Gene Symbol: ATRX
Description: ATRX, chromatin remodeler
Alias: JMS, MRX52, RAD54, RAD54L, XH2, XNP, ZNF-HX, transcriptional regulator ATRX, ATP-dependent helicase ATRX, X-linked helicase II, X-linked nuclear protein, alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (RAD54 homolog, S. cerevisiae)
Species: human
Products:     ATRX

Top Publications

  1. Ritchie K, Seah C, Moulin J, Isaac C, Dick F, Berube N. Loss of ATRX leads to chromosome cohesion and congression defects. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:315-24 pubmed publisher
    Alpha thalassemia/mental retardation X linked (ATRX) is a switch/sucrose nonfermenting-type ATPase localized at pericentromeric heterochromatin in mouse and human cells...
  2. Eustermann S, Yang J, Law M, Amos R, Chapman L, Jelinska C, et al. Combinatorial readout of histone H3 modifications specifies localization of ATRX to heterochromatin. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:777-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the gene encoding X-linked ATRX protein cause a mental-retardation syndrome, whereas wild-type ATRX protein targets pericentric and telomeric ..
  3. Heaphy C, de Wilde R, Jiao Y, Klein A, Edil B, Shi C, et al. Altered telomeres in tumors with ATRX and DAXX mutations. Science. 2011;333:425 pubmed publisher
    The proteins encoded by ATRX and DAXX participate in chromatin remodeling at telomeres and other genomic sites...
  4. Goldberg A, Banaszynski L, Noh K, Lewis P, Elsaesser S, Stadler S, et al. Distinct factors control histone variant H3.3 localization at specific genomic regions. Cell. 2010;140:678-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry reveal that the proteins Atrx and Daxx associate with H3.3 in a Hira-independent manner. Atrx is required for Hira-independent localization of H3...
  5. Mazina O, Mazin A. Human Rad54 protein stimulates human Mus81-Eme1 endonuclease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18249-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Rad54, a key protein of homologous recombination, physically interacts with a DNA structure-specific endonuclease, Mus81-Eme1. Genetic data indicate that Mus81-Eme1 and Rad54 might function together in the repair of damaged DNA...
  6. Lewis P, Elsaesser S, Noh K, Stadler S, Allis C. Daxx is an H3.3-specific histone chaperone and cooperates with ATRX in replication-independent chromatin assembly at telomeres. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14075-80 pubmed publisher
    ..the death domain associated protein (Daxx) and the alpha-thalassemia X-linked mental retardation protein (ATRX) as H3.3-associated proteins...
  7. Gibbons R, Wada T, Fisher C, Malik N, Mitson M, Steensma D, et al. Mutations in the chromatin-associated protein ATRX. Hum Mutat. 2008;29:796-802 pubmed publisher
    b>ATRX belongs to the SNF2 family of proteins, many of which have been demonstrated to have chromatin remodeling activity...
  8. Law M, Lower K, Voon H, Hughes J, Garrick D, Viprakasit V, et al. ATR-X syndrome protein targets tandem repeats and influences allele-specific expression in a size-dependent manner. Cell. 2010;143:367-78 pubmed publisher
    b>ATRX is an X-linked gene of the SWI/SNF family, mutations in which cause syndromal mental retardation and downregulation of ?-globin expression...
  9. Mitson M, Kelley L, Sternberg M, Higgs D, Gibbons R. Functional significance of mutations in the Snf2 domain of ATRX. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:2603-10 pubmed publisher
    b>ATRX is a member of the Snf2 family of chromatin-remodelling proteins and is mutated in an X-linked mental retardation syndrome associated with alpha-thalassaemia (ATR-X syndrome)...

More Information


  1. Cheung N, Zhang J, Lu C, Parker M, Bahrami A, Tickoo S, et al. Association of age at diagnosis and genetic mutations in patients with neuroblastoma. JAMA. 2012;307:1062-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In the discovery cohort (n = 40), mutations in the ATRX gene were identified in 100% (95% CI, 50%-100%) of tumors from patients in the adolescent and young adult group (5 ..
