clinical and pathological features are associated with the BRAF(T1799A(V600E)) mutation in primary melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:900-5 pubmed
    ..Although implicated in the control of the cell cycle, the BRAF(T1799A) mutation is associated with a lower rate of tumor proliferation. ..
  13. Henriquez F, Janssen C, Kemp E, Roberts F. The T1799A BRAF mutation is present in iris melanoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:4897-900 pubmed
    ..To date, no study has been conducted to investigate the T1799A mutation in iris melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the T1799A BRAF mutation is present in iris melanoma...
  14. Sala E, Mologni L, Truffa S, Gaetano C, Bollag G, Gambacorti Passerini C. BRAF silencing by short hairpin RNA or chemical blockade by PLX4032 leads to different responses in melanoma and thyroid carcinoma cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we suggest that a BRAF-independent mechanism of cell survival exists in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells. ..
  15. Makrodouli E, Oikonomou E, Koc M, Andera L, Sasazuki T, Shirasawa S, et al. BRAF and RAS oncogenes regulate Rho GTPase pathways to mediate migration and invasion properties in human colon cancer cells: a comparative study. Mol Cancer. 2011;10:118 pubmed publisher
    ..This study discriminates oncogene-specific cell migration and invasion pathways mediated by Rho GTPases in colon cancer cells and reveals potential new oncogene-specific characteristics for targeted therapeutics. ..
  16. Abubaker J, Jehan Z, Bavi P, Sultana M, Al Harbi S, Ibrahim M, et al. Clinicopathological analysis of papillary thyroid cancer with PIK3CA alterations in a Middle Eastern population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:611-8 pubmed
  17. Barault L, Veyrie N, Jooste V, Lecorre D, Chapusot C, Ferraz J, et al. Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI(3)K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:2255-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the role of this signaling network on anticancer agents, the evaluation of its mutations could have clinical implications. ..
  18. Lim J, Hong S, Lee Y, Kim B, Park C, Chang H, et al. Clinicopathologic implications of the BRAF(V600E) mutation in papillary thyroid cancer: a subgroup analysis of 3130 cases in a single center. Thyroid. 2013;23:1423-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of the BRAF mutation with clinicopathologic factors in a large group of homogenous PTC patients...
  19. Bando H, Yoshino T, Shinozaki E, Nishina T, Yamazaki K, Yamaguchi K, et al. Simultaneous identification of 36 mutations in KRAS codons 61 and 146, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA in a single reaction by multiplex assay kit. BMC Cancer. 2013;13:405 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, mutations in KRAS codon 61, KRAS codon 146, BRAF, NRAS, or PIK3CA detected in Asian patients were not predictive of clinical benefits from cetuximab treatment, similar to the result obtained in European studies. ..
  20. Ogino S, Nosho K, Kirkner G, Kawasaki T, Meyerhardt J, Loda M, et al. CpG island methylator phenotype, microsatellite instability, BRAF mutation and clinical outcome in colon cancer. Gut. 2009;58:90-6 pubmed publisher
    ..KRAS mutation was unrelated to prognostic significance. CIMP-high appears to be an independent predictor of a low colon cancer-specific mortality, while BRAF mutation is associated with a high colon cancer-specific mortality. ..
  21. Ogino S, Nosho K, Kirkner G, Shima K, Irahara N, Kure S, et al. PIK3CA mutation is associated with poor prognosis among patients with curatively resected colon cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27:1477-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The adverse effect of PIK3CA mutation may be potentially limited to patients with KRAS wild-type tumors. ..
  22. Fariña Sarasqueta A, van Lijnschoten G, Moerland E, Creemers G, Lemmens V, Rutten H, et al. The BRAF V600E mutation is an independent prognostic factor for survival in stage II and stage III colon cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:2396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..22-0.99]. KRAS mutation conferred a poorer disease-free survival (HR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.38-0.97). The V600E BRAF mutation confers a worse prognosis to stage II and stage III colon cancer patients independently of disease stage and therapy. ..
  23. Tran B, Kopetz S, Tie J, Gibbs P, Jiang Z, Lieu C, et al. Impact of BRAF mutation and microsatellite instability on the pattern of metastatic spread and prognosis in metastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer. 2011;117:4623-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors demonstrated that, unlikely early stage disease, MSI is associated with poorer survival in metastatic CRC, although this is driven by its association with BRAF mutation. ..
