ATRIP

Summary

Gene Symbol: ATRIP
Description: ATR interacting protein
Alias: ATR-interacting protein, ATM and Rad3-related-interacting protein
Species: human
Products:     ATRIP

Top Publications

  1. Clarke C, Clarke P. DNA-dependent phosphorylation of Chk1 and Claspin in a human cell-free system. Biochem J. 2005;388:705-12 pubmed
    ..This cell-free system will facilitate further biochemical analysis of the Chk1 pathway in humans. ..
  2. Mordes D, Glick G, Zhao R, Cortez D. TopBP1 activates ATR through ATRIP and a PIKK regulatory domain. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1478-89 pubmed publisher
    The ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) kinase and its regulatory partner ATRIP (ATR-interacting protein) coordinate checkpoint responses to DNA damage and replication stress. TopBP1 functions as a general activator of ATR...
  3. Collis S, Ciccia A, Deans A, Horejsi Z, Martin J, Maslen S, et al. FANCM and FAAP24 function in ATR-mediated checkpoint signaling independently of the Fanconi anemia core complex. Mol Cell. 2008;32:313-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that DNA damage recognition and remodeling activities of FANCM and FAAP24 cooperate with ATR/Chk1 to promote efficient activation of DNA damage checkpoints. ..
  4. Falck J, Coates J, Jackson S. Conserved modes of recruitment of ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs to sites of DNA damage. Nature. 2005;434:605-11 pubmed
    ..Here we identify related, conserved carboxy-terminal motifs in human Nbs1, ATRIP and Ku80 proteins that are required for their interaction with ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs, respectively...
  5. Ball H, Myers J, Cortez D. ATRIP binding to replication protein A-single-stranded DNA promotes ATR-ATRIP localization but is dispensable for Chk1 phosphorylation. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2372-81 pubmed
    ATR associates with the regulatory protein ATRIP that has been proposed to localize ATR to sites of DNA damage through an interaction with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) coated with replication protein A (RPA)...
  6. Ball H, Cortez D. ATRIP oligomerization is required for ATR-dependent checkpoint signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:31390-6 pubmed
    ..We examined whether ATR is activated by a similar mechanism. We found that the ATRIP subunit of the ATR kinase and ATR itself exist as homooligomers in cells...
  7. Itakura E, Umeda K, Sekoguchi E, Takata H, Ohsumi M, Matsuura A. ATR-dependent phosphorylation of ATRIP in response to genotoxic stress. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323:1197-202 pubmed
    PI-kinase-related protein kinase ATR forms a complex with ATRIP and plays pivotal roles in maintaining genome integrity...
  8. Itakura E, Takai K, Umeda K, Kimura M, Ohsumi M, Tamai K, et al. Amino-terminal domain of ATRIP contributes to intranuclear relocation of the ATR-ATRIP complex following DNA damage. FEBS Lett. 2004;577:289-93 pubmed
    ..a critical role in cellular responses to DNA structural abnormalities in conjunction with its interacting protein, ATRIP. Here, we show that the amino-terminal portion of ATRIP is relocalized to DNA damage-induced nuclear foci in an ..
  9. Ball H, Ehrhardt M, Mordes D, Glick G, Chazin W, Cortez D. Function of a conserved checkpoint recruitment domain in ATRIP proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:3367-77 pubmed
    ..ATR is recruited to DNA lesions in part through its association with ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP), which in turn interacts with the single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA (replication protein A)...

More Information

Publications88

  1. Rendtlew Danielsen J, Larsen D, Schou K, Freire R, Falck J, Bartek J, et al. HCLK2 is required for activity of the DNA damage response kinase ATR. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:4140-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that HCLK2 forms a complex with ATR-ATRIP and the ATR activator TopBP1...
  2. Nam E, Cortez D. ATR signalling: more than meeting at the fork. Biochem J. 2011;436:527-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss how to incorporate these new insights into a model of ATR regulation and point out the significant gaps in our understanding of this essential genome-maintenance pathway. ..