  2. Kannan K, Inagaki A, Silber J, Gorovets D, Zhang J, Kastenhuber E, et al. Whole-exome sequencing identifies ATRX mutation as a key molecular determinant in lower-grade glioma. Oncotarget. 2012;3:1194-203 pubmed 4 LGGs, followed by focused resequencing in an additional 28, and found a high incidence of mutations in the ATRX gene (? thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked)...
  3. Sigurdsson S, Van Komen S, Petukhova G, Sung P. Homologous DNA pairing by human recombination factors Rad51 and Rad54. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42790-4 pubmed
    Human Rad51 (hRad51) and Rad54 proteins are key members of the RAD52 group required for homologous recombination...
  4. Wiestler B, Capper D, Holland Letz T, Korshunov A, von Deimling A, Pfister S, et al. ATRX loss refines the classification of anaplastic gliomas and identifies a subgroup of IDH mutant astrocytic tumors with better prognosis. Acta Neuropathol. 2013;126:443-51 pubmed publisher
    Mutation/loss of alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) expression has been described in anaplastic gliomas...
  5. McDowell T, Gibbons R, Sutherland H, O Rourke D, Bickmore W, Pombo A, et al. Localization of a putative transcriptional regulator (ATRX) at pericentromeric heterochromatin and the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:13983-8 pubmed
    b>ATRX is a member of the SNF2 family of helicase/ATPases that is thought to regulate gene expression via an effect on chromatin structure and/or function...
  6. Gibbons R, Bachoo S, Picketts D, Aftimos S, Asenbauer B, Bergoffen J, et al. Mutations in transcriptional regulator ATRX establish the functional significance of a PHD-like domain. Nat Genet. 1997;17:146-8 pubmed
  7. Picketts D, Higgs D, Bachoo S, Blake D, Quarrell O, Gibbons R. ATRX encodes a novel member of the SNF2 family of proteins: mutations point to a common mechanism underlying the ATR-X syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 1996;5:1899-907 pubmed
    It was shown recently that mutations of the ATRX gene give rise to a severe, X-linked form of syndromal mental retardation associated with alpha thalassaemia (ATR-X syndrome)...
  8. Gibbons R, Picketts D, Villard L, Higgs D. Mutations in a putative global transcriptional regulator cause X-linked mental retardation with alpha-thalassemia (ATR-X syndrome). Cell. 1995;80:837-45 pubmed
    ..includes proteins involved in a wide range of cellular functions, including DNA recombination and repair (RAD16, RAD54, and ERCC6) and regulation of transcription (SW12/SNF2, MOT1, and brahma)...
  9. Liu X, Gerges N, Korshunov A, Sabha N, Khuong Quang D, Fontebasso A, et al. Frequent ATRX mutations and loss of expression in adult diffuse astrocytic tumors carrying IDH1/IDH2 and TP53 mutations. Acta Neuropathol. 2012;124:615-25 pubmed publisher
    ..frequent alterations in chromatin remodelling pathways including recurrent mutations in H3F3A and mutations in ATRX (?-thalassemia/mental-retardation-syndrome-X-linked) in pediatric and young adult glioblastoma (GBM, WHO grade IV ..
  10. Iwase S, Xiang B, Ghosh S, Ren T, Lewis P, Cochrane J, et al. ATRX ADD domain links an atypical histone methylation recognition mechanism to human mental-retardation syndrome. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:769-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the ATRX gene, which encodes an ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeler, are responsible for the syndrome...
  11. Leung J, Ghosal G, Wang W, Shen X, Wang J, Li L, et al. Alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked gene product ATRX is required for proper replication restart and cellular resistance to replication stress. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:6342-50 pubmed publisher
    Alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) is a member of the SWI/SNF protein family of DNA-dependent ATPases. It functions as a chromatin remodeler and is classified as an SNF2-like helicase...