  24. Long G, Wilmott J, Capper D, Preusser M, Zhang Y, Thompson J, et al. Immunohistochemistry is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of V600E BRAF mutation in melanoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37:61-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical use of the V600E BRAF antibody should be a valuable supplement to conventional mutation testing and allow V600E mutant metastatic melanoma patients to be triaged rapidly into appropriate treatment pathways. ..
  25. Tiacci E, Schiavoni G, Martelli M, Boveri E, Pacini R, Tabarrini A, et al. Constant activation of the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway as a diagnostic and therapeutic target in hairy cell leukemia. Haematologica. 2013;98:635-9 pubmed publisher
  26. Cohen Y, Rosenbaum E, Begum S, Goldenberg D, Esche C, Lavie O, et al. Exon 15 BRAF mutations are uncommon in melanomas arising in nonsun-exposed sites. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:3444-7 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, patients with melanomas should not be collectively regarded as a uniform group as new strategies are developed that target specific genetic alterations. ..
  27. Young J, Barker M, Simms L, Walsh M, Biden K, Buchanan D, et al. Evidence for BRAF mutation and variable levels of microsatellite instability in a syndrome of familial colorectal cancer. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;3:254-63 pubmed
    ..High levels of BRAF mutation and MINT31 hypermethylation suggest an origin in the serrated pathway of CRC development. ..
  28. Nakamura N, Carney J, Jin L, Kajita S, Pallares J, Zhang H, et al. RASSF1A and NORE1A methylation and BRAFV600E mutations in thyroid tumors. Lab Invest. 2005;85:1065-75 pubmed
    ..BRAF mutation occurs later in thyroid tumor progression and is restricted mainly to PTC and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. ..
  29. Wellbrock C, Marais R. Elevated expression of MITF counteracts B-RAF-stimulated melanocyte and melanoma cell proliferation. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:703-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that MITF is an anti-proliferation factor that is down-regulated by B-RAF signaling and that this is a crucial event for the progression of melanomas that harbor oncogenic B-RAF. ..
  30. Grbovic O, Basso A, Sawai A, Ye Q, Friedlander P, Solit D, et al. V600E B-Raf requires the Hsp90 chaperone for stability and is degraded in response to Hsp90 inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:57-62 pubmed
    ..Hsp90 inhibition represents a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of melanoma. ..
  31. Nakanishi R, Harada J, Tuul M, Zhao Y, Ando K, Saeki H, et al. Prognostic relevance of KRAS and BRAF mutations in Japanese patients with colorectal cancer. Int J Clin Oncol. 2013;18:1042-8 pubmed publisher
    ..KRAS mutation status could be a novel biomarker for predicting disease recurrence in Japanese patients with stage II CRC. ..
  32. Namba H, Nakashima M, Hayashi T, Hayashida N, Maeda S, Rogounovitch T, et al. Clinical implication of hot spot BRAF mutation, V599E, in papillary thyroid cancers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:4393-7 pubmed
    ..033) and clinical stage (P = 0.049). Our results indicate that activating mutation of BRAF gene could be a potentially useful marker of prognosis of patients with advanced thyroid cancers. ..
  33. Xie P, Streu C, Qin J, Bregman H, Pagano N, Meggers E, et al. The crystal structure of BRAF in complex with an organoruthenium inhibitor reveals a mechanism for inhibition of an active form of BRAF kinase. Biochemistry. 2009;48:5187-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of CS292 bound to the active form of the BRAF kinase also provides a novel scaffold for the design of BRAF(V600E) oncogene selective BRAF inhibitors for therapeutic application. ..
  34. Fujita K, Yamamoto H, Matsumoto T, Hirahashi M, Gushima M, Kishimoto J, et al. Sessile serrated adenoma with early neoplastic progression: a clinicopathologic and molecular study. Am J Surg Pathol. 2011;35:295-304 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our histologic observations suggest a possible close association between SSAN and mucinous adenocarcinoma. ..