  3. Itakura E, Sawada I, Matsuura A. Dimerization of the ATRIP protein through the coiled-coil motif and its implication to the maintenance of stalled replication forks. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:5551-62 pubmed
    ..ATR associates with its partner protein ATRIP to form a functional complex in the nucleus...
  4. Shigechi T, Tomida J, Sato K, Kobayashi M, Eykelenboom J, Pessina F, et al. ATR-ATRIP kinase complex triggers activation of the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway. Cancer Res. 2012;72:1149-56 pubmed publisher
    ..in a DT40 mutant cell line that is conditionally deficient in the critical ATR-binding partner protein ATRIP. Using this system, we showed that ATRIP was crucial for DNA damage-induced FANCD2 monoubiquitination and FANCI ..
  5. Cortez D, Guntuku S, Qin J, Elledge S. ATR and ATRIP: partners in checkpoint signaling. Science. 2001;294:1713-6 pubmed
    ..We report the identification of an ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) that is phosphorylated by ATR, regulates ATR expression, and is an essential component of the DNA damage ..
  6. Liu S, Shiotani B, Lahiri M, Maréchal A, Tse A, Leung C, et al. ATR autophosphorylation as a molecular switch for checkpoint activation. Mol Cell. 2011;43:192-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon DNA damage, the ATR-ATRIP complex is recruited to sites of DNA damage by RPA-coated single-stranded DNA and activated by an elusive process...
  7. Namiki Y, Zou L. ATRIP associates with replication protein A-coated ssDNA through multiple interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:580-5 pubmed
    ..b>ATRIP (ATR-interacting protein), the regulatory partner of ATR, binds directly to replication protein A (RPA)-coated ..
  8. Kumagai A, Lee J, Yoo H, Dunphy W. TopBP1 activates the ATR-ATRIP complex. Cell. 2006;124:943-55 pubmed
    ..These studies establish that activation of ATR by TopBP1 is a crucial step in the initiation of ATR-dependent signaling processes. ..
  9. Willis J, Patel Y, Lentz B, Yan S. APE2 is required for ATR-Chk1 checkpoint activation in response to oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:10592-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A (RPA)-bound single-stranded DNA, the recruitment of a checkpoint protein complex [ATR, ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP), and Rad9] to damage sites, and H2O2-induced Chk1 phosphorylation...
  10. Xiao Z, Chang J, Hendriks I, Sigurðsson J, Olsen J, Vertegaal A. System-wide Analysis of SUMOylation Dynamics in Response to Replication Stress Reveals Novel Small Ubiquitin-like Modified Target Proteins and Acceptor Lysines Relevant for Genome Stability. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015;14:1419-34 pubmed publisher
    ..factors, transcriptional regulators, DNA damage response factors including MDC1, ATR-interacting protein ATRIP, the Bloom syndrome protein and the BLM-binding partner RMI1, the crossover junction endonuclease EME1, BRCA1, and ..
  11. Wu C, Zou L. The SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) Ligase PIAS3 Primes ATR for Checkpoint Activation. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:279-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Although PIAS3 is dispensable for ATRIP (ATR-interacting protein) SUMOylation and the ATR-ATRIP interaction, it is required for maintaining the basal ..
  12. Peng X, Liu S, Bao C, Liu Y, Xie H, Cai Y, et al. Regulation of ATRIP protein abundance by RAD9 in the DNA damage repair pathway. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2015;61:31-6 pubmed
    ..number of proteins act in concert with ATR to phosphorylate Chk1, including RAD17, the RAD9-RAD1-HUS1 complex, ATR/ATRIP and TopBp1...
  13. Sánchez A, Roguev A, Krogan N, Russell P. Genetic Interaction Landscape Reveals Critical Requirements for Schizosaccharomyces pombe Brc1 in DNA Damage Response Mutants. G3 (Bethesda). 2015;5:953-62 pubmed publisher
    ..that are defective in multiple DNA damage response pathways, including checkpoint signaling by Rad3-Rad26/ATR-ATRIP kinase, DNA repair by Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex, replication fork stabilization by Mrc1/claspin and Swi1-Swi3/Timeless-..