  12. Dhayalan A, Tamas R, Bock I, Tattermusch A, Dimitrova E, Kudithipudi S, et al. The ATRX-ADD domain binds to H3 tail peptides and reads the combined methylation state of K4 and K9. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:2195-203 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the ATRX protein are associated with the alpha-thalassemia and mental retardation X-linked syndrome (ATR-X). Almost half of the disease-causing mutations occur in its ATRX-Dnmt3-Dnmt3L (ADD) domain...
  13. Clynes D, Jelinska C, Xella B, Ayyub H, Taylor S, Mitson M, et al. ATRX dysfunction induces replication defects in primary mouse cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92915 pubmed publisher
    The chromatin remodeling protein ATRX, which targets tandem repetitive DNA, has been shown to be required for expression of the alpha globin genes, for proliferation of a variety of cellular progenitors, for chromosome congression and for ..
  14. Drané P, Ouararhni K, Depaux A, Shuaib M, Hamiche A. The death-associated protein DAXX is a novel histone chaperone involved in the replication-independent deposition of H3.3. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1253-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the death domain-associated protein DAXX and the chromatin remodeling factor ATRX (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome protein) are specifically associated with the H3...
  15. Xue Y, Gibbons R, Yan Z, Yang D, McDowell T, Sechi S, et al. The ATRX syndrome protein forms a chromatin-remodeling complex with Daxx and localizes in promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:10635-40 pubmed
    b>ATRX syndrome is characterized by X-linked mental retardation associated with alpha-thalassemia...
  16. Lukashchuk V, Everett R. Regulation of ICP0-null mutant herpes simplex virus type 1 infection by ND10 components ATRX and hDaxx. J Virol. 2010;84:4026-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The two ND10 component proteins investigated in this report are ATRX and hDaxx, which are known to interact with each other and comprise components of a repressive chromatin-remodeling ..
  17. Lukashchuk V, McFarlane S, Everett R, Preston C. Human cytomegalovirus protein pp71 displaces the chromatin-associated factor ATRX from nuclear domain 10 at early stages of infection. J Virol. 2008;82:12543-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that pp71 displaces an hDaxx-binding protein, ATRX, from ND10 prior to any detectable effects on hDaxx itself and that this event contributes to the role of pp71 in ..
  18. Berube N, Healy J, Medina C, Wu S, Hodgson T, Jagla M, et al. Patient mutations alter ATRX targeting to PML nuclear bodies. Eur J Hum Genet. 2008;16:192-201 pubmed
    b>ATRX is a SWI/SNF-like chromatin remodeling protein mutated in several X-linked mental retardation syndromes...
  19. Argentaro A, Yang J, Chapman L, Kowalczyk M, Gibbons R, Higgs D, et al. Structural consequences of disease-causing mutations in the ATRX-DNMT3-DNMT3L (ADD) domain of the chromatin-associated protein ATRX. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11939-44 pubmed
    The chromatin-associated protein ATRX was originally identified because mutations in the ATRX gene cause a severe form of syndromal X-linked mental retardation associated with alpha-thalassemia...
  20. Nan X, Hou J, Maclean A, Nasir J, Lafuente M, Shu X, et al. Interaction between chromatin proteins MECP2 and ATRX is disrupted by mutations that cause inherited mental retardation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2709-14 pubmed
    ..We report that MeCP2 interacts with ATRX, a SWI2/SNF2 DNA helicase/ATPase that is mutated in ATRX syndrome (alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation, X-linked)...
  21. Tang J, Wu S, Liu H, Stratt R, Barak O, Shiekhattar R, et al. A novel transcription regulatory complex containing death domain-associated protein and the ATR-X syndrome protein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:20369-77 pubmed
    ..affinity purification and identified X-linked mental retardation and alpha-thalassaemia syndrome protein (ATRX), a putative member of the SNF2 family of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling proteins that is mutated in several X-..
  22. Ishov A, Vladimirova O, Maul G. Heterochromatin and ND10 are cell-cycle regulated and phosphorylation-dependent alternate nuclear sites of the transcription repressor Daxx and SWI/SNF protein ATRX. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:3807-20 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the transcription repressor Daxx and the SWI/SNF protein ATRX are both associated with two intranuclear domains: ND10/PML bodies and heterochromatin...
