Gene Symbol: ATF6
Description: activating transcription factor 6
Alias: ACHM7, ATF6A, cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 alpha, cAMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 alpha
Species: human
Products:     ATF6

Top Publications

  1. Tsukumo Y, Tomida A, Kitahara O, Nakamura Y, Asada S, Mori K, et al. Nucleobindin 1 controls the unfolded protein response by inhibiting ATF6 activation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29264-72 pubmed
    In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), an ER membrane-anchored transcription factor, is transported to the Golgi apparatus and cleaved by site-1 protease (S1P) to activate the unfolded ..
  2. Hu C, Zhang R, Wang C, Ma X, Wang J, Bao Y, et al. Lack of association between genetic polymorphisms within DUSP12 - ATF6 locus and glucose metabolism related traits in a Chinese population. BMC Med Genet. 2011;12:3 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies in Pima Indian, Caucasians and African Americans identified several SNPs in DUSP12 and ATF6, located in chromosome 1q21-q23, were associated with type 2 diabetes...
  3. Meex S, Van Greevenbroek M, Ayoubi T, Vlietinck R, van Vliet Ostaptchouk J, Hofker M, et al. Activating transcription factor 6 polymorphisms and haplotypes are associated with impaired glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in Dutch Caucasians. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:2720-5 pubmed
    Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is critical for initiation and full activation of the unfolded protein response. An association between genetic variation in ATF6 and type 2 diabetes (DM2) was recently reported in Pima Indians...
  4. Chu W, Das S, Wang H, Chan J, Deloukas P, Froguel P, et al. Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) sequence polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetic traits. Diabetes. 2007;56:856-62 pubmed
    Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is located within the region of linkage to type 2 diabetes on chromosome 1q21-q23 and is a key activator of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response...
  5. Tay K, Luan Q, Croft A, Jiang C, Jin L, Zhang X, et al. Sustained IRE1 and ATF6 signaling is important for survival of melanoma cells undergoing ER stress. Cell Signal. 2014;26:287-94 pubmed publisher
    Apoptosis triggered by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with rapid attenuation of the IRE1? and ATF6 pathways but persistent activation of the PERK branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cells...
  6. Okada T, Yoshida H, Akazawa R, Negishi M, Mori K. Distinct roles of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) in transcription during the mammalian unfolded protein response. Biochem J. 2002;366:585-94 pubmed
    ..Thus we propose that mammalian cells have evolved a strategy to cope with ER stress different from that of yeast cells. ..
  7. Yoshida H, Matsui T, Yamamoto A, Okada T, Mori K. XBP1 mRNA is induced by ATF6 and spliced by IRE1 in response to ER stress to produce a highly active transcription factor. Cell. 2001;107:881-91 pubmed
    ..Instead, the transcription factor ATF6 specific to the mammalian UPR is regulated by intramembrane proteolysis...
  8. Zhu C, Johansen F, Prywes R. Interaction of ATF6 and serum response factor. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:4957-66 pubmed
    ..b>ATF6, a basic-leucine zipper protein, was isolated by binding to SRF and in particular to its transcriptional activation ..
  9. Fonseca S, Ishigaki S, Oslowski C, Lu S, Lipson K, Ghosh R, et al. Wolfram syndrome 1 gene negatively regulates ER stress signaling in rodent and human cells. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:744-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a role for WFS1 in the negative regulation of ER stress signaling and in the pathogenesis of diseases involving chronic, unresolvable ER stress, such as pancreatic beta cell death in diabetes. ..

More Information


  1. Yoshida H, Haze K, Yanagi H, Yura T, Mori K. Identification of the cis-acting endoplasmic reticulum stress response element responsible for transcriptional induction of mammalian glucose-regulated proteins. Involvement of basic leucine zipper transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:33741-9 pubmed
    ..Using yeast one-hybrid screening, we isolated a human cDNA encoding a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein, ATF6, as a putative ERSE-binding protein...