  14. Takai H, Xie Y, de Lange T, Pavletich N. Tel2 structure and function in the Hsp90-dependent maturation of mTOR and ATR complexes. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2019-30 pubmed publisher
    ..that Tel2 and Hsp90 mediate the formation of the mTOR TORC1 and TORC2 complexes and the association of ATR with ATRIP. The structure of yeast Tel2, reported here, shows that Tel2 consists of HEAT-like helical repeats that assemble ..
  15. Kucherlapati M. Examining transcriptional changes to DNA replication and repair factors over uveal melanoma subtypes. BMC Cancer. 2018;18:818 pubmed publisher
    ..significant alteration include MCM2, MCM4, MCM5, CDC45, MCM10, CIZ1, PCNA, FEN1, LIG1, POLD1, POLE, HUS1, CHECK1, ATRIP, MLH3, and MSH6...
  16. Kar A, Kaur M, Ghosh T, Khan M, Sharma A, Shekhar R, et al. RPA70 depletion induces hSSB1/2-INTS3 complex to initiate ATR signaling. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:4962-74 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA at the sites of DNA damage and recruits the apical checkpoint kinase, ATR via its partner protein, ATRIP. It has been demonstrated that absence of RPA incapacitates the ATR-mediated checkpoint response...
  17. Badura M, Braunstein S, Zavadil J, Schneider R. DNA damage and eIF4G1 in breast cancer cells reprogram translation for survival and DNA repair mRNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18767-72 pubmed publisher
    ..cell cycle arrest [growth arrest and DNA damage protein 45a (GADD45a), protein 53 (p53), ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP), Check point kinase 1 (Chk1)] and DNA repair [p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), breast cancer associated proteins 1, ..
  18. Poli J, Gerhold C, Tosi A, Hustedt N, Seeber A, Sack R, et al. Mec1, INO80, and the PAF1 complex cooperate to limit transcription replication conflicts through RNAPII removal during replication stress. Genes Dev. 2016;30:337-54 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses from budding yeast that uncover links between the DNA replication checkpoint sensor Mec1-Ddc2 (ATR-ATRIP), the chromatin remodeling complex INO80C (INO80 complex), and the transcription complex PAF1C (PAF1 complex)...
  19. Sawicka M, Wanrooij P, Darbari V, Tannous E, Hailemariam S, Bose D, et al. The Dimeric Architecture of Checkpoint Kinases Mec1ATR and Tel1ATM Reveal a Common Structural Organization. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:13436-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The yeast Tel1 and Mec1·Ddc2 complex (ATM and ATR-ATRIP in humans) play pivotal roles in DNA replication, DNA damage signaling, and repair...
  20. Feldkamp M, Frank A, Kennedy J, Patrone J, Vangamudi B, Waterson A, et al. Surface reengineering of RPA70N enables cocrystallization with an inhibitor of the replication protein A interaction motif of ATR interacting protein. Biochemistry. 2013;52:6515-24 pubmed publisher
    ..this compound can inhibit the interaction of RPA70N with the peptide binding motif from the DNA damage response protein ATRIP. The implications of the results are discussed in the context of ongoing efforts to design RPA70N inhibitors.
  21. Destephanis D, McLeod M, Yan S. REV1 is important for the ATR-Chk1 DNA damage response pathway in Xenopus egg extracts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;460:609-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We further pinpointed that REV1 plays a downstream role of a checkpoint protein complex assembly including ATR, ATRIP, TopBP1 and the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 complex to MMC-induced ICLs on chromatin in the DDR pathway...
  22. Head P, Zhang H, Bastien A, Koyen A, Withers A, Daddacha W, et al. Sirtuin 2 mutations in human cancers impair its function in genome maintenance. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:9919-9931 pubmed publisher
    ..stress sensitivity, impairment in recovery from replication stress, and impairment in ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) focus accumulation of SIRT2 deficiency...
  23. Zhang J, Song Y, Brannigan B, Wahrer D, Schiripo T, Harris P, et al. Prevalence and functional analysis of sequence variants in the ATR checkpoint mediator Claspin. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:1510-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, mutations were rare within genes encoding the CLSPN-interacting protein ATR and its binding partner ATRIP. One variant of CLSPN, encoding the I783S missense mutation, was defective in its ability to mediate CHK1 ..
