AXL

Summary

Gene Symbol: AXL
Description: AXL receptor tyrosine kinase
Alias: ARK, JTK11, Tyro7, UFO, tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO, AXL oncogene, AXL transforming sequence/gene
Species: human
Products:     AXL

Top Publications

  1. Paccez J, Vasques G, Correa R, Vasconcellos J, Duncan K, Gu X, et al. The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is an essential regulator of prostate cancer proliferation and tumor growth and represents a new therapeutic target. Oncogene. 2013;32:689-98 pubmed publisher
    Deregulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl has been implicated in the progression of several human cancers...
  2. Hong J, Peng D, Chen Z, Sehdev V, Belkhiri A. ABL regulation by AXL promotes cisplatin resistance in esophageal cancer. Cancer Res. 2013;73:331-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, originally isolated as a transforming gene from leukemia, is overexpressed in several ..
  3. Gjerdrum C, Tiron C, Høiby T, Stefansson I, Haugen H, Sandal T, et al. Axl is an essential epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-induced regulator of breast cancer metastasis and patient survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1124-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the presence of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl in primary breast cancers independently predicts strongly reduced overall patient survival, and that matched ..
  4. Sharif M, Sosic D, Rothlin C, Kelly E, Lemke G, Olson E, et al. Twist mediates suppression of inflammation by type I IFNs and Axl. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1891-901 pubmed
    ..Suppression of TNFalpha production was mediated by induction and activation of the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase and downstream induction of Twist transcriptional repressors that bind to E box elements ..
  5. Ekman C, Stenhoff J, Dahlback B. Gas6 is complexed to the soluble tyrosine kinase receptor Axl in human blood. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:838-44 pubmed publisher
    ..protein (product of growth arrest specific gene 6) binds to, and activates the TAM receptor tyrosine kinases Tyro3, Axl and Mer...
  6. Linger R, Keating A, Earp H, Graham D. TAM receptor tyrosine kinases: biologic functions, signaling, and potential therapeutic targeting in human cancer. Adv Cancer Res. 2008;100:35-83 pubmed publisher
    Tyro-3, Axl, and Mer constitute the TAM family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) characterized by a conserved sequence within the kinase domain and adhesion molecule-like extracellular domains...
  7. Weinger J, Omari K, Marsden K, Raine C, Shafit Zagardo B. Up-regulation of soluble Axl and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases negatively correlates with Gas6 in established multiple sclerosis lesions. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:283-93 pubmed publisher
    ..arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas6), the ligand for the TAM receptor tyrosine kinase family, consisting of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer, is important for cell growth, survival, and clearance of debris...
  8. Vajkoczy P, Knyazev P, Kunkel A, Capelle H, Behrndt S, von Tengg Kobligk H, et al. Dominant-negative inhibition of the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase suppresses brain tumor cell growth and invasion and prolongs survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5799-804 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have identified the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl as a mediator of glioma growth and invasion...
  9. Sainaghi P, Castello L, Bergamasco L, Galletti M, Bellosta P, Avanzi G. Gas6 induces proliferation in prostate carcinoma cell lines expressing the Axl receptor. J Cell Physiol. 2005;204:36-44 pubmed
    b>Axl is a tyrosine kinase receptor and although it is expressed in malignancy such as leukemia, colon cancer, melanoma, endometrial, prostate and thyroid cancers, its role has not been completely elucidated yet and appears to be complex...

More Information

Publications65

  1. Hasanbasic I, Cuerquis J, Varnum B, Blostein M. Intracellular signaling pathways involved in Gas6-Axl-mediated survival of endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H1207-13 pubmed
    Gas6 is a gamma-carboxylated ligand for the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl. Gas6-Axl interactions can rescue endothelial cells from apoptosis, and this study examined the intracellular signaling mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon...
  2. Varnum B, Young C, Elliott G, Garcia A, Bartley T, Fridell Y, et al. Axl receptor tyrosine kinase stimulated by the vitamin K-dependent protein encoded by growth-arrest-specific gene 6. Nature. 1995;373:623-6 pubmed
    The Axl receptor tyrosine kinase was identified as a protein encoded by a transforming gene from primary human myeloid leukaemia cells by DNA-mediated transformation of NIH 3T3 cells...