  23. Kernohan K, Jiang Y, Tremblay D, Bonvissuto A, Eubanks J, Mann M, et al. ATRX partners with cohesin and MeCP2 and contributes to developmental silencing of imprinted genes in the brain. Dev Cell. 2010;18:191-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that ATRX, MeCP2, and cohesin, chromatin regulators implicated in ATR-X, RTT, and CdLS syndromes, respectively, interact in ..
  24. Clynes D, Gibbons R. ATRX and the replication of structured DNA. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2013;23:289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Relating the cause of ATR-X syndrome to the function of the protein ATRX is a case in point...
  25. Jiao Y, Killela P, Reitman Z, Rasheed A, Heaphy C, de Wilde R, et al. Frequent ATRX, CIC, FUBP1 and IDH1 mutations refine the classification of malignant gliomas. Oncotarget. 2012;3:709-22 pubmed
    Mutations in the critical chromatin modifier ATRX and mutations in CIC and FUBP1, which are potent regulators of cell growth, have been discovered in specific subtypes of gliomas, the most common type of primary malignant brain tumors...
  26. Lovejoy C, Li W, Reisenweber S, Thongthip S, Bruno J, de Lange T, et al. Loss of ATRX, genome instability, and an altered DNA damage response are hallmarks of the alternative lengthening of telomeres pathway. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002772 pubmed
    ..Recently, mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex and histone H3...
  27. Gibbons R, McDowell T, Raman S, O Rourke D, Garrick D, Ayyub H, et al. Mutations in ATRX, encoding a SWI/SNF-like protein, cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation. Nat Genet. 2000;24:368-71 pubmed
    ..One such protein, ATRX, contains a highly conserved plant homeodomain (PHD)-like domain, present in many chromatin-associated proteins, ..
  28. Bérubé N, Smeenk C, Picketts D. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of the ATRX protein correlates with changes in nuclear matrix and chromatin association. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:539-47 pubmed
    Mutations in the ATRX gene are associated with an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) syndrome most often accompanied by alpha-thalassaemia (ATR-X syndrome)...
  29. Lechner M, Schultz D, Negorev D, Maul G, Rauscher F. The mammalian heterochromatin protein 1 binds diverse nuclear proteins through a common motif that targets the chromoshadow domain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;331:929-37 pubmed
    ..We also define a new class of variant PxVxL CSD-binding motifs in Sp100A, LBR, and ATRX. Both canonical and variant motifs recognize a similar surface of the CSD dimer as demonstrated by a panel of CSD ..
  30. Jiao Y, Shi C, Edil B, de Wilde R, Klimstra D, Maitra A, et al. DAXX/ATRX, MEN1, and mTOR pathway genes are frequently altered in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Science. 2011;331:1199-203 pubmed publisher
    ..subunits of a transcription/chromatin remodeling complex consisting of DAXX (death-domain-associated protein) and ATRX (? thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked)...
  31. Wong L, McGhie J, Sim M, Anderson M, Ahn S, Hannan R, et al. ATRX interacts with H3.3 in maintaining telomere structural integrity in pluripotent embryonic stem cells. Genome Res. 2010;20:351-60 pubmed publisher
    b>ATRX (alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked) belongs to the SWI2/SNF2 family of chromatin remodeling proteins. Besides the ATPase/helicase domain at its C terminus, it contains a PHD-like zinc finger at the N terminus...
  32. Spies J, Waizenegger A, Barton O, Sürder M, Wright W, Heyer W, et al. Nek1 Regulates Rad54 to Orchestrate Homologous Recombination and Replication Fork Stability. Mol Cell. 2016;62:903-917 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that human Nek1 regulates homologous recombination (HR) by phosphorylating Rad54 at Ser572 in late G2 phase...