  24. Qu M, Rappas M, Wardlaw C, Garcia V, Ren J, Day M, et al. Phosphorylation-dependent assembly and coordination of the DNA damage checkpoint apparatus by Rad4(TopBP1). Mol Cell. 2013;51:723-736 pubmed publisher
    ..checkpoint in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by physically coupling the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 clamp, the Rad3(ATR) -Rad26(ATRIP) kinase complex, and the Crb2(53BP1) mediator...
  25. Yap E, Norziha Z, Simbun A, Tumian N, Cheong S, Leong C, et al. MicroRNAs that affect the Fanconi Anemia/BRCA pathway are downregulated in imatinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia patients without detectable BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations. Leuk Res. 2017;59:32-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In-silico analysis showed that the predicted gene targets are ATRIP, ATR, WDR48, RAD51C and FANCA genes which are involved in the Fanconi Anemia/BRCA pathway...
  26. Burdova K, Mihaljevic B, Sturzenegger A, Chappidi N, Janscak P. The Mismatch-Binding Factor MutSβ Can Mediate ATR Activation in Response to DNA Double-Strand Breaks. Mol Cell. 2015;59:603-14 pubmed publisher
    ..MSH2 and MSH3 form a complex with ATR and its regulatory partner ATRIP, and their depletion compromises the formation of ATRIP foci and phosphorylation of ATR substrates in cells ..
  27. Hilton B, Li Z, Musich P, Wang H, Cartwright B, SERRANO M, et al. ATR Plays a Direct Antiapoptotic Role at Mitochondria, which Is Regulated by Prolyl Isomerase Pin1. Mol Cell. 2015;60:35-46 pubmed publisher
    ..in response to UV damage, and this activity is independent of its hallmark checkpoint/kinase activity and partner ATRIP. ATR contains a BH3-like domain that allows ATR-tBid interaction at mitochondria, suppressing cytochrome c release ..
  28. Huang P, Yang J, Ning J, Wang M, Song Q. Atrazine Triggers DNA Damage Response and Induces DNA Double-Strand Breaks in MCF-10A Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:14353-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Atrazine also sequentially elevated DNA damage checkpoint proteins of ATM- and RAD3-related (ATR), ATRIP and phospho-Chk1, suggesting that atrazine could induce DNA double-strand breaks and trigger the DNA damage ..
  29. Haahr P, Hoffmann S, Tollenaere M, Ho T, Toledo L, Mann M, et al. Activation of the ATR kinase by the RPA-binding protein ETAA1. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:1196-1207 pubmed publisher
    ..relies on a complex mechanism involving ATR recruitment to RPA-coated single-stranded DNA via its binding partner ATRIP and stimulation of ATR kinase activity by TopBP1...
  30. Bass T, Luzwick J, Kavanaugh G, Carroll C, Dungrawala H, Glick G, et al. ETAA1 acts at stalled replication forks to maintain genome integrity. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:1185-1195 pubmed publisher
    ..It also interacts with several DNA damage response proteins including the BLM/TOP3?/RMI1/RMI2 and ATR/ATRIP complexes...
  31. Beumer J, Fu K, Anyang B, Siegfried J, Bakkenist C. Functional analyses of ATM, ATR and Fanconi anemia proteins in lung carcinoma : ATM, ATR and FA in lung carcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:649 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database was interrogated for alterations in: 1) ATM, MRE11A, RAD50 and NBN; 2) ATR, ATRIP and TOPBP1; and 3) 15 FA genes...
  32. Crefcoeur R, Zgheib O, Halazonetis T. A Model to Investigate Single-Strand DNA Responses in G1 Human Cells via a Telomere-Targeted, Nuclease-Deficient CRISPR-Cas9 System. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0169126 pubmed publisher
    ..This ssDNA then recruited DNA repair and checkpoint proteins, such as RPA, ATRIP, BLM and Rad51, at the telomeres...
  33. Jin Z, Pei H, Xu Y, Yu J, Deng T. The SUMO-specific protease SENP5 controls DNA damage response and promotes tumorigenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016;20:3566-73 pubmed
    ..In vivo SUMOylation assay was used to detect the SUMOylation of ATRIP. Immunoprecipitation (IP) was used to detect the interaction between SENP5 and ATRIP...
