Gene Symbol: ARRB2
Description: arrestin beta 2
Alias: ARB2, ARR2, BARR2, beta-arrestin-2, arrestin 3, non-visual arrestin-3
Species: human
Products:     ARRB2

Top Publications

  1. Oakley R, Laporte S, Holt J, Barak L, Caron M. Molecular determinants underlying the formation of stable intracellular G protein-coupled receptor-beta-arrestin complexes after receptor endocytosis*. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:19452-60 pubmed
  2. Chen W, ten Berge D, Brown J, Ahn S, Hu L, Miller W, et al. Dishevelled 2 recruits beta-arrestin 2 to mediate Wnt5A-stimulated endocytosis of Frizzled 4. Science. 2003;301:1391-4 pubmed
    ..These findings provide a previously unrecognized mechanism for receptor recruitment of beta-arrestin and demonstrate that Dvl plays an important role in the endocytosis of frizzled, as well as in promoting signaling. ..
  3. Wang P, Gao H, Ni Y, Wang B, Wu Y, Ji L, et al. Beta-arrestin 2 functions as a G-protein-coupled receptor-activated regulator of oncoprotein Mdm2. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:6363-70 pubmed
    ..Our study thus suggests that beta-arrestin 2 may serve as a cross-talk linker between GPCR and p53 signaling pathways. ..
  4. Tohgo A, Choy E, Gesty Palmer D, Pierce K, Laporte S, Oakley R, et al. The stability of the G protein-coupled receptor-beta-arrestin interaction determines the mechanism and functional consequence of ERK activation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:6258-67 pubmed
  5. Sun Y, Cheng Z, Ma L, Pei G. Beta-arrestin2 is critically involved in CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis, and this is mediated by its enhancement of p38 MAPK activation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:49212-9 pubmed
  6. Vibhuti A, Gupta K, Subramanian H, Guo Q, Ali H. Distinct and shared roles of ?-arrestin-1 and ?-arrestin-2 on the regulation of C3a receptor signaling in human mast cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19585 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a new level of complexity for C3aR regulation by ?-arrestins in human mast cells. ..
  7. Shenoy S, Lefkowitz R. Receptor-specific ubiquitination of beta-arrestin directs assembly and targeting of seven-transmembrane receptor signalosomes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:15315-24 pubmed
  8. Luttrell L, Roudabush F, Choy E, Miller W, Field M, Pierce K, et al. Activation and targeting of extracellular signal-regulated kinases by beta-arrestin scaffolds. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:2449-54 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that beta-arrestins function both as scaffolds to enhance cRaf-1 and MEK-dependent activation of ERK2, and as targeting proteins that direct activated ERK to specific subcellular locations. ..
  9. Lee M, El Shewy H, Luttrell D, Luttrell L. Role of beta-arrestin-mediated desensitization and signaling in the control of angiotensin AT1a receptor-stimulated transcription. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:2088-97 pubmed

More Information


  1. Callander G, Thomas W, Bathgate R. Prolonged RXFP1 and RXFP2 signaling can be explained by poor internalization and a lack of beta-arrestin recruitment. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C1058-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The apparent lack of classical regulation for RXFP1 and RXFP2 provides the molecular basis for the prolonged signaling and physiological actions of relaxin and related peptides. ..
  2. Boularan C, Scott M, Bourougaa K, Bellal M, Esteve E, Thuret A, et al. beta-arrestin 2 oligomerization controls the Mdm2-dependent inhibition of p53. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18061-6 pubmed
    ..interaction with and subsequent titration out of the nucleus of the protooncogene Mdm2 specifically require beta-arr2 oligomers together with the previously characterized nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of beta-arr2...
  3. Luan B, Zhang Z, Wu Y, Kang J, Pei G. Beta-arrestin2 functions as a phosphorylation-regulated suppressor of UV-induced NF-kappaB activation. EMBO J. 2005;24:4237-46 pubmed
    ..Thus, beta-arrestin2 is identified as a phosphorylation-regulated suppressor of UV response and this may play a functional role in the response of epidermal cells to UV. ..