  33. Lee J, Lee S, Lim B, Kim K, Hwang Y, Choi M, et al. Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome identified by whole exome sequencing in two boys with white matter changes and developmental retardation. Gene. 2015;569:318-22 pubmed publisher
    Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATRX) syndrome is a genetic syndrome caused by mutation of the ATRX gene associated with chromatin remodeling...
  34. Miller J, Harvey E, Schwiegerling J. Higher-order aberrations and best-corrected visual acuity in Native American children with a high prevalence of astigmatism. J AAPOS. 2015;19:352-7.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Astigmatism and unsigned spherical aberration are associated with decreased acuity, but the effects of spherical aberration are minimal and not clinically significant. ..
  35. Whitelaw D, Tonkin R, Meints C, Wolthers K. Kinetic analysis of electron flux in cytochrome P450 reductases reveals differences in rate-determining steps in plant and mammalian enzymes. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2015;584:107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In combination, the data reveal differences in rate-determining steps between plant CPR and their mammalian equivalent in mediating the flux of reducing equivalents from NADPH to external electron acceptors. ..
  36. Brügger F, Dettmer M, Neuenschwander M, Perren A, Marinoni I, Hewer E. TERT Promoter Mutations but not the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Phenotype Are Present in a Subset of Ependymomas and Are Associated With Adult Onset and Progression to Ependymosarcoma. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2017;76:61-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These include the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) phenotype associated with mutations in the ATRX and DAXX genes and recurrent point mutations in the TERT gene promoter...
  37. Pathania M, De Jay N, Maestro N, Harutyunyan A, Nitarska J, Pahlavan P, et al. H3.3K27M Cooperates with Trp53 Loss and PDGFRA Gain in Mouse Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cells to Induce Invasive High-Grade Gliomas. Cancer Cell. 2017;32:684-700.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..Addition of wild-type PDGFRA decreases latency and increases tumor invasion, while ATRX knockdown is associated with more circumscribed tumors. H3...
  38. Shioda N, Beppu H, Fukuda T, Li E, Kitajima I, Fukunaga K. Aberrant calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity is associated with abnormal dendritic spine morphology in the ATRX mutant mouse brain. J Neurosci. 2011;31:346-58 pubmed publisher
    In humans, mutations in the gene encoding ATRX, a chromatin remodeling protein of the sucrose-nonfermenting 2 family, cause several mental retardation disorders, including ?-thalassemia X-linked mental retardation syndrome...
  39. Stevenson R, Abidi F, Schwartz C, Lubs H, Holmes L. Holmes-Gang syndrome is allelic with XLMR-hypotonic face syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 2000;94:383-5 pubmed
  40. Holmes L, Ling P. Workplace secondhand smoke exposure: a lingering hazard for young adults in California. Tob Control. 2017;26:e79-e84 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine occupational differences in workplace exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among young adults in California...
  41. Gong M, Liang Z, Zhang Y, Shadel W, Zhou L, Xiao J. Implementation of the Tobacco-Free Campus Policy on College Campuses: Evidence From a Survey of College Students in Beijing. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016;18:2083-2091 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first paper in the English literature on tobacco environment and exposure (rather than a prevalence survey) of college students in China. ..
  42. Bouazzi H, Thakur S, Trujillo C, Alwasiyah M, Munnich A. Novel ATRX gene damaging missense mutation c.6740A>C segregates with profound to severe intellectual deficiency without alpha thalassaemia. Indian J Med Res. 2016;143:43-8 pubmed publisher
    b>ATRX is a recessive X-linked intellectual deficiency (X-LID) gene causing predominately alpha-thalassaemia with a wide and clinically heterogeneous spectrum of intellectual deficiency syndromes...
  43. Flouris A, Metsios G, Carrillo A, Carrill A, Jamurtas A, Stivaktakis P, et al. Respiratory and immune response to maximal physical exertion following exposure to secondhand smoke in healthy adults. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31880 pubmed publisher
    ..05). It is concluded that a 1-hour of SHS at bar/restaurant levels adversely affects the cardiorespiratory and immune response to maximal physical exertion in healthy nonsmokers for at least three hours following SHS. ..