  3. Korshunov V. Axl-dependent signalling: a clinical update. Clin Sci (Lond). 2012;122:361-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Axl is a receptor tyrosine kinase that was originally cloned from cancer cells. Axl belongs to the TAM (Tyro3, Axl and Mertk) family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Gas6 (growth-arrest-specific protein 6) is a ligand for Axl...
  4. Tai K, Shieh Y, Lee C, Shiah S, Wu C. Axl promotes cell invasion by inducing MMP-9 activity through activation of NF-kappaB and Brg-1. Oncogene. 2008;27:4044-55 pubmed publisher
    Activity of the Axl receptor tyrosine kinase is positively correlated with tumor metastasis; however, its detailed role in the mechanism of tumor invasion is still not completely understood...
  5. Mudduluru G, Vajkoczy P, Allgayer H. Myeloid zinc finger 1 induces migration, invasion, and in vivo metastasis through Axl gene expression in solid cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2010;8:159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a potential role of MZF1 in metastasis remains unclear. Axl is a receptor tyrosine kinase and was first identified as a transforming gene in chronic myeloid leukemia...
  6. Ekman C, Gottsäter A, Lindblad B, Dahlback B. Plasma concentrations of Gas6 and soluble Axl correlate with disease and predict mortality in patients with critical limb ischemia. Clin Biochem. 2010;43:873-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Gas6 is a vitamin K-dependent protein, which binds and activates the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl. Gas6-mediated Axl-signaling influences endothelial activation, neointima formation and immune regulation...
  7. Mudduluru G, Ceppi P, Kumarswamy R, Scagliotti G, Papotti M, Allgayer H. Regulation of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase expression by miR-34a and miR-199a/b in solid cancer. Oncogene. 2011;30:2888-99 pubmed publisher
    b>Axl is a receptor that induces proliferation, migration and invasion in cancer. In this study, we show that specific microRNAs (miRNAs) target the 3'-UTR of Axl...
  8. Vuoriluoto K, Haugen H, Kiviluoto S, Mpindi J, Nevo J, Gjerdrum C, et al. Vimentin regulates EMT induction by Slug and oncogenic H-Ras and migration by governing Axl expression in breast cancer. Oncogene. 2011;30:1436-48 pubmed publisher
    ..in invasiveness-related gene expression including upregulation of RAB25 (small GTPase Rab25) and downregulation of AXL (receptor tyrosine kinase Axl), PLAU (plasminogen activator, urokinase) and ITGB4 (integrin ?4-subunit)...
  9. Zhang Z, Lee J, Lin L, Olivas V, Au V, LaFramboise T, et al. Activation of the AXL kinase causes resistance to EGFR-targeted therapy in lung cancer. Nat Genet. 2012;44:852-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report increased activation of AXL and evidence for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in multiple in vitro and in vivo EGFR-mutant lung ..
  10. Wilson C, Ye X, Pham T, Lin E, Chan S, McNamara E, et al. AXL inhibition sensitizes mesenchymal cancer cells to antimitotic drugs. Cancer Res. 2014;74:5878-90 pubmed publisher
    ..b>AXL is a receptor tyrosine kinase associated with EMT that has been implicated in drug resistance and has emerged as a ..
  11. Ben Batalla I, Schultze A, Wroblewski M, Erdmann R, Heuser M, Waizenegger J, et al. Axl, a prognostic and therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia mediates paracrine crosstalk of leukemia cells with bone marrow stroma. Blood. 2013;122:2443-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that Axl, a member of the Tyro3, Axl, Mer receptor tyrosine kinase family,(2-4) represents an independent prognostic marker ..
  12. Neubauer A, Burchert A, Maiwald C, Gruss H, Serke S, Huhn D, et al. Recent progress on the role of Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase, in malignant transformation of myeloid leukemias. Leuk Lymphoma. 1997;25:91-6 pubmed
    ..b>Axl (or UFO/Ark) is the first member of a new class of RTK with two fibronectin type III domains and two immunoglobulin-..