  2. Gotoh T, Oyadomari S, Mori K, Mori M. Nitric oxide-induced apoptosis in RAW 264.7 macrophages is mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway involving ATF6 and CHOP. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:12343-50 pubmed
    ..In addition, apoptosis induced by p50ATF6 was prevented by a CHOP dominant negative form as well as by an ATF6 dominant negative form, and LPS/IFN-gamma-induced apoptosis was prevented by the CHOP dominant negative form...
  3. Thameem F, Farook V, Bogardus C, Prochazka M. Association of amino acid variants in the activating transcription factor 6 gene (ATF6) on 1q21-q23 with type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians. Diabetes. 2006;55:839-42 pubmed
    Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is important for protective cell response to accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum, and disturbances of this process can contribute to beta-cell apoptosis...
  4. Hai T, Liu F, Coukos W, Green M. Transcription factor ATF cDNA clones: an extensive family of leucine zipper proteins able to selectively form DNA-binding heterodimers. Genes Dev. 1989;3:2083-90 pubmed
    ..Our results help to explain how a single promoter element, an ATF site, can be present in a wide variety of promoters. ..
  5. Haze K, Yoshida H, Yanagi H, Yura T, Mori K. Mammalian transcription factor ATF6 is synthesized as a transmembrane protein and activated by proteolysis in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Mol Biol Cell. 1999;10:3787-99 pubmed
    ..We recently isolated ATF6 as a candidate for mammalian UPR-specific transcription factor...
  6. Gao P, Yang B, Yu H, Meng R, Si J. Carvedilol alleviates the biliary cirrhosis through inhibiting the endoplasmic reticulum stress. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017;21:5813-5820 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of CHOP (CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), ATF6, inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), phosphorylated Jun N-terminal kinase (pJNK), ?-SMA, and collagen-1, were ..
  7. Hong S, Lee J, Cho J, Kwon H, Park S, Rhee E, et al. Pioglitazone Attenuates Palmitate-Induced Inflammation and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Pancreatic β-Cells. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2018;33:105-113 pubmed publisher
    ..initiation factor 2α, glucose-regulated protein 78 [GRP78], cleaved-activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], and C/EBP homologous protein [CHOP]), and pioglitazone significantly attenuated inflammation and ER stress in ..
  8. Wang X, Mi Y, Zhong B, Mao H, Wan Y, Zhang T, et al. Identification of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) XBP1S as a primary member in ER stress. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;64:84-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Meanwhile, grass carp ATF6 (CiATF6N) and CiXBP1S were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified by affinity chromatography with the Ni-..
  9. Chen J, Hou X, Wang G, Zhong Q, Liu Y, Qiu H, et al. Terpene glycoside component from Moutan Cortex ameliorates diabetic nephropathy by regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress-related inflammatory responses. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;193:433-444 pubmed publisher
    ..XBP-1 (s), phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme-1? (p-IRE1?), cleaved activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), phosphorylated PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK), and phosphorylated nuclear factor ?B p65 (p-NF-?B ..
  10. Phillipson Weiner L, Mirek E, Wang Y, McAuliffe W, Wek R, Anthony T. General control nonderepressible 2 deletion predisposes to asparaginase-associated pancreatitis in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G1061-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, mRNA expression of PERK target genes, activating transcription factors 4, 3, and 6 (Atf4, Atf3, and Atf6), fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21), heat shock 70-kDa protein 5 (Hspa5), and spliced Xbp1 (sXbp1), as well as ..
  11. Elmasry K, Ibrahim A, Saleh H, Elsherbiny N, Elshafey S, Hussein K, et al. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in 12/15-lipoxygenase-induced retinal microvascular dysfunction in a mouse model of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetologia. 2018;61:1220-1232 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphorylated RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER-regulated kinase (p-PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) in HRECs...
  12. Gundamaraju R, Vemuri R, Chong W, Myers S, Norouzi S, Shastri M, et al. Interplay between Endoplasmic Reticular Stress and Survivin in Colonic Epithelial Cells. Cells. 2018;7: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that ERS inhibition not only significantly reduced the UPR genes (Grp78, ATF6, PERKandXBP1) along with Survivin but also downregulated the inflammatory markers such as IL8, IL4, and IL6, which ..