  34. Sjogren C, Larsen P. SUV2, which encodes an ATR-related cell cycle checkpoint and putative plant ATRIP, is required for aluminium-dependent root growth inhibition in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Environ. 2017;40:1849-1860 pubmed publisher
    ..a loss-of-function mutation in the previously described SUV2 (SENSITIVE TO UV 2), which encodes a putative plant ATRIP homologue that is a component of the ATR-dependent cell checkpoint response, reversed the als3-1 phenotype...
  35. Hunter S, Rowley S, Clouston D, Li J, Lupat R, Krishnananthan N, et al. Searching for candidate genes in familial BRCAX mutation carriers with prostate cancer. Urol Oncol. 2016;34:120.e9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In all, 3 missense variants, PCTP, MCRS1, and ATRIP, demonstrated complete segregation and 1 missense variant, PARP2, demonstrated partial segregation with PC...
  36. Kousholt A, Menzel T, Sørensen C. Correction: Kousholt, A.N. et al. Pathways for Genome Integrity in G2 Phase of the Cell Cycle. Biomolecules 2012, 2, 579-607. Biomolecules. 2013;3:72-4 pubmed publisher
    We have discovered an error in our paper published in Biomolecules [1], in Figure 1 on page 589. The protein names ATR and ATRIP have been swapped. A corrected version of the Figure 1 is provided below. [...].
  37. Collis S, Barber L, Clark A, Martin J, Ward J, Boulton S. HCLK2 is essential for the mammalian S-phase checkpoint and impacts on Chk1 stability. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:391-401 pubmed
    ..elegans biological clock protein CLK-2 (HCLK2) associates with the S-phase checkpoint components ATR, ATRIP, claspin and Chk1...
  38. Lovejoy C, Xu X, Bansbach C, Glick G, Zhao R, Ye F, et al. Functional genomic screens identify CINP as a genome maintenance protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..CINP interacts with ATR-interacting protein and regulates ATR-dependent signaling, resistance to replication stress, and G2 checkpoint integrity. ..
  39. Kulkarni A, Das K. Differential roles of ATR and ATM in p53, Chk1, and histone H2AX phosphorylation in response to hyperoxia: ATR-dependent ATM activation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;294:L998-L1006 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that ATR is required for ATM activation in hyperoxia. Taken together, we report that ATR is the major DNA damage signal transducer in hyperoxia that activates ATM. ..
  40. Liu X, Ladias J. Structural basis for the BRCA1 BRCT interaction with the proteins ATRIP and BAAT1. Biochemistry. 2013;52:7618-27 pubmed publisher
    ..accepted motif pS-X-X-F (pS denoting phosphoserine and X any amino acid), including the ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) and the BRCA1-associated protein required for ATM activation-1 (BAAT1)...
  41. Mohni K, Livingston C, Cortez D, Weller S. ATR and ATRIP are recruited to herpes simplex virus type 1 replication compartments even though ATR signaling is disabled. J Virol. 2010;84:12152-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously proposed that spatial uncoupling of ATR from its interaction partner, ATRIP, could be the basis for inactivation of the ATR kinase in infected cells; however, we now show that ATR and ATRIP ..
  42. Pabla N, Huang S, Mi Q, Daniel R, Dong Z. ATR-Chk2 signaling in p53 activation and DNA damage response during cisplatin-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:6572-83 pubmed
    ..Together, the results suggest an important role for the DNA damage response mediated by ATR-Chk2 in p53 activation and renal cell apoptosis during cisplatin nephrotoxicity. ..
  43. Kim S, Kumagai A, Lee J, Dunphy W. Phosphorylation of Chk1 by ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) in Xenopus egg extracts requires binding of ATRIP to ATR but not the stable DNA-binding or coiled-coil domains of ATRIP. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:38355-64 pubmed
    ATR, a critical regulator of DNA replication and damage checkpoint responses, possesses a binding partner called ATRIP. We have studied the functional properties of Xenopus ATR and ATRIP in incubations with purified components and in ..