  4. Lefkowitz R. G protein-coupled receptors. III. New roles for receptor kinases and beta-arrestins in receptor signaling and desensitization. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:18677-80 pubmed
  5. Luker K, Gupta M, Steele J, Foerster B, Luker G. Imaging ligand-dependent activation of CXCR7. Neoplasia. 2009;11:1022-35 pubmed
  6. Xiao K, McClatchy D, Shukla A, Zhao Y, Chen M, Shenoy S, et al. Functional specialization of beta-arrestin interactions revealed by proteomic analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12011-6 pubmed
    ..This study provides a comprehensive analysis of proteins that bind beta-arrestin isoforms and underscores their potentially broad regulatory roles in mammalian cellular physiology. ..
  7. Wei H, Ahn S, Barnes W, Lefkowitz R. Stable interaction between beta-arrestin 2 and angiotensin type 1A receptor is required for beta-arrestin 2-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48255-61 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate how the ability of receptors to interact with beta-arrestins determines both the mechanism of ERK activation as well as the physiological consequences of this activation. ..
  8. Shenoy S, Xiao K, Venkataramanan V, Snyder P, Freedman N, Weissman A. Nedd4 mediates agonist-dependent ubiquitination, lysosomal targeting, and degradation of the beta2-adrenergic receptor. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:22166-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings indicate that the degradative fate of the beta(2)AR in the lysosomal compartments is dependent upon beta-arrestin2-mediated recruitment of Nedd4 to the activated receptor and Nedd4-catalyzed ubiquitination. ..
  9. Ahn S, Kim J, Hara M, Ren X, Lefkowitz R. {beta}-Arrestin-2 Mediates Anti-apoptotic Signaling through Regulation of BAD Phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:8855-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish a key role for beta-arrestin-2 in mediating cellular cytoprotective functions by a 7-transmembrane receptor and define the biochemical pathways involved. ..
  10. Attramadal H, Arriza J, Aoki C, Dawson T, Codina J, Kwatra M, et al. Beta-arrestin2, a novel member of the arrestin/beta-arrestin gene family. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:17882-90 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, immunoelectron microscopy shows that the beta-arrestins are appropriately situated at postsynaptic sites to act in concert with beta ARK to regulate G protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors. ..
  11. Chen W, Kirkbride K, How T, Nelson C, Mo J, Frederick J, et al. Beta-arrestin 2 mediates endocytosis of type III TGF-beta receptor and down-regulation of its signaling. Science. 2003;301:1394-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, the regulatory actions of beta-arrestins are broader than previously appreciated, extending to the TGF-beta receptor family as well. ..
  12. Wang P, Wu Y, Ge X, Ma L, Pei G. Subcellular localization of beta-arrestins is determined by their intact N domain and the nuclear export signal at the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11648-53 pubmed
  13. Macey T, Gurevich V, Neve K. Preferential Interaction between the dopamine D2 receptor and Arrestin2 in neostriatal neurons. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;66:1635-42 pubmed
    ..All three measures of receptor/arrestin interaction (colocalization, translocation, and coprecipitation) demonstrated selective agonist-induced interaction between the D2 receptor and arrestin2 in neurons. ..
  14. Zhao M, Wimmer A, Trieu K, DiScipio R, Schraufstatter I. Arrestin regulates MAPK activation and prevents NADPH oxidase-dependent death of cells expressing CXCR2. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49259-67 pubmed
    ..These results indicate a novel function for arrestin, which is protection from an excessive oxidative burst, resulting from the sustained stimulation of G-protein-coupled receptors that cause Rac translocation. ..
  15. Hilairet S, Belanger C, Bertrand J, Laperriere A, Foord S, Bouvier M. Agonist-promoted internalization of a ternary complex between calcitonin receptor-like receptor, receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), and beta-arrestin. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:42182-90 pubmed
    ..These results therefore indicate that although atypical by its heterodimeric composition and its targeting to the plasma membrane, the CGRP receptor shares endocytotic mechanisms that are common to most classical 7TM receptors. ..
  16. Wei H, Ahn S, Shenoy S, Karnik S, Hunyady L, Luttrell L, et al. Independent beta-arrestin 2 and G protein-mediated pathways for angiotensin II activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:10782-7 pubmed
  17. Bhandari D, Trejo J, Benovic J, Marchese A. Arrestin-2 interacts with the ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase atrophin-interacting protein 4 and mediates endosomal sorting of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:36971-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that the AIP4.arrestin-2 complex functions on endosomes to regulate sorting of CXCR4 into the degradative pathway. ..