  13. Lampropoulou E, Lymperopoulou A, Charonis A. Reduced expression of ERp46 under diabetic conditions in β-cells and the effect of liraglutide. Metabolism. 2016;65:7-15 pubmed publisher
    ..the sequence of the promoter of ERp46 and found consensus motifs that can be recognized by transcription factors ATF6 and XBP1...
  14. Wang J, Zuo X, Xu J, Zhou J, Kong H, Zeng X, et al. Evaluation and Treatment of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress in Right Ventricular Dysfunction during Monocrotaline-Induced Rat Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2016;30:587-598 pubmed
    ..chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), three ER stress sensor proteins: activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), and a key ER ..
  15. Villalobos Labra R, Sáez P, Subiabre M, Silva L, Toledo F, Westermeier F, et al. Pre-pregnancy maternal obesity associates with endoplasmic reticulum stress in human umbilical vein endothelium. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1? (IRE1?), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)...
  16. Ding Z, Yang H, Xia T, Wang B, Ding Q. Integrative genomic analyses of the RNA-binding protein, RNPC1, and its potential role in cancer prediction. Int J Mol Med. 2015;36:473-84 pubmed publisher
    ..peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ isoform 2 (PPARγ2) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) regulatory transcription factor binding sites were identified in the upstream (promoter) region of the RNPC1 gene, ..
  17. Ma Y, Batistel F, Xu T, Han L, Bucktrout R, Liang Y, et al. Phosphorylation of AKT serine/threonine kinase and abundance of milk protein synthesis gene networks in mammary tissue in response to supply of methionine in periparturient Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci. 2019;102:4264-4274 pubmed publisher
    ..of the unfolded protein response, such as x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), were upregulated, and protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 15A (PPP1R15A) was downregulated in response to ..
  18. Khadir A, Kavalakatt S, Abubaker J, Cherian P, Madhu D, Al Khairi I, et al. Physical exercise alleviates ER stress in obese humans through reduction in the expression and release of GRP78 chaperone. Metabolism. 2016;65:1409-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Levels of GRP78 and its three downstream UPR arms; activating transcription factor-6 (ATF6), inositol-requiring enzyme-1? (IRE1?) and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) were ..
  19. Yang C, Gao W, Yang X, Wang H, Du J, Zhong H, et al. CRH knockout inhibits the murine innate immune responses in association with endoplasmic reticulum stress after thermal injury. Surgery. 2015;158:255-65 pubmed publisher
    ..of glucose response protein 78 (GRP78), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) in macrophages was also determined...
  20. Lahlali T, Plissonnier M, Romero López C, Michelet M, Ducarouge B, Berzal Herranz A, et al. Netrin-1 Protects Hepatocytes Against Cell Death Through Sustained Translation During the Unfolded Protein Response. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;2:281-301.e9 pubmed publisher
    ..endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)), inositol requiring enzyme 1? (IRE1?), and activated transcription factor 6 (ATF6)...
  21. Lu T, Zhang C, Chai M, An Y. Isoquercetin ameliorates tunicamycin-induced apoptosis in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons via suppressing ROS-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;80:343-351 pubmed publisher
    ..initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α), inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), and transcription factor 6 (ATF6)...
  22. Zhao N, Mi L, Zhang X, Xu M, Yu H, Liu Z, et al. Enhanced MiR-711 transcription by PPARγ induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis targeting calnexin in rat cardiomyocytes after myocardial infarction. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2018;118:36-45 pubmed publisher
    ..apoptosis response by upregulating glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor (ATF6), spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), apoptotic signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), CCAAT-enhancer binding ..
  23. Yao X, Li Y, Cheng X, Li H. ER stress contributes to alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate-induced liver injury with cholestasis in mice. Pathol Res Pract. 2016;212:560-7 pubmed publisher
    ..initiation factor 2? (eIF2?), inositol requiring enzyme-1? (IRE-1?) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) was upregulated by ANIT in mice...