  44. Myers J, Zhao R, Xu X, Ham A, Cortez D. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 dependent phosphorylation of ATRIP regulates the G2-M checkpoint response to DNA damage. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6685-90 pubmed
    The ATR-ATRIP kinase complex regulates cellular responses to DNA damage and replication stress...
  45. Pabla N, Ma Z, McIlhatton M, Fishel R, Dong Z. hMSH2 recruits ATR to DNA damage sites for activation during DNA damage-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:10411-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Together the results support a hMSH2-dependent pathway of ATR activation and downstream Chk2/p53 signaling. ..
  46. Hustedt N, Seeber A, Sack R, Tsai Pflugfelder M, Bhullar B, Vlaming H, et al. Yeast PP4 interacts with ATR homolog Ddc2-Mec1 and regulates checkpoint signaling. Mol Cell. 2015;57:273-89 pubmed publisher
    Mec1-Ddc2 (ATR-ATRIP) controls the DNA damage checkpoint and shows differential cell-cycle regulation in yeast...
  47. Tomida J, Itaya A, Shigechi T, Unno J, Uchida E, Ikura M, et al. A novel interplay between the Fanconi anemia core complex and ATR-ATRIP kinase during DNA cross-link repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:6930-41 pubmed publisher
    ..A pathway initiated by the kinase Ataxia teleangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) and its partner ATR interacting protein (ATRIP) plays an important role in this response...
  48. Izawa N, Wu W, Sato K, Nishikawa H, Kato A, Boku N, et al. HERC2 Interacts with Claspin and regulates DNA origin firing and replication fork progression. Cancer Res. 2011;71:5621-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish HERC2 as a critical function in DNA repair, checkpoint activation, and DNA replication. ..
  49. Wang Y, Qin J. MSH2 and ATR form a signaling module and regulate two branches of the damage response to DNA methylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15387-92 pubmed
    ..These data support a model in which MSH2 and ATR function upstream to regulate two branches of the response pathway to DNA damage caused by MNNG. ..
  50. Yoshida K, Sugimoto N, Iwahori S, Yugawa T, Narisawa Saito M, Kiyono T, et al. CDC6 interaction with ATR regulates activation of a replication checkpoint in higher eukaryotic cells. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:225-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CDC6 might regulate replication-checkpoint activation through the interaction with ATR in higher eukaryotic cells. ..
  51. Wu C, Ouyang J, Mori E, Nguyen H, Maréchal A, Hallet A, et al. SUMOylation of ATRIP potentiates DNA damage signaling by boosting multiple protein interactions in the ATR pathway. Genes Dev. 2014;28:1472-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that protein SUMOylation plays a key role in the ATR pathway. ATRIP, the regulatory partner of ATR, is modified by SUMO2/3 at K234 and K289...
  52. Vasilescu J, Zweitzig D, Denis N, Smith J, Ethier M, Haines D, et al. The proteomic reactor facilitates the analysis of affinity-purified proteins by mass spectrometry: application for identifying ubiquitinated proteins in human cells. J Proteome Res. 2007;6:298-305 pubmed
    ..The Proteomic Reactor is a novel technology that facilitates the analysis of affinity-purified proteins and has the potential to aid future biological studies. ..
  53. Unsal Kaçmaz K, Sancar A. Quaternary structure of ATR and effects of ATRIP and replication protein A on its DNA binding and kinase activities. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:1292-300 pubmed
    ..Here we show that ATR is a monomeric protein associated with a smaller protein called ATRIP with moderate affinity...
  54. Warmerdam D, Kanaar R, Smits V. Differential Dynamics of ATR-Mediated Checkpoint Regulators. J Nucleic Acids. 2010;2010: pubmed publisher
    ..about the spatio and temporal behaviour of the proteins involved, and we, therefore, examined the behaviour of the ATRIP-ATR and Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 putative DNA damage sensor complexes and the downstream effector kinase Chk1...
  55. Sivasubramaniam S, Sun X, Pan Y, Wang S, Lee E. Cep164 is a mediator protein required for the maintenance of genomic stability through modulation of MDC1, RPA, and CHK1. Genes Dev. 2008;22:587-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses of Cep164 knockdown cells demonstrate a critical role of Cep164 in G2/M checkpoint and nuclear divisions. These findings reveal that Cep164 is a key player in the DNA damage-activated signaling cascade. ..