  18. Girnita L, Shenoy S, Sehat B, Vasilcanu R, Girnita A, Lefkowitz R, et al. {beta}-Arrestin is crucial for ubiquitination and down-regulation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor by acting as adaptor for the MDM2 E3 ligase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24412-9 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating a defined molecular role of beta-arrestin with direct relevance to cell growth and cancer. ..
  19. McDonald P, Chow C, Miller W, Laporte S, Field M, Lin F, et al. Beta-arrestin 2: a receptor-regulated MAPK scaffold for the activation of JNK3. Science. 2000;290:1574-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, beta-arrestin 2 acts as a scaffold protein, which brings the spatial distribution and activity of this MAPK module under the control of a GPCR. ..
  20. Perroy J, Pontier S, Charest P, Aubry M, Bouvier M. Real-time monitoring of ubiquitination in living cells by BRET. Nat Methods. 2004;1:203-8 pubmed
    ..The ubiquitination BRET assay should prove to be a useful tool for studying the dynamic ubiquitination of proteins and for understanding which cellular functions are regulated by this post-translational event. ..
  21. Castro Obregon S, Rao R, Del Rio G, Chen S, Poksay K, Rabizadeh S, et al. Alternative, nonapoptotic programmed cell death: mediation by arrestin 2, ERK2, and Nur77. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:17543-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Nur77, which is regulated by a MAPK pathway activated via arrestin 2, modulates NK(1)R-mediated nonapoptotic pcd. ..
  22. Ahn S, Wei H, Garrison T, Lefkowitz R. Reciprocal regulation of angiotensin receptor-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases by beta-arrestins 1 and 2. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7807-11 pubmed
  23. Bolger G, McCahill A, Huston E, Cheung Y, McSorley T, Baillie G, et al. The unique amino-terminal region of the PDE4D5 cAMP phosphodiesterase isoform confers preferential interaction with beta-arrestins. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:49230-8 pubmed
    ..This specificity appears likely to account for the preferential recruitment of PDE4D5, compared with PDE4D3, to membranes of Hek-B2 cells and cardiac myocytes upon challenge with isoproterenol. ..
  24. Luan B, Zhao J, Wu H, Duan B, Shu G, Wang X, et al. Deficiency of a beta-arrestin-2 signal complex contributes to insulin resistance. Nature. 2009;457:1146-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide new insight into the molecular pathogenesis of insulin resistance, and implicate new preventive and therapeutic strategies against insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. ..
  25. Ahn S, Nelson C, Garrison T, Miller W, Lefkowitz R. Desensitization, internalization, and signaling functions of beta-arrestins demonstrated by RNA interference. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:1740-4 pubmed
    ..This approach should allow discovery of novel signaling and regulatory roles for the beta-arrestins in many seven-membrane-spanning receptor systems. ..
  26. Beaulieu J, Marion S, Rodriguiz R, Medvedev I, Sotnikova T, Ghisi V, et al. A beta-arrestin 2 signaling complex mediates lithium action on behavior. Cell. 2008;132:125-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point toward a pharmacological approach to modulating GPCR function that affects the formation of beta-arrestin-mediated signaling complexes. ..
  27. Shenoy S, Modi A, Shukla A, Xiao K, Berthouze M, Ahn S, et al. Beta-arrestin-dependent signaling and trafficking of 7-transmembrane receptors is reciprocally regulated by the deubiquitinase USP33 and the E3 ligase Mdm2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6650-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, USP33-beta-arrestin interaction is a key regulatory step in 7TMR trafficking and signal transmission from the activated receptors to downstream effectors. ..
  28. Rondou P, Skieterska K, Packeu A, Lintermans B, Vanhoenacker P, Vauquelin G, et al. KLHL12-mediated ubiquitination of the dopamine D4 receptor does not target the receptor for degradation. Cell Signal. 2010;22:900-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, KLHL12 does also interact with beta-arrestin2 but this has no effect on the ubiquitination or localization of beta-arrestin2 nor on the internalization of the D4 receptor. ..