  44. Hwang J, Park S. Sex and Age Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home among Korean Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13:241 pubmed publisher
    ..It is necessary to improve home SHS awareness, especially among these vulnerable populations. ..
  45. Tabuchi T, Hoshino T, Nakayama T. Are Partial Workplace Smoking Bans as Effective as Complete Smoking Bans? A National Population-Based Study of Smoke-Free Policy Among Japanese Employees. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016;18:1265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, complete bans may be strongly recommended for future implementation, but careful interpretation of the data is necessary because of the cross-sectional study design. ..
  46. Goyal N, Rossi M, Mazina O, Chi Y, Moritz R, Clurman B, et al. RAD54 N-terminal domain is a DNA sensor that couples ATP hydrolysis with branch migration of Holliday junctions. Nat Commun. 2018;9:34 pubmed publisher
    In eukaryotes, RAD54 catalyzes branch migration (BM) of Holliday junctions, a basic process during DNA repair, replication, and recombination. RAD54 also stimulates RAD51 recombinase and has other activities...
  47. Wu J, Hsieh D, Kuo W, Han C, Pai P, Yeh Y, et al. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Reduced the Compensatory Effects of IGF-I Growth Signaling in the Aging Rat Hearts. Int J Med Sci. 2015;12:708-18 pubmed publisher
    ..TUNEL apoptotic positive cells were increased in young SHS-exposed rats, and in aging rats with or without SHS-exposure. Aging reduces IGF-I compensated signaling with accelerated cardiac apoptotic effects from second-hand smoke. ..
  48. Li W, Sasso E, van der Helm van Mil A, Huizinga T. Relationship of multi-biomarker disease activity score and other risk factors with radiographic progression in an observational study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016;55:357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..MBDA score enhanced the ability of conventional risk factors to predict radiographic progression in patients with established RA receiving non-biologic DMARDs. ..
  49. Hu Y, Shi G, Zhang L, Li F, Jiang Y, Jiang S, et al. Switch telomerase to ALT mechanism by inducing telomeric DNA damages and dysfunction of ATRX and DAXX. Sci Rep. 2016;6:32280 pubmed publisher
    ..of the telomerase-ALT switch by inducing telomere-specific DNA damage, alpha-thalassemia X-linked syndrome protein (ATRX) knockdown and deletion of death associated protein (DAXX)...
  50. Nourbaghaee H, Ghaderi Hamidi A, Pourabdoli M. Direct recovery of boiler residue by combustion synthesis. Waste Manag. 2018;74:297-301 pubmed publisher
    ..SHS produced two useful products. Metallic master alloy and fused glass slag that is applicable for ceramic industries. SHS can also neutralize the environmental threats of BR by a one step process. ..
  51. Alagiyawanna A, Rajapaksa Hewageegana N, Gunawardena N. The impact of multiple interventions to reduce household exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke among women: a cluster randomized controlled trial in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:810 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and women empowerment (p < 0.001). Multi-component intervention activities were effective in reducing household exposure to SHS among women. Sri Lanka Clinical Trials Registry SLCTR/2014/033. ..
  52. Peifer M, Hertwig F, Roels F, Dreidax D, Gartlgruber M, Menon R, et al. Telomerase activation by genomic rearrangements in high-risk neuroblastoma. Nature. 2015;526:700-4 pubmed publisher
    ..occurred only in high-risk neuroblastomas (12/39, 31%) in a mutually exclusive fashion with MYCN amplifications and ATRX mutations, which are known genetic events in this tumour type...
  53. King B, Dube S, Ko J. Secondhand smoke concentrations in hospitality venues in the Pacific Basin: findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12:2881-5 pubmed
    ..Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments. ..
  54. Howard M, Malik N, Anderson C, Voskuil J, Atkins J, Gibbons R. Attenuation of an amino-terminal premature stop codon mutation in the ATRX gene by an alternative mode of translational initiation. J Med Genet. 2004;41:951-6 pubmed
  55. Geis C, Fendrich V, Rexin P, Di Fazio P, Bartsch D, Ocker M, et al. Ileal neuroendocrine tumors show elevated activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex. J Surg Res. 2015;194:388-93 pubmed publisher
    ..the candidate genes mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX), and death domain-associated protein (DAXX) to investigate the specific oncogenetics and potential therapeutic ..