  35. Amanuel B, Grieu F, Kular J, Millward M, Iacopetta B. Incidence of BRAF p.Val600Glu and p.Val600Lys mutations in a consecutive series of 183 metastatic melanoma patients from a high incidence region. Pathology. 2012;44:357-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Assays used to screen for BRAF mutations in the clinic should be robust enough to detect the p.Val600Lys mutation, as this may have therapeutic implications. ..
  36. Karagkounis G, Torbenson M, Daniel H, Azad N, Diaz L, Donehower R, et al. Incidence and prognostic impact of KRAS and BRAF mutation in patients undergoing liver surgery for colorectal metastases. Cancer. 2013;119:4137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the incidence and prognostic significance of KRAS and BRAF mutations were determined in patients undergoing surgical therapy of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM)...
  37. Lin J, Takata M, Murata H, Goto Y, Kido K, Ferrone S, et al. Polyclonality of BRAF mutations in acquired melanocytic nevi. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:1423-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The polyclonality of BRAF mutations in acquired melanocytic nevi suggests that mutation of BRAF may not be an initial event in melanocyte transformation. ..
  38. Gopal Y, Deng W, Woodman S, Komurov K, Ram P, Smith P, et al. Basal and treatment-induced activation of AKT mediates resistance to cell death by AZD6244 (ARRY-142886) in Braf-mutant human cutaneous melanoma cells. Cancer Res. 2010;70:8736-47 pubmed publisher
  39. Brose M, Volpe P, Feldman M, Kumar M, Rishi I, Gerrero R, et al. BRAF and RAS mutations in human lung cancer and melanoma. Cancer Res. 2002;62:6997-7000 pubmed
    ..Although uncommon, BRAF mutations in human lung cancers may identify a subset of tumors sensitive to targeted therapy. ..
  40. Loewe R, Kittler H, Fischer G, Fae I, Wolff K, Petzelbauer P. BRAF kinase gene V599E mutation in growing melanocytic lesions. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123:733-6 pubmed
    ..This raises the question if the V599E mutation determines lesions at risk developing into melanoma and if not, what are the mechanisms controlling growth stop in benign lesions? ..
  41. Johansson P, Pavey S, Hayward N. Confirmation of a BRAF mutation-associated gene expression signature in melanoma. Pigment Cell Res. 2007;20:216-21 pubmed
    ..778; Zurich AUC=0.719; Mannheim AUC=0.564). Taken together, these data support the existence of a BRAF mutation-specific expression signature. ..
  42. Chou C, Chen R, Chou F, Chang H, Chen Y, Lee Y, et al. miR-146b is highly expressed in adult papillary thyroid carcinomas with high risk features including extrathyroidal invasion and the BRAF(V600E) mutation. Thyroid. 2010;20:489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show the potential importance of miR-221, miR-222, and miR-146b in determining the aggressive properties of PTCs and highlight the need to identify the gene targets of these miRNAs. ..
  43. Lin L, Asthana S, Chan E, Bandyopadhyay S, Martins M, Olivas V, et al. Mapping the molecular determinants of BRAF oncogene dependence in human lung cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E748-57 pubmed publisher
  44. Long G, Menzies A, Nagrial A, Haydu L, Hamilton A, Mann G, et al. Prognostic and clinicopathologic associations of oncogenic BRAF in metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29:1239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of mutant BRAF had no impact on the disease-free interval from diagnosis of first-ever melanoma to first distant metastasis; however, it may have impacted survival thereafter. ..
  45. Weber C, Slupsky J, Kalmes H, Rapp U. Active Ras induces heterodimerization of cRaf and BRaf. Cancer Res. 2001;61:3595-8 pubmed
  46. Souglakos J, Philips J, Wang R, Marwah S, Silver M, Tzardi M, et al. Prognostic and predictive value of common mutations for treatment response and survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:465-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The adverse significance of BRAF mutation should inform patient selection and stratification in clinical trials. ..
  47. Mann G, Pupo G, Campain A, Carter C, Schramm S, Pianova S, et al. BRAF mutation, NRAS mutation, and the absence of an immune-related expressed gene profile predict poor outcome in patients with stage III melanoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:509-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the presence of BRAF mutation, NRAS mutation, and the absence of an immune-related expressed gene profile predict poor outcome in melanoma patients with macroscopic stage III disease. ..