  13. Ruan G, Kazlauskas A. Lactate engages receptor tyrosine kinases Axl, Tie2, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 to activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and promote angiogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:21161-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Lactate engaged the PI3K/Akt pathway via ligand-mediated activation of the three receptor tyrosine kinases Axl, Tie2, and VEGF receptor 2...
  14. Han J, Tian R, Yong B, Luo C, Tan P, Shen J, et al. Gas6/Axl mediates tumor cell apoptosis, migration and invasion and predicts the clinical outcome of osteosarcoma patients. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;435:493-500 pubmed publisher
    Dysregulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl and its ligand Gas6 has been shown to promote multiple tumorigenic processes, as well as to correlate with worse prognosis in many different tumor types...
  15. Ott M, Litzenburger U, Sahm F, Rauschenbach K, Tudoran R, Hartmann C, et al. Promotion of glioblastoma cell motility by enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is mediated by AXL receptor kinase. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47663 pubmed publisher
    ..or pharmacological inhibition of EZH2, microarray analyses demonstrated a strong transcriptional reduction of the AXL receptor kinase...
  16. Van Ginkel P, Gee R, Shearer R, Subramanian L, Walker T, Albert D, et al. Expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl promotes ocular melanoma cell survival. Cancer Res. 2004;64:128-34 pubmed
    ..differentially expressed in melanoma cells and normal melanocytes, we identified the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl and found up-regulation of Axl in uveal melanomas and melanoma cell lines by RNase protection, Western analysis, ..
  17. Gallicchio M, Mitola S, Valdembri D, Fantozzi R, Varnum B, Avanzi G, et al. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated endothelial cell activation by Axl tyrosine kinase receptor. Blood. 2005;105:1970-6 pubmed
    GAS6, the product of a growth arrest specific (GAS) gene, is the ligand of the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl. GAS6 and Axl are both expressed in endothelial cells, where they are involved in many processes such as leukocyte transmigration ..
  18. Mishra A, Wang J, Shiozawa Y, McGee S, Kim J, Jung Y, et al. Hypoxia stabilizes GAS6/Axl signaling in metastatic prostate cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2012;10:703-12 pubmed publisher
    The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is overexpressed in a variety of cancers and is known to play a role in proliferation and invasion...
  19. Dufies M, Jacquel A, Belhacene N, Robert G, Cluzeau T, Luciano F, et al. Mechanisms of AXL overexpression and function in Imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cells. Oncotarget. 2011;2:874-85 pubmed
    b>AXL is a receptor tyrosine kinase of the TAM family, the function of which is poorly understood. We previously identified AXL overexpression in Imatinib (IM)-resistant CML cell lines and patients...
  20. Ruan G, Kazlauskas A. Axl is essential for VEGF-A-dependent activation of PI3K/Akt. EMBO J. 2012;31:1692-703 pubmed publisher
    ..and subsequent TSAd-mediated activation of Src family kinases (SFKs), SFKs engage the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl via its juxtamembrane domain to trigger ligand-independent autophosphorylation at a pair of YXXM motifs that ..
  21. Linger R, Cohen R, Cummings C, Sather S, Migdall Wilson J, Middleton D, et al. Mer or Axl receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition promotes apoptosis, blocks growth and enhances chemosensitivity of human non-small cell lung cancer. Oncogene. 2013;32:3420-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated 88 human NSCLC tumors of diverse histology and identified Mer and Axl as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) overexpressed in 69% and 93%, respectively, of tumors relative to surrounding ..
  22. Meyer A, Miller M, Gertler F, Lauffenburger D. The receptor AXL diversifies EGFR signaling and limits the response to EGFR-targeted inhibitors in triple-negative breast cancer cells. Sci Signal. 2013;6:ra66 pubmed publisher
    ..Using machine learning analysis applied to the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia database, we identified expression of AXL, the gene that encodes the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) AXL,..
  23. Mackiewicz M, Huppi K, Pitt J, Dorsey T, Ambs S, Caplen N. Identification of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in breast cancer as a target for the human miR-34a microRNA. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;130:663-79 pubmed publisher
    ..being >3-fold down (from its median expression value across all cell lines) in MDA-MB-231 cells, and identified AXL as a putative mRNA target using multiple miRNA/target prediction algorithms...