  56. Abedalthagafi M, Phillips J, Kim G, Mueller S, Haas Kogen D, Marshall R, et al. The alternative lengthening of telomere phenotype is significantly associated with loss of ATRX expression in high-grade pediatric and adult astrocytomas: a multi-institutional study of 214 astrocytomas. Mod Pathol. 2013;26:1425-32 pubmed publisher
    Loss-of-function of alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) protein leads to a phenotype called alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) in some tumors...
  57. Wada T, Ban H, Matsufuji M, Okamoto N, Enomoto K, Kurosawa K, et al. Neuroradiologic features in X-linked ?-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34:2034-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Inheritance in Man, 301040) is one of the X-linked intellectual disability syndromes caused by mutations of the ATRX gene and characterized by male predominance, central hypotonic facies, severe cognitive dysfunction, hemoglobin H ..
  58. Sutherland G, Gedeon A, Haan E, Woodroffe P, Mulley J. Linkage studies with the gene for an X-linked syndrome of mental retardation, microcephaly and spastic diplegia (MRX2). Am J Med Genet. 1988;30:493-508 pubmed
    ..10 at theta = 0.11 for DXYS1, assuming the possibly affected male carried the MRX2 gene. There were lower lod scores suggestive of linkage with DXS7 (theta = 0.14; z = 1.29) and DXS94 (theta = 0.11; z = 1.22). ..
  59. Zafar F, Okita A, Onaka A, Su J, Katahira Y, Nakayama J, et al. Regulation of mitotic recombination between DNA repeats in centromeres. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:11222-11235 pubmed publisher
    ..Rad51-dependent HR that requires Rad51, Rad54 and Rad52 was predominant in the centromere, whereas Rad51-independent HR that requires Rad52 also occurred in the ..
  60. Koelsche C, Renner M, Johann P, Leiss I, Sahm F, Schimmack S, et al. Differential nuclear ATRX expression in sarcomas. Histopathology. 2016;68:738-45 pubmed publisher
    Nuclear α-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX) loss and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) are linked in distinct malignancies...
  61. Musa C, Licheri R, Orru R, Cao G, Sciti D, Silvestroni L, et al. Processing, Mechanical and Optical Properties of Additive-Free ZrC Ceramics Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering. Materials (Basel). 2016;9: pubmed publisher
    ..These preliminary results suggest that ZrC ceramics produced through the two-step SHS/SPS processing route can be considered as attractive reference materials for the development of innovative solar energy absorbers. ..
  62. Kovatcheva M, Liao W, Klein M, Robine N, Geiger H, Crago A, et al. ATRX is a regulator of therapy induced senescence in human cells. Nat Commun. 2017;8:386 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the chromatin remodeling enzyme ATRX is required for therapy-induced senescence...
  63. Meneghetti M, Gesteira Ferreira T, Tashima A, Chavante S, Yates E, Liu J, et al. Insights into the role of 3-O-sulfotransferase in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Org Biomol Chem. 2017;15:6792-6799 pubmed publisher
  64. Bozas A, Beumer K, Trautman J, Carroll D. Genetic analysis of zinc-finger nuclease-induced gene targeting in Drosophila. Genetics. 2009;182:641-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The frequency of HR dropped significantly in flies homozygous for mutations in spnA (Rad51) or okr (Rad54), two components of the invasion-mediated synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) pathway...
  65. Eppink B, Tafel A, Hanada K, van Drunen E, Hickson I, Essers J, et al. The response of mammalian cells to UV-light reveals Rad54-dependent and independent pathways of homologous recombination. DNA Repair (Amst). 2011;10:1095-105 pubmed publisher
    ..HR protein in mammalian cells is the strand exchange protein RAD51, which is aided by numerous proteins, including RAD54. We used RAD54 as a cellular marker for HR to study the response of mammalian embryonic stem (ES) cells to UV ..