  48. Casula M, Colombino M, Satta M, Cossu A, Ascierto P, Bianchi Scarra G, et al. BRAF gene is somatically mutated but does not make a major contribution to malignant melanoma susceptibility: the Italian Melanoma Intergroup Study. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:286-92 pubmed
    ..The present study further suggests that patient origin may account for different mutation rates in candidate genes. ..
  49. Chakravarty D, Santos E, Ryder M, Knauf J, Liao X, West B, et al. Small-molecule MAPK inhibitors restore radioiodine incorporation in mouse thyroid cancers with conditional BRAF activation. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4700-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have potentially significant clinical ramifications. ..
  50. Ciampi R, Nikiforov Y. RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF mutations in thyroid tumorigenesis. Endocrinology. 2007;148:936-41 pubmed
    ..Molecular inhibitors that block RET/PTC or BRAF kinase activity have shown substantial therapeutic effects in the experimental systems and are currently being tested in clinical trials. ..
  51. Lee J, Lee E, Kim Y. Clinicopathologic significance of BRAF V600E mutation in papillary carcinomas of the thyroid: a meta-analysis. Cancer. 2007;110:38-46 pubmed
    ..The effect of the BRAF mutation on the poor prognosis of PTC patients was evident from the current meta-analysis. The detection of the BRAF mutation may be used as an important prognostic marker of patients with PTC. ..
  52. Troncone G, Cozzolino I, Fedele M, Malapelle U, Palombini L. Preparation of thyroid FNA material for routine cytology and BRAF testing: a validation study. Diagn Cytopathol. 2010;38:172-6 pubmed publisher
    ..7%) or without (79/84; 94%) the dedicated pass. Thus, our protocol is suitable for both tests. Whenever necessary BRAF testing may also be performed on the residual samples of thyroid nodules, without interfering with routine cytology. ..
  53. Wan P, Garnett M, Roe S, Lee S, Niculescu Duvaz D, Good V, et al. Mechanism of activation of the RAF-ERK signaling pathway by oncogenic mutations of B-RAF. Cell. 2004;116:855-67 pubmed
    ..The high activity mutants signal to ERK by directly phosphorylating MEK, whereas the impaired activity mutants stimulate MEK by activating endogenous C-RAF, possibly via an allosteric or transphosphorylation mechanism. ..
  54. Musholt T, Schönefeld S, Schwarz C, Watzka F, Musholt P, Fottner C, et al. Impact of pathognomonic genetic alterations on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. ESES vienna presentation. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2010;395:877-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides further evidence that patients harboring BRAF-V600E-positive PTCs may experience an unfavorable course of the disease compared to patients with tumors carrying other genetic alterations. ..
  55. Sahm F, Capper D, Preusser M, Meyer J, Stenzinger A, Lasitschka F, et al. BRAFV600E mutant protein is expressed in cells of variable maturation in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Blood. 2012;120:e28-34 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we identify and characterize the neoplastic cells in LCH with BRAFV600E mutations by applying a mutation-specific marker and demonstrate feasibility for routine screening. ..
  56. Davies H, Bignell G, Cox C, Stephens P, Edkins S, Clegg S, et al. Mutations of the BRAF gene in human cancer. Nature. 2002;417:949-54 pubmed
    ..As BRAF is a serine/threonine kinase that is commonly activated by somatic point mutation in human cancer, it may provide new therapeutic opportunities in malignant melanoma. ..
  57. Ricarte Filho J, Ryder M, Chitale D, Rivera M, Heguy A, Ladanyi M, et al. Mutational profile of advanced primary and metastatic radioactive iodine-refractory thyroid cancers reveals distinct pathogenetic roles for BRAF, PIK3CA, and AKT1. Cancer Res. 2009;69:4885-93 pubmed publisher
  58. Tie J, Gibbs P, Lipton L, Christie M, Jorissen R, Burgess A, et al. Optimizing targeted therapeutic development: analysis of a colorectal cancer patient population with the BRAF(V600E) mutation. Int J Cancer. 2011;128:2075-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings are timely and will help inform the rational development of BRAF(V600E) inhibitors in CRC. ..