  24. Sensi M, Catani M, Castellano G, Nicolini G, Alciato F, Tragni G, et al. Human cutaneous melanomas lacking MITF and melanocyte differentiation antigens express a functional Axl receptor kinase. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:2448-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Axl, a member of the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, Mer) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, displays an increasingly important role in carcinogenesis...
  25. Yeh C, Shin S, Yeh H, Wu T, Shin J, Chang T, et al. Transcriptional activation of the Axl and PDGFR-? by c-Met through a ras- and Src-independent mechanism in human bladder cancer. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:139 pubmed publisher
    ..A positive association of Axl or platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-?) with c-Met expression was demonstrated at translational ..
  26. Ghosh A, Secreto C, Boysen J, Sassoon T, Shanafelt T, Mukhopadhyay D, et al. The novel receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is constitutively active in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acts as a docking site of nonreceptor kinases: implications for therapy. Blood. 2011;117:1928-37 pubmed publisher
    ..microvesicles in CLL plasma carry a constitutively phosphorylated novel receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), Axl, indicating that Axl was acquired from the leukemic B cells...
  27. Ye X, Li Y, Stawicki S, Couto S, Eastham Anderson J, Kallop D, et al. An anti-Axl monoclonal antibody attenuates xenograft tumor growth and enhances the effect of multiple anticancer therapies. Oncogene. 2010;29:5254-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Axl is expressed in various types of cancer and is involved in multiple processes of tumorigenesis, including promoting tumor cell growth, migration, invasion, metastasis as well as angiogenesis...
  28. Cosemans J, van Kruchten R, Olieslagers S, Schurgers L, Verheyen F, Munnix I, et al. Potentiating role of Gas6 and Tyro3, Axl and Mer (TAM) receptors in human and murine platelet activation and thrombus stabilization. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:1797-808 pubmed publisher
    Interaction of murine Gas6 with the platelet Gas6 receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mer (TAM) plays an important role in arterial thrombus formation. However, a role for Gas6 in human platelet activation has been questioned...
  29. Chung B, Malkowicz S, Nguyen T, Libertino J, McGarvey T. Expression of the proto-oncogene Axl in renal cell carcinoma. DNA Cell Biol. 2003;22:533-40 pubmed
    In this investigation, we examined the role of the Axl proto-oncogene in renal cell carcinoma (RCC)...
  30. O Bryan J, Fridell Y, Koski R, Varnum B, Liu E. The transforming receptor tyrosine kinase, Axl, is post-translationally regulated by proteolytic cleavage. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:551-7 pubmed
    ..b>Axl is a member of a new class of receptor tyrosine kinases characterized by an ECD resembling cell adhesion molecules ..
  31. Fiebeler A, Park J, Muller D, Lindschau C, Mengel M, Merkel S, et al. Growth arrest specific protein 6/Axl signaling in human inflammatory renal diseases. Am J Kidney Dis. 2004;43:286-95 pubmed
    Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and its binding partner, the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl, are important mediators in experimental nephritis...
  32. Mudduluru G, Allgayer H. The human receptor tyrosine kinase Axl gene--promoter characterization and regulation of constitutive expression by Sp1, Sp3 and CpG methylation. Biosci Rep. 2008;28:161-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Axl is a receptor tyrosine kinase which promotes anti-apoptosis, mitogenesis, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis, and is highly expressed in cancers...
  33. Nagata K, Ohashi K, Nakano T, Arita H, Zong C, Hanafusa H, et al. Identification of the product of growth arrest-specific gene 6 as a common ligand for Axl, Sky, and Mer receptor tyrosine kinases. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:30022-7 pubmed
    b>Axl, Sky, and Mer, members of an Axl/Sky receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily, are typified by the cell adhesion molecule-related extracellular domain...
  34. Krishnamoorthy G, Guida T, Alfano L, Avilla E, Santoro M, Carlomagno F, et al. Molecular mechanism of 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG)-induced AXL receptor tyrosine kinase degradation. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:17481-94 pubmed publisher
    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is overexpressed in many cancer types including thyroid carcinomas and has well established roles in tumor formation and progression...