  24. Yang J, Chen C, McLaughlin T, Wang Y, Le Y, Wang J, et al. Loss of X-box binding protein 1 in Müller cells augments retinal inflammation in a mouse model of diabetes. Diabetologia. 2019;62:531-543 pubmed publisher
    ..also known as Tnf) and ER-stress marker genes Grp78 (also known as Hspa5), Atf4, Chop (also known as Ddit3) and Atf6 and higher protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF-α, phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (..
  25. Babayev E, Lalioti M, Favero F, Seli E. Cross-Talk Between FSH and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress: A Mutually Suppressive Relationship. Reprod Sci. 2016;23:352-64 pubmed publisher
    ..attenuated ER stress in mouse GCs in vivo and in vitro; messenger RNA levels of ER stress-associated genes Xbp1s, Atf6, Chop, and Casp12 were decreased upon exposure to FSH/PMSG...
  26. Yang B, Xu Y, Hu Y, Luo Y, Lu X, Tsui C, et al. Madecassic Acid protects against hypoxia-induced oxidative stress in retinal microvascular endothelial cells via ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;84:845-852 pubmed publisher
    ..GRP78), C/EBP homologous transcription factor (CHOP), protein levels of cleaved activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and inositol-requiring kinase/endonuclease 1 alpha (IRE1?), phosphorylation of pancreatic ER stress kinase (PERK) ..
  27. Lopes F, Keita A, Saxena A, Reyes J, Mancini N, Al Rajabi A, et al. ER-stress mobilization of death-associated protein kinase-1-dependent xenophagy counteracts mitochondria stress-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:3073-3087 pubmed publisher
    ..ER stress did not prevent DNP-driven uptake of bacteria; rather, specific mobilization of the ATF6 arm of ER stress and recruitment of DAPK1 resulted in enhanced autophagic killing (xenophagy) of bacteria...
  28. Liu M, Zhou R, Wu X, Xu X, Su M, Yang B. Clinicopathologic charcterization of sorafenib-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in human liver cancer cells. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018;69: pubmed publisher
    ..immunofluorescence-labeled cells of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress markers of activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase (eIF2α), glucose-regulated protein (GRP-78), X-box binding protein 1 (..
  29. Bejaoui M, Pantazi E, De Luca V, Panisello A, Folch Puy E, Hotter G, et al. Carbonic Anhydrase Protects Fatty Liver Grafts against Ischemic Reperfusion Damage. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0134499 pubmed publisher
    ..protein kinases family (MAPKs) and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) parameters (GRP78, PERK, IRE, eIF2α and ATF6). We found that CA II was downregulated after cold ischemia...
  30. Siddiquey M, Zhang H, Nguyen C, Domma A, Kamil J. The Human Cytomegalovirus Endoplasmic Reticulum-Resident Glycoprotein UL148 Activates the Unfolded Protein Response. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..2- to 4-fold decreases during infection in the levels of transcripts canonically regulated by PERK/ATF4 and by the ATF6 pathway...
  31. Hasanain M, Bhattacharjee A, Pandey P, Ashraf R, Singh N, Sharma S, et al. α-Solanine induces ROS-mediated autophagy through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway. Cell Death Dis. 2015;6:e1860 pubmed publisher
    ..increase in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (BiP, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), X-box-binding protein 1, PERK, inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease 1, ATF4 and CCAAT-enhancer-..
  32. Hou Q, Wang Y, Li Y, Hu X, Wang S. [Protective effect of notoginsenoside R1 on neuron injury induced by OGD/R through ATF6/Akt signaling pathway]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2017;42:1167-1174 pubmed publisher
    ..assay,lactate dehydrogenase test(LDH) and Hoechst 33342 stain respectively, while the protein expression levels of ATF6?,p-Akt,Akt,Bax and Cleaved Caspase-3 were measured by Western blotting...
  33. Oh hashi K, Matsumoto S, Sakai T, Nomura Y, Okuda K, Nagasawa H, et al. Elucidating the rapid action of 2-(2-chlorophenyl)ethylbiguanide on HT-29 cells under a serum- and glucose-deprived condition. Cell Biol Toxicol. 2018;34:279-290 pubmed publisher
    ..In that study, we showed that the ATF6 arm of the ER stress pathway and c-Myc expression were downregulated 12 h after the treatment with 2-Cl-Phen...