  56. Choi J, Lindsey Boltz L, Sancar A. Reconstitution of a human ATR-mediated checkpoint response to damaged DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:13301-6 pubmed
    ..This in vitro system provides a useful platform for mechanistic studies of the human DNA damage checkpoint response. ..
  57. Matsumoto M, Yaginuma K, Igarashi A, Imura M, Hasegawa M, Iwabuchi K, et al. Perturbed gap-filling synthesis in nucleotide excision repair causes histone H2AX phosphorylation in human quiescent cells. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1104-12 pubmed
    ..H2AX phosphorylation and induces the accumulation of replication protein A (RPA) and ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) at locally UV-damaged subnuclear regions...
  58. Zhang S, Hemmerich P, Grosse F. Centrosomal localization of DNA damage checkpoint proteins. J Cell Biochem. 2007;101:451-65 pubmed
    ..b>ATRIP, an interaction partner of ATR, as well as Chk1 and Chk2, the downstream targets of ATR or ATM, were also ..
  59. Deshpande I, Seeber A, Shimada K, Keusch J, Gut H, Gasser S. Structural Basis of Mec1-Ddc2-RPA Assembly and Activation on Single-Stranded DNA at Sites of Damage. Mol Cell. 2017;68:431-445.e5 pubmed publisher
    Mec1-Ddc2 (ATR-ATRIP) is a key DNA-damage-sensing kinase that is recruited through the single-stranded (ss) DNA-binding replication protein A (RPA) to initiate the DNA damage checkpoint response...
  60. Ding G, Liu H, Liang H, Ni R, Ding Z, Ni G, et al. HIF1-regulated ATRIP expression is required for hypoxia induced ATR activation. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:930-5 pubmed publisher
    The ATR-ATRIP protein kinase complex plays a crucial role in the cellular response to replication stress and DNA damage...
  61. Kumagai A, Kim S, Dunphy W. Claspin and the activated form of ATR-ATRIP collaborate in the activation of Chk1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49599-608 pubmed
    ..ATR possesses a regulatory partner called ATRIP. We have studied the respective roles of ATR-ATRIP and Claspin in the activation of Chk1...
  62. Unsal Kaçmaz K, Mullen T, Kaufmann W, Sancar A. Coupling of human circadian and cell cycles by the timeless protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3109-16 pubmed
    ..with both the circadian clock protein cryptochrome 2 and with the cell cycle checkpoint proteins Chk1 and the ATR-ATRIP complex and plays an important role in the DNA damage checkpoint response...
  63. Chang D, Lupardus P, Cimprich K. Monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen induced by stalled replication requires uncoupling of DNA polymerase and mini-chromosome maintenance helicase activities. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:32081-8 pubmed
    ..However, loss of ATR signaling by depletion of the ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) or Rad1, a component of the 911 checkpoint clamp, does not impair PCNA ubiquitination...
  64. Yu D, Zhao R, Hsu E, Cayer J, Ye F, Guo Y, et al. Cyclin-dependent kinase 9-cyclin K functions in the replication stress response. EMBO Rep. 2010;11:876-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal an unexpectedly direct role for CDK9-cyclin K in checkpoint pathways that maintain genome integrity in response to replication stress. ..
  65. Venere M, Snyder A, Zgheib O, Halazonetis T. Phosphorylation of ATR-interacting protein on Ser239 mediates an interaction with breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility 1 and checkpoint function. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6100-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility 1 (BRCA1) interacts directly with ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP), an obligate partner of ATR...
  66. Mead S, Uphill J, Beck J, Poulter M, Campbell T, Lowe J, et al. Genome-wide association study in multiple human prion diseases suggests genetic risk factors additional to PRNP. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1897-906 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data are most consistent with several other risk loci of modest overall effects which will require further genetic association studies to provide definitive evidence. ..