  29. Frenzel R, Voigt C, Paschke R. The human thyrotropin receptor is predominantly internalized by beta-arrestin 2. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3114-22 pubmed
  30. Kang J, Shi Y, Xiang B, Qu B, Su W, Zhu M, et al. A nuclear function of beta-arrestin1 in GPCR signaling: regulation of histone acetylation and gene transcription. Cell. 2005;123:833-47 pubmed
  31. Beaulieu J, Sotnikova T, Marion S, Lefkowitz R, Gainetdinov R, Caron M. An Akt/beta-arrestin 2/PP2A signaling complex mediates dopaminergic neurotransmission and behavior. Cell. 2005;122:261-73 pubmed
  32. Szabo E, Numata M, Lukashova V, Iannuzzi P, Orlowski J. beta-Arrestins bind and decrease cell-surface abundance of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE5 isoform. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2790-5 pubmed
    ..Comparable results were also obtained for the beta-arrestin1 isoform. These data reveal a broader role for arrestins in the trafficking of integral plasma membrane proteins than previously recognized. ..
  33. Gao H, Sun Y, Wu Y, Luan B, Wang Y, Qu B, et al. Identification of beta-arrestin2 as a G protein-coupled receptor-stimulated regulator of NF-kappaB pathways. Mol Cell. 2004;14:303-17 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the current study may present a novel mechanism for regulation of the immune system by the sympathetic nervous system. ..
  34. Bhattacharya M, Anborgh P, Babwah A, Dale L, Dobransky T, Benovic J, et al. Beta-arrestins regulate a Ral-GDS Ral effector pathway that mediates cytoskeletal reorganization. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:547-55 pubmed
    ..Thus, beta-arrestins regulate multiple steps in the Ral-dependent processes that result in chemoattractant-induced cytoskeletal reorganization. ..
  35. Shenoy S, McDonald P, Kohout T, Lefkowitz R. Regulation of receptor fate by ubiquitination of activated beta 2-adrenergic receptor and beta-arrestin. Science. 2001;294:1307-13 pubmed
  36. Cheng Z, Zhao J, Sun Y, Hu W, Wu Y, Cen B, et al. beta-arrestin differentially regulates the chemokine receptor CXCR4-mediated signaling and receptor internalization, and this implicates multiple interaction sites between beta-arrestin and CXCR4. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:2479-85 pubmed
  37. Laporte S, Oakley R, Zhang J, Holt J, Ferguson S, Caron M, et al. The beta2-adrenergic receptor/betaarrestin complex recruits the clathrin adaptor AP-2 during endocytosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:3712-7 pubmed
    ..These findings point to a role for AP-2 in GPCR endocytosis, and they suggest that AP-2 functions as a clathrin adaptor for the endocytosis of diverse classes of membrane receptors. ..
  38. Barak L, Ferguson S, Zhang J, Caron M. A beta-arrestin/green fluorescent protein biosensor for detecting G protein-coupled receptor activation. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:27497-500 pubmed
  39. Shenoy S, Lefkowitz R. Trafficking patterns of beta-arrestin and G protein-coupled receptors determined by the kinetics of beta-arrestin deubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14498-506 pubmed
    ..Thus the ubiquitination status of beta-arrestin determines the stability of the receptor-beta-arrestin complex as well as the trafficking pattern of beta-arrestin. ..
  40. Sang W, Wang Y, Zhang C, Zhang D, Sun C, Niu M, et al. MiR-150 impairs inflammatory cytokine production by targeting ARRB-2 after blocking CD28/B7 costimulatory pathway. Immunol Lett. 2016;172:1-10 pubmed publisher elevated after blocking CD28/B7 co-stimulatory signaling pathway and impaired IL-2 production by targeting ARRB2. Further investigation suggested that miR-150 not only repressed the level of ARRB2/PDE4 directly but also ..
  41. Isaza C, Henao J, Velez J, Rodríguez M, Sierra J, Beltrán L, et al. [Evaluation of the Methadone Maintenance Program of the Risaralda Mental Hospital]. Rev Colomb Psiquiatr. 2014;43:96-105 pubmed publisher
    ..R and S-enantiomers, and for typing of candidate alleles of POR, CYP2B6, ABCB1, GRIN1, OPRM1, SLC6A3, DßH and ARRB2 genes, all associated with the metabolism, tissue distribution and mechanism of action of methadone...
  42. Arnaud D, Lee S, Takebayashi Y, Choi D, Choi J, Sakakibara H, et al. Cytokinin-Mediated Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis Modulates Stomatal Immunity in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2017;29:543-559 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytokinin receptor HISTIDINE KINASE3 (AHK3) and RESPONSE REGULATOR2 (ARR2) promote stomatal closure triggered by pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) and resistance to ..