  34. Zeng L, Lu M, Mori K, Luo S, Lee A, Zhu Y, et al. ATF6 modulates SREBP2-mediated lipogenesis. EMBO J. 2004;23:950-8 pubmed
    Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are activated by proteolytic cleavage. The ensuing nuclear translocation of their N-termini (i.e...
  35. Haze K, Okada T, Yoshida H, Yanagi H, Yura T, Negishi M, et al. Identification of the G13 (cAMP-response-element-binding protein-related protein) gene product related to activating transcription factor 6 as a transcriptional activator of the mammalian unfolded protein response. Biochem J. 2001;355:19-28 pubmed
    ..We recently identified the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein ATF6 as a mammalian UPR-specific transcription factor; ATF6 is activated by ER stress-induced proteolysis and binds ..
  36. Gade P, Manjegowda S, Nallar S, Maachani U, Cross A, Kalvakolanu D. Regulation of the death-associated protein kinase 1 expression and autophagy via ATF6 requires apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:4033-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we have identified that ATF6, an endoplasmic reticulum-resident transcription factor, in association with the transcription factor CEBP-?, ..
  37. He Y, Zhang Q, Zheng M, Fan Z, Li Y, Zhang D, et al. Protective effects of a G. lucidum proteoglycan on INS-1 cells against IAPP-induced apoptosis via attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and modulating CHOP/JNK pathways. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;106:893-900 pubmed publisher
    ..protein-1? (IRE1?), protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), as well as suppressed the activation of CHOP and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)...
  38. Sela D, Conkright J, Chen L, Gilmore J, Washburn M, Florens L, et al. Role for human mediator subunit MED25 in recruitment of mediator to promoters by endoplasmic reticulum stress-responsive transcription factor ATF6?. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:26179-87 pubmed publisher
    Transcription factor ATF6? functions as a master regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response genes...
  39. Li B, Gao B, Ye L, Han X, Wang W, Kong L, et al. Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) activates ATF6 and IRE1-XBP1 pathways of unfolded protein response. Virus Res. 2007;124:44-9 pubmed
    ..Two UPR-specific signaling pathways involving transmembrane proteins ATF6 and XBP1 generate critical transcription factors that activate UPR-responsive genes...
  40. Chan P, Stolz J, Kohl S, Chiang W, Lin J. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in human photoreceptor diseases. Brain Res. 2016;1648:538-541 pubmed publisher
    ..and UPR in retinitis pigmentosa arising from misfolded rhodopsins (RHO) and in achromatopsia arising from genetic mutations in Activating Transcription Factor 6 (ATF6). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:ER stress.
  41. Skorczyk Werner A, Chiang W, Wawrocka A, Wicher K, Jarmuż Szymczak M, Kostrzewska Poczekaj M, et al. Autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy can be caused by mutations in the ATF6 gene. Eur J Hum Genet. 2017;25:1210-1216 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report two siblings affected by an IRD phenotype and a novel homozygous c.1691A>G (p.(Asp564Gly)) ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6A) missense substitution identified by whole exome sequencing analysis...
  42. Meng X, Zhu Y, Tao L, Zhao S, Qiu S. Periostin has a protective role in melatonin?induced cell apoptosis by inhibiting the eIF2??ATF4 pathway in human osteoblasts. Int J Mol Med. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..increased, whereas other proteins associated with the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathways, including ATF6 and X?box binding protein 1 (XBP1), were not significantly altered...
  43. Fu J, Zhao L, Wang L, Zhu X. Expression of markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in the placenta of women with early and late onset severe pre-eclampsia. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;54:19-23 pubmed publisher
    ..of three signaling pathways: PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), and inositol-requiring 1 (Ire1)...
  44. Senkal C, Ponnusamy S, Manevich Y, Meyers Needham M, Saddoughi S, Mukhopadyay A, et al. Alteration of ceramide synthase 6/C16-ceramide induces activating transcription factor 6-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis via perturbation of cellular Ca2+ and ER/Golgi membrane network. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42446-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This resulted in the accumulation of pro-ATF-6 in the disrupted ER/Golgi membrane network, where pro-ATF6 is activated...