  35. Sun W, Misao R, Iwagaki S, Fujimoto J, Tamaya T. Coexpression of growth arrest-specific gene 6 and receptor tyrosine kinases, Axl and Sky, in human uterine endometrium and ovarian endometriosis. Mol Hum Reprod. 2002;8:552-8 pubmed
    ..gene 6 (gas6) and a member of the vitamin K-dependent protein family, and its receptor tyrosine kinases, Axl and Sky, in human uterine and ovarian endometriotic endometria using RT-PCR-Southern blot analysis and ..
  36. Pinato D, Mauri F, Lloyd T, Vaira V, Casadio C, Boldorini R, et al. The expression of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase influences the tumour phenotype and clinical outcome of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Br J Cancer. 2013;108:621-8 pubmed publisher
    Recent preclinical studies identified Axl, a tyrosine kinase receptor implicated in tumour progression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, as a putative therapeutic target in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), an invariably ..
  37. Ammoun S, Provenzano L, Zhou L, Barczyk M, Evans K, Hilton D, et al. Axl/Gas6/NF?B signalling in schwannoma pathological proliferation, adhesion and survival. Oncogene. 2014;33:336-46 pubmed publisher
    TAM family receptor tyrosine kinases comprising Tyro3 (Sky), Axl, and Mer are overexpressed in some cancers, correlate with multidrug resistance and contribute to tumourigenesis by regulating invasion, angiogenesis, cell survival and ..
  38. Ishikawa M, Sonobe M, Nakayama E, Kobayashi M, Kikuchi R, Kitamura J, et al. Higher expression of receptor tyrosine kinase Axl, and differential expression of its ligand, Gas6, predict poor survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Ann Surg Oncol. 2013;20 Suppl 3:S467-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we assessed the clinical involvement of Axl, an RTK, and its ligand, Gas6, in surgically treated lung adenocarcinoma...
  39. D Arcangelo D, Gaetano C, Capogrossi M. Acidification prevents endothelial cell apoptosis by Axl activation. Circ Res. 2002;91:e4-12 pubmed
    ..4) or with 20% CO2 (pH 7.0). Tyrosine kinase receptor Axl expression was 3.3-fold higher after 6 hours at pH 7.0 compared with pH 7...
  40. Yanagita M, Arai H, Ishii K, Nakano T, Ohashi K, Mizuno K, et al. Gas6 regulates mesangial cell proliferation through Axl in experimental glomerulonephritis. Am J Pathol. 2001;158:1423-32 pubmed
    ..arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) stimulates mesangial cell proliferation through binding to its cell-surface receptor Axl in vitro...
  41. Hutterer M, Knyazev P, Abate A, Reschke M, Maier H, Stefanova N, et al. Axl and growth arrest-specific gene 6 are frequently overexpressed in human gliomas and predict poor prognosis in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:130-8 pubmed publisher
    The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl has recently been identified as a critical element in the invasive properties of glioma cell lines...
  42. Gustafsson A, Martuszewska D, Johansson M, Ekman C, Hafizi S, Ljungberg B, et al. Differential expression of Axl and Gas6 in renal cell carcinoma reflecting tumor advancement and survival. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:4742-9 pubmed publisher
    Overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl is implicated in several cancers. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine the expression of Axl and its ligand Gas6 in various renal cell carcinoma (RCC) types and in oncocytoma...
  43. Li Y, Ye X, Tan C, Hongo J, Zha J, Liu J, et al. Axl as a potential therapeutic target in cancer: role of Axl in tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis. Oncogene. 2009;28:3442-55 pubmed publisher
    Dysregulation of Axl and its ligand growth arrest-specific 6 is implicated in the pathogenesis of several human cancers. In this study, we have used RNAi and monoclonal antibodies to assess further the oncogenic potential of Axl...
  44. Liu R, Gong M, Li X, Zhou Y, Gao W, Tulpule A, et al. Induction, regulation, and biologic function of Axl receptor tyrosine kinase in Kaposi sarcoma. Blood. 2010;116:297-305 pubmed publisher
    b>Axl is an oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase that plays multiple roles in tumorigenesis and metastasis of many cancers...