  66. Serrano M, Gallego M, Silva M. Quantitative analysis of aldehydes in canned vegetables using static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A. 2017;1524:21-28 pubmed publisher
    ..4-4.1?g/L)- is ascribed to the use of treated water, thereby being DBPs...
  67. Hammam N, Gheita T. Impact of secondhand smoking on disease activity in women with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol. 2017;36:2415-2420 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking into consideration the risk of cardiovascular disease and interplay with other potential factors should be well thought of. It is essential to draw patients' attention to the expected hazardous effect of passive smoking. ..
  68. Suzuki A, Maruyama T, Nitta M, Komori T, Ikuta S, Kawamata T, et al. Modified rapid immunohistochemical staining for intraoperative diagnosis of malignant brain tumors. Brain Tumor Pathol. 2017;34:141-148 pubmed publisher
    ..The modified method tested 86.6% (46/53) and 82.8% (24/29) in pHH3 and ATRX, respectively, in the percentage of correct classification (PCC) against the permanent specimens, and 100% (7/7) in ..
  69. Qiao X, Su R, Wang Y, Wang R, Yang T, Li X, et al. Genome-wide Target Enrichment-aided Chip Design: a 66 K SNP Chip for Cashmere Goat. Sci Rep. 2017;7:8621 pubmed publisher
    ..The successful chip design shows that the SHS-based target enrichment strategy could be applied to SNP chip design in other species. ..
  70. Becher H, Belau M, Winkler V, Aigner A. Estimating lung cancer mortality attributable to second hand smoke exposure in Germany. Int J Public Health. 2018;63:367-375 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite an aging population, the number of deaths from lung cancer attributable to SHS decreased considerably. This positive trend should be strengthened by further public health measures. ..
  71. Sanchez H, Kertokalio A, van Rossum Fikkert S, Kanaar R, Wyman C. Combined optical and topographic imaging reveals different arrangements of human RAD54 with presynaptic and postsynaptic RAD51-DNA filaments. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:11385-90 pubmed publisher
    ..and scanning force microscope (TIRF-SFM) to pinpoint fluorescently labeled human homologous recombination protein RAD54 interacting with presynaptic (ssDNA) and postsynaptic (dsDNA) human recombinase RAD51 nucleoprotein filaments...
  72. Bot M, Vink J, Willemsen G, Smit J, Neuteboom J, Kluft C, et al. Exposure to secondhand smoke and depression and anxiety: a report from two studies in the Netherlands. J Psychosom Res. 2013;75:431-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined whether these associations could be replicated in two independent Dutch samples...
  73. Martinez F, Roselló M, Mayo S, Monfort S, Oltra S, Orellana C. Duplication at Xq13.3-q21.1 with syndromic intellectual disability, a probable role for the ATRX gene. Am J Med Genet A. 2014;164A:918-23 pubmed publisher
    ..3-q21.1, a region of about 6?Mb and 25 genes. Among these, the most outstanding is ATRX, the causative gene of X-linked alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation...
  74. Purkait S, Miller C, Kumar A, Sharma V, Pathak P, Jha P, et al. ATRX in Diffuse Gliomas With its Mosaic/Heterogeneous Expression in a Subset. Brain Pathol. 2017;27:138-145 pubmed publisher
    This study aims (1) to evaluate ATRX expression in different grades and subtypes of gliomas and correlate with other hallmark genetic alterations, (2) to identify and characterize mosaic/heterogeneous staining in gliomas in terms of ..
  75. Leeper H, Caron A, Decker P, Jenkins R, LaChance D, Giannini C. IDH mutation, 1p19q codeletion and ATRX loss in WHO grade II gliomas. Oncotarget. 2015;6:30295-305 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed markers, including IDH mutation(IDHmut), 1p19q codeletion(1p19qcodel), ATRX expression loss(ATRX loss) and p53 overexpression, and outcomes in 159 patients with WHO grade II oligodendroglioma,..