  45. Dang J, Bian X, Ma X, Li J, Long F, Shan S, et al. ORMDL3 Facilitates the Survival of Splenic B Cells via an ATF6?-Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Beclin1 Autophagy Regulatory Pathway. J Immunol. 2017;199:1647-1659 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we uncovered a role of ORMDL3 in fine-tuning B cell development and survival, besides highlighting a potential mechanism by which ORMDL3 regulates autophagy via ATF6 pathway.
  46. Stirling J, O Hare P. CREB4, a transmembrane bZip transcription factor and potential new substrate for regulation and cleavage by S1P. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:413-26 pubmed
    Regulated intramembrane proteolysis of the factors SREBP and ATF6 represents a central control mechanism in sterol homeostasis and stress response within the endoplasmic reticulum...
  47. Chiang W, Hiramatsu N, Messah C, Kroeger H, Lin J. Selective activation of ATF6 and PERK endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathways prevent mutant rhodopsin accumulation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:7159-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) control intracellular signaling pathways that ..
  48. Prola A, Pires Da Silva J, Guilbert A, Lecru L, Piquereau J, Ribeiro M, et al. SIRT1 protects the heart from ER stress-induced cell death through eIF2α deacetylation. Cell Death Differ. 2017;24:343-356 pubmed publisher
    ..e., PERK/eIF2α, ATF6 and IRE1) showed that SIRT1 protects cardiomyocytes from ER stress-induced apoptosis by attenuating PERK/eIF2α ..
  49. Zhu S, Liu H, Sha H, Qi L, Gao D, Zhang W. PERK and XBP1 differentially regulate CXCL10 and CCL2 production. Exp Eye Res. 2017;155:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..ER stress contains three pathways: PERK, ATF6 and IRE1?...
  50. Parker R, Phan T, Baumeister P, Roy B, Cheriyath V, Roy A, et al. Identification of TFII-I as the endoplasmic reticulum stress response element binding factor ERSF: its autoregulation by stress and interaction with ATF6. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:3220-33 pubmed
    ..We further discovered that TFII-I is an interactive protein partner of ATF6 and that optimal stimulation of ERSE by ATF6 requires TFII-I.
  51. Yoshida H, Uemura A, Mori K. pXBP1(U), a negative regulator of the unfolded protein response activator pXBP1(S), targets ATF6 but not ATF4 in proteasome-mediated degradation. Cell Struct Funct. 2009;34:1-10 pubmed
    ..Two other transcription factors are activated in response to ER stress, namely ATF6 and ATF4...
  52. Jang W, Kim E, Kim D, Ryoo H, Lee K, Kim S, et al. BMP2 protein regulates osteocalcin expression via Runx2-mediated Atf6 gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:905-15 pubmed publisher
    ..b>ATF6, a bZIP transcription factor, is also a UPR transducer...
  53. Pasqual G, Burri D, Pasquato A, de la Torre J, Kunz S. Role of the host cell's unfolded protein response in arenavirus infection. J Virol. 2011;85:1662-70 pubmed publisher
    ..inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1), PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)...
  54. Sung S, Chao C, Jeng K, Yang J, Lai M. The 8ab protein of SARS-CoV is a luminal ER membrane-associated protein and induces the activation of ATF6. Virology. 2009;387:402-13 pubmed publisher
    ..of endogenous ER-resident chaperons involved in protein folding through the activation of the transcription factor ATF6, while it showed no effect on the CHOP induction and XBP1 splicing associated with the unfolded protein response (..
  55. Ishikawa T, Toyama T, Nakamura Y, Tamada K, Shimizu H, Ninagawa S, et al. UPR transducer BBF2H7 allows export of type II collagen in a cargo- and developmental stage-specific manner. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:1761-1774 pubmed publisher
    ..during early embryonic development in medaka fish and that the smooth alignment of notochord cells requires ATF6 as a UPR transducer, which induces ER chaperones for folding of type VIII (short-chain) collagen...