  59. Marchetti I, Lessi F, Mazzanti C, Bertacca G, Elisei R, Coscio G, et al. A morpho-molecular diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma: BRAF V600E detection as an important tool in preoperative evaluation of fine-needle aspirates. Thyroid. 2009;19:837-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased sensitivity of this preoperative morpho-molecular analysis should provide information that is useful in deciding the extent of thyroid surgery for thyroid nodules that are indeterminate or suspicious on cytology. ..
  60. Riesco Eizaguirre G, Rodríguez I, De La Vieja A, Costamagna E, Carrasco N, Nistal M, et al. The BRAFV600E oncogene induces transforming growth factor beta secretion leading to sodium iodide symporter repression and increased malignancy in thyroid cancer. Cancer Res. 2009;69:8317-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study describes a novel mechanism of NIS repression in thyroid cancer and provides evidence that TGFbeta may play a key role in promoting radioiodide resistance and tumor invasion during PTC progression. ..
  61. Koperek O, Kornauth C, Capper D, Berghoff A, Asari R, Niederle B, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of the BRAF V600E-mutated protein in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:844-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the investigation of BRAF V600E protein expression might be of clinical interest especially in therapy-resistant disease, as new therapeutics inhibiting the mutated protein are clinically available. ..
  62. Samowitz W, Sweeney C, Herrick J, Albertsen H, Levin T, Murtaugh M, et al. Poor survival associated with the BRAF V600E mutation in microsatellite-stable colon cancers. Cancer Res. 2005;65:6063-9 pubmed
  63. Hatzivassiliou G, Song K, Yen I, Brandhuber B, Anderson D, Alvarado R, et al. RAF inhibitors prime wild-type RAF to activate the MAPK pathway and enhance growth. Nature. 2010;464:431-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this work provides new insights into the therapeutic use of ATP-competitive RAF inhibitors...
  64. Bruckman K, Schönleben F, Qiu W, Woo V, Su G. Mutational analyses of the BRAF, KRAS, and PIK3CA genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2010;110:632-7 pubmed publisher
  65. Tufano R, Teixeira G, Bishop J, Carson K, Xing M. BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer and its value in tailoring initial treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2012;91:274-86 pubmed publisher
  66. Karram S, Novy M, Saroufim M, Loya A, Taraif S, Houreih M, et al. Predictors of BRAF mutation in melanocytic nevi: analysis across regions with different UV radiation exposure. Am J Dermatopathol. 2013;35:412-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased BRAF mutation with age along with the lack of a UVR magnitude-BRAF mutation association suggests that duration of exposure rather than UVR exposure dose is the more likely link to acquiring the mutation. ..
  67. Garnett M, Marais R. Guilty as charged: B-RAF is a human oncogene. Cancer Cell. 2004;6:313-9 pubmed
    ..Here we review the rapid progress made in our understanding of B-RAF as an oncogene and of its role in cancer. ..
  68. Menzies A, Haydu L, Visintin L, Carlino M, Howle J, Thompson J, et al. Distinguishing clinicopathologic features of patients with V600E and V600K BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:3242-9 pubmed publisher
    ..001), or patients with BRAF wild-type melanoma (37%, P < 0.001). Different genotypes exist within BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma, representing biologically and clinically discrete subtypes, suggesting distinct etiology and behavior. ..
  69. Zhang B, Tang E, Zhu T, Greenberg M, Vojtek A, Guan K. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK phosphorylates and negatively regulates B-Raf. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:31620-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that B-Raf kinase activity is negatively regulated by Akt and SGK, suggesting that the cross-talk between the B-Raf and other signaling pathways can be mediated by both Akt and SGK. ..
  70. Lievre A, Bachet J, Le Corre D, Boige V, Landi B, Emile J, et al. KRAS mutation status is predictive of response to cetuximab therapy in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:3992-5 pubmed
    ..The EGFR amplification, which is not as frequent as initially reported, is also associated with response to this treatment. ..
  71. Pfister S, Janzarik W, Remke M, Ernst A, Werft W, Becker N, et al. BRAF gene duplication constitutes a mechanism of MAPK pathway activation in low-grade astrocytomas. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1739-49 pubmed publisher
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