  45. O Bryan J, Frye R, Cogswell P, Neubauer A, Kitch B, Prokop C, et al. axl, a transforming gene isolated from primary human myeloid leukemia cells, encodes a novel receptor tyrosine kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:5016-31 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis indicates that the product of this gene, axl, is a receptor tyrosine kinase...
  46. Dunne P, McArt D, Blayney J, Kalimutho M, Greer S, Wang T, et al. AXL is a key regulator of inherent and chemotherapy-induced invasion and predicts a poor clinical outcome in early-stage colon cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2014;20:164-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Tumors from patients with early-stage colorectal cancer (N = 336) were examined for AXL expression...
  47. Suh C, Hilliard B, Li S, Merrill J, Cohen P. TAM receptor ligands in lupus: protein S but not Gas6 levels reflect disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R146 pubmed publisher
    The TAM (tyro 3, axl, mer) kinases are key regulators of innate immunity and are important in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells...
  48. Song X, Wang H, Logsdon C, Rashid A, Fleming J, Abbruzzese J, et al. Overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinase Axl promotes tumor cell invasion and survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Cancer. 2011;117:734-43 pubmed publisher
    The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl has been reported to be overexpressed in a variety of human cancers...
  49. Janssen J, Schulz A, Steenvoorden A, Schmidberger M, Strehl S, Ambros P, et al. A novel putative tyrosine kinase receptor with oncogenic potential. Oncogene. 1991;6:2113-20 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the cDNA cloning of the corresponding oncogene, designated UFO, in allusion to the as yet unidentified function of its protein...
  50. Shieh Y, Lai C, Kao Y, Shiah S, Chu Y, Lee H, et al. Expression of axl in lung adenocarcinoma and correlation with tumor progression. Neoplasia. 2005;7:1058-64 pubmed
    ..b>Axl was relatively overexpressed in the highly invasive cell lines when compared with their minimally invasive ..
  51. Asiedu M, Beauchamp Perez F, Ingle J, Behrens M, Radisky D, Knutson K. AXL induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and regulates the function of breast cancer stem cells. Oncogene. 2014;33:1316-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate a novel function of AXL in acting upstream to induce EMT in normal and immortalized human mammary epithelial cells in an apparent positive ..
  52. Xu M, Chan S, Liu A, Wong K, Fan S, Chen J, et al. AXL receptor kinase is a mediator of YAP-dependent oncogenic functions in hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncogene. 2011;30:1229-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we have identified AXL, a receptor tyrosine kinase, as a key downstream target that drives YAP-dependent oncogenic functions...
  53. Green J, Ikram M, Vyas J, Patel N, Proby C, Ghali L, et al. Overexpression of the Axl tyrosine kinase receptor in cutaneous SCC-derived cell lines and tumours. Br J Cancer. 2006;94:1446-51 pubmed
    ..Gene expression differences were corroborated by polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. We identified Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase with transforming potential that has also been shown to have a role in cell survival, ..
  54. Sayan A, Stanford R, Vickery R, Grigorenko E, Diesch J, Kulbicki K, et al. Fra-1 controls motility of bladder cancer cells via transcriptional upregulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL. Oncogene. 2012;31:1493-503 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene coding for AXL tyrosine kinase is directly upregulated by Fra-1 in bladder cancer and in other cell lines...
  55. Avilla E, Guarino V, Visciano C, Liotti F, Svelto M, Krishnamoorthy G, et al. Activation of TYRO3/AXL tyrosine kinase receptors in thyroid cancer. Cancer Res. 2011;71:1792-804 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we identified the TYRO3 and AXL receptor tyrosine kinases as transcriptional targets of the chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1 in CXCR4-expressing thyroid ..
  56. Ou W, Corson J, Flynn D, Lu W, Wise S, Bueno R, et al. AXL regulates mesothelioma proliferation and invasiveness. Oncogene. 2011;30:1643-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These assays demonstrated expression and activation of the AXL protein, which is an RTK with known oncogenic properties in non-mesothelial cancer types...