  56. Wang Y, Vera L, Fischer W, Montminy M. The CREB coactivator CRTC2 links hepatic ER stress and fasting gluconeogenesis. Nature. 2009;460:534-7 pubmed publisher
    ..quality control genes through an association with activating transcription factor 6 alpha (ATF6alpha, also known as ATF6)--an integral branch of the unfolded protein response...
  57. Yang D, Jiang T, Liu J, Hong J, Lin P, Chen H, et al. Hormone regulates endometrial function via cooperation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mTOR-autophagy. J Cell Physiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, knockdown of ATF6 via shATF6 promoted the conceptus elongation related genes, but increased the dissolution of the corpus luteum...
  58. Wong M, DiChiara A, Suen P, Chen K, Doan N, Shoulders M. Adapting Secretory Proteostasis and Function Through the Unfolded Protein Response. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2018;414:1-25 pubmed publisher
    ..By the action of the transmembrane signal transducers IRE1, PERK, and ATF6, the UPR induces networks of genes whose products alleviate the burden of protein misfolding...
  59. Bommiasamy H, Back S, Fagone P, Lee K, Meshinchi S, Vink E, et al. ATF6alpha induces XBP1-independent expansion of the endoplasmic reticulum. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1626-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal further complexity in the potential relationships between UPR pathways, lipid production and ER biogenesis. ..
  60. Liang G, Fang X, Yang Y, Song Y. Knockdown of CEMIP suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells: downregulation of GRP78 and attenuation of unfolded protein response. Biochem Cell Biol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). Furthermore, CEMIP silencing sensitized CRC cells to thapsigargin-induced apoptosis...
  61. Cerezo M, Lehraiki A, Millet A, Rouaud F, Plaisant M, Jaune E, et al. Compounds Triggering ER Stress Exert Anti-Melanoma Effects and Overcome BRAF Inhibitor Resistance. Cancer Cell. 2016;29:805-819 pubmed publisher
  62. Borsa M, Ferreira P, Petry A, Ferreira L, Camargo M, Bou Habib D, et al. HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy lead to unfolded protein response activation. Virol J. 2015;12:77 pubmed publisher
    ..transmembrane proteins serving as stress sensors: PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)...
  63. Damiano F, Tocci R, Gnoni G, Siculella L. Expression of citrate carrier gene is activated by ER stress effectors XBP1 and ATF6α, binding to an UPRE in its promoter. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1849:23-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Unfolded Protein Response Element (UPRE) confers responsiveness to the promoter activation by UPR transducers ATF6α and XBP1...
  64. Liu L, Liu C, Lu Y, Liu L, Jiang Y. ER stress related factor ATF6 and caspase-12 trigger apoptosis in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:6960-6 pubmed
    ..Three ER stress-related protein, including ATF6, p-Perk and IRE-1 were investigated using Western blot assay for the ER stress examination...
  65. Eigner K, Filik Y, Mark F, Schütz B, Klambauer G, Moriggl R, et al. The unfolded protein response impacts melanoma progression by enhancing FGF expression and can be antagonized by a chemical chaperone. Sci Rep. 2017;7:17498 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the activity of the three effector pathways of the UPR (ATF6, PERK and IRE1) was increased in metastatic compared to non-metastatic cells...
  66. Smith S, Granell S, Salcedo Sicilia L, Baldini G, Egea G, Teckman J, et al. Activating transcription factor 6 limits intracellular accumulation of mutant ?(1)-antitrypsin Z and mitochondrial damage in hepatoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41563-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) branch of the UPR by expression of spliced ATF6(1-373) decreased intracellular accumulation of ATZ and the ..
  67. Hong M, Luo S, Baumeister P, Huang J, Gogia R, Li M, et al. Underglycosylation of ATF6 as a novel sensing mechanism for activation of the unfolded protein response. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:11354-63 pubmed
    b>ATF6 is a key transcriptional activator of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which allows mammalian cells to maintain cellular homeostasis when they are subjected to a variety of environmental and physiological stresses that target the ..