  67. Zhang H, Head P, Daddacha W, Park S, Li X, Pan Y, et al. ATRIP Deacetylation by SIRT2 Drives ATR Checkpoint Activation by Promoting Binding to RPA-ssDNA. Cell Rep. 2016;14:1435-1447 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that deacetylation of ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP), a regulatory partner of ATR, by SIRT2 potentiates the ATR checkpoint...
  68. Cortez D, Glick G, Elledge S. Minichromosome maintenance proteins are direct targets of the ATM and ATR checkpoint kinases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10078-83 pubmed
    ..Third, ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP)-ATR interacts with MCM7...
  69. Ogi T, Walker S, Stiff T, Hobson E, Limsirichaikul S, Carpenter G, et al. Identification of the first ATRIP-deficient patient and novel mutations in ATR define a clinical spectrum for ATR-ATRIP Seckel Syndrome. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002945 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide the first identification of a Seckel Syndrome patient with mutations in ATRIP, the gene encoding ATR-Interacting Protein (ATRIP), the partner protein of ATR required for ATR stability and ..
  70. Wang X, Ran T, Zhang X, Xin J, Zhang Z, Wu T, et al. 3.9 Ã… structure of the yeast Mec1-Ddc2 complex, a homolog of human ATR-ATRIP. Science. 2017;358:1206-1209 pubmed publisher
    ..ATR acts together with its partner ATRIP. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we determined the structure of intact Mec1-Ddc2 (the yeast homolog of ATR-ATRIP), ..
  71. Choi J, Lindsey Boltz L, Kemp M, Mason A, Wold M, Sancar A. Reconstitution of RPA-covered single-stranded DNA-activated ATR-Chk1 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13660-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have shown that ATR is recruited via its binding partner ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) to replication protein A (RPA)-covered single-stranded DNA (RPA-ssDNA) generated at sites of DNA damage where ATR ..
  72. Blackford A, Bruton R, Dirlik O, Stewart G, Taylor A, Dobner T, et al. A role for E1B-AP5 in ATR signaling pathways during adenovirus infection. J Virol. 2008;82:7640-52 pubmed publisher
    ..is recruited to viral replication centers during infection, where it colocalizes with ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) and the ATR substrate replication protein A 32 (RPA32)...
  73. Liu S, Ho C, Ouyang J, Zou L. Nek1 kinase associates with ATR-ATRIP and primes ATR for efficient DNA damage signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2175-80 pubmed publisher
    The master checkpoint kinase ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) and its partner ATRIP (ATR-interacting protein) exist as a complex and function together in the DNA damage response...
  74. Yoshioka K, Yoshioka Y, Hsieh P. ATR kinase activation mediated by MutSalpha and MutLalpha in response to cytotoxic O6-methylguanine adducts. Mol Cell. 2006;22:501-10 pubmed
    ..In an in vitro assay, ATR-ATRIP, but not RPA, is preferentially recruited to O(6)-meG/T mismatches in a MutSalpha- and MutLalpha-dependent manner...
  75. Bomgarden R, Yean D, Yee M, Cimprich K. A novel protein activity mediates DNA binding of an ATR-ATRIP complex. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:13346-53 pubmed
    The function of the ATR (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related)-ATRIP (ATR-interacting protein) protein kinase complex is central to the cellular response to replication stress and DNA damage...
  76. Wu Z, Miyamoto S. Induction of a pro-apoptotic ATM-NF-kappaB pathway and its repression by ATR in response to replication stress. EMBO J. 2008;27:1963-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, replication stress and DSB inducers activate NF-kappaB through a conserved pathway with opposite biologic outcomes, and ATR antagonizes ATM function at least in part by competing for NEMO association. ..
  77. Mazur D, Perrino F. Structure and expression of the TREX1 and TREX2 3' --> 5' exonuclease genes. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:14718-27 pubmed
    ..These initial studies have revealed previously unrecognized complexities in the structure and expression of the TREX1 and TREX2 genes. ..
  78. Liu Y, Vaithiyalingam S, Shi Q, Chazin W, Zinkel S. BID binds to replication protein A and stimulates ATR function following replicative stress. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4298-309 pubmed publisher
    ..including replication protein A (RPA), ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR), and ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP), and facilitates an efficient DNA damage response...