  68. Shang J. Quantitative measurement of events in the mammalian unfolded protein response. Methods Enzymol. 2011;491:293-308 pubmed publisher
    ..UPR transducers IRE1, PERK, ATF6, and UPR-responsive genes such as GRP78/BiP, ERAD genes such as EDEM, and synthesis of the protein N-linked ..
  69. Kohl S, Zobor D, Chiang W, Weisschuh N, Staller J, González Menéndez I, et al. Mutations in the unfolded protein response regulator ATF6 cause the cone dysfunction disorder achromatopsia. Nat Genet. 2015;47:757-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This new ACHM-related gene suggests a crucial and unexpected role for ATF6A in human foveal development and cone function and adds to the list of genes that, despite ubiquitous expression, ..
  70. Sun C, Han C, Jiang Y, Han N, Zhang M, Li G, et al. Inhibition of GRP78 abrogates radioresistance in oropharyngeal carcinoma cells after EGFR inhibition by cetuximab. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188932 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, cetuximab inhibited the radiation-induced activation of the ERS signalling pathway IRE1?/ATF6-GRP78 in FaDu cells, while this effect was absent in Detroit562 cells...
  71. Qie X, Wen D, Guo H, Xu G, Liu S, Shen Q, et al. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mediates Methamphetamine-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Damage. Front Pharmacol. 2017;8:639 pubmed publisher
    ..METH activated ER stress sensor proteins, including PERK, ATF6, and IRE1, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic protein CHOP...
  72. Doran A, Ozcan L, Cai B, Zheng Z, Fredman G, Rymond C, et al. CAMKIIγ suppresses an efferocytosis pathway in macrophages and promotes atherosclerotic plaque necrosis. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:4075-4089 pubmed publisher
    ..and atherosclerotic lesions lacking myeloid CaMKIIγ had increased expression of the transcription factor ATF6. We determined that ATF6 induces liver X receptor-α (LXRα), an Mertk-inducing transcription factor, and that ..
  73. Gjymishka A, Su N, Kilberg M. Transcriptional induction of the human asparagine synthetase gene during the unfolded protein response does not require the ATF6 and IRE1/XBP1 arms of the pathway. Biochem J. 2009;417:695-703 pubmed publisher
    ..PERK [PKR (double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase)-like ER kinase], IRE1 (inositol-requiring kinase 1) and ATF6 (activating transcription factor 6)...
  74. Hai T, Hartman M. The molecular biology and nomenclature of the activating transcription factor/cAMP responsive element binding family of transcription factors: activating transcription factor proteins and homeostasis. Gene. 2001;273:1-11 pubmed
    ..We will then review three members of the ATF/CREB family of proteins: ATF3, ATF4 and ATF6. We will address four issues for each protein: (a) homologous proteins and alternative names, (b) dimer formation ..
  75. Plate L, Cooley C, Chen J, Paxman R, Gallagher C, Madoux F, et al. Small molecule proteostasis regulators that reprogram the ER to reduce extracellular protein aggregation. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..environment through genetic activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR)-associated transcription factor ATF6 attenuates secretion and extracellular aggregation of amyloidogenic proteins...
  76. Yao S, Zong C, Zhang Y, Sang H, Yang M, Jiao P, et al. Activating transcription factor 6 mediates oxidized LDL-induced cholesterol accumulation and apoptosis in macrophages by up-regulating CHOP expression. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2013;20:94-107 pubmed
    This study was to explore whether activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), an important sensor to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, would mediate oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)- induced cholesterol accumulation and apoptosis ..
  77. Chakrabarti A, Chen A, Varner J. A review of the mammalian unfolded protein response. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2011;108:2777-93 pubmed publisher
    ..UPR is a complex signaling program mediated by three ER transmembrane receptors: activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), inositol requiring kinase 1 (IRE1) and double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR)-like endoplasmic ..
  78. Sato Y, Nadanaka S, Okada T, Okawa K, Mori K. Luminal domain of ATF6 alone is sufficient for sensing endoplasmic reticulum stress and subsequent transport to the Golgi apparatus. Cell Struct Funct. 2011;36:35-47 pubmed
    The transcription factor ATF6 is constitutively synthesized as a type II transmembrane protein embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...