  43. Dalrymple M, Jaeger W, Eidne K, Pfleger K. Temporal profiling of orexin receptor-arrestin-ubiquitin complexes reveals differences between receptor subtypes. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16726-33 pubmed publisher
  44. Zheng M, Cheong S, Min C, Jin M, Cho D, Kim K. ?-arrestin2 plays permissive roles in the inhibitory activities of RGS9-2 on G protein-coupled receptors by maintaining RGS9-2 in the open conformation. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4887-901 pubmed publisher
  45. Chang F, Liu J, Fu H, Wang J, Li F, Yue H, et al. GSK-3β promotes PA-induced apoptosis through changing β-arrestin 2 nucleus location in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Apoptosis. 2016;21:1045-55 pubmed publisher
    ..To detect its downstream factors, we analyzed the roles of JNK, p38 MAPK and β-arrestin 2 (β-Arr2)...
  46. Wu J, Shan F, Zheng J, Pei D. ?-arrestin promotes c-Jun N-terminal kinase mediated apoptosis via a GABA(B)R·?-arrestin·JNK signaling module. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15:1041-6 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that ?-arrestin promotes JNK mediated apoptosis via a GABABR·?-arrestin·JNK signaling module. ..
  47. Estall J, Koehler J, Yusta B, Drucker D. The glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor C terminus modulates beta-arrestin-2 association but is dispensable for ligand-induced desensitization, endocytosis, and G-protein-dependent effector activation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22124-34 pubmed
  48. Krasel C, Zabel U, Lorenz K, Reiner S, Al Sabah S, Lohse M. Dual role of the beta2-adrenergic receptor C terminus for the binding of beta-arrestin and receptor internalization. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:31840-8 pubmed publisher
  49. Orsini M, Benovic J. Characterization of dominant negative arrestins that inhibit beta2-adrenergic receptor internalization by distinct mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34616-22 pubmed
  50. Wanka L, Babilon S, Burkert K, Mörl K, Gurevich V, Beck Sickinger A. C-terminal motif of human neuropeptide Y4 receptor determines internalization and arrestin recruitment. Cell Signal. 2017;29:233-239 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we identified the internalization motif for the human neuropeptide Y4 receptor, which regulates arrestin-3 recruitment and receptor endocytosis. ..
  51. Bousman C, Glatt S, Everall I, Tsuang M. Genetic association studies of methamphetamine use disorders: A systematic review and synthesis. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;150B:1025-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Three genes (COMT, DRD4, and GABRA1) were associated with METH abuse, nine (ARRB2, BDNF, CYP2D6, GLYT1, GSTM1, GSTP1, PDYN, PICK1, and SLC22A3) with METH dependence, two (AKT1 and GABRG2) with ..
  52. Rey A, Manen D, Rizzoli R, Caverzasio J, Ferrari S. Proline-rich motifs in the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related protein receptor C terminus mediate scaffolding of c-Src with beta-arrestin2 for ERK1/2 activation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:38181-8 pubmed
  53. Jiang T, Yu J, Wang Y, Wang H, Zhang W, Hu N, et al. The genetic variation of ARRB2 is associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease in Han Chinese. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2014;11:408-12 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ?-arrestin 2 gene (ARRB2) variation and the risk of late-onset AD (LOAD)...
  54. Lin J, Cullen B. Analysis of the interaction of primate retroviruses with the human RNA interference machinery. J Virol. 2007;81:12218-26 pubmed
    ..Together, these data argue that HIV-1 and HTLV-1 neither induce the production of viral small interfering RNAs or microRNAs nor repress the cellular RNA interference machinery in infected cells. ..
  55. Carneiro A, Fonseca Alaniz M, Dallan L, Miyakawa A, Krieger J. ?-arrestin is critical for early shear stress-induced Akt/eNOS activation in human vascular endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;483:75-81 pubmed publisher
  56. Kuo F, Lu T, Fu H. Opposing effects of beta-arrestin1 and beta-arrestin2 on activation and degradation of Src induced by protease-activated receptor 1. Cell Signal. 2006;18:1914-23 pubmed
    ..beta-Arrestin2 also appears to promote PAR1-induced degradation of Src. This degradation of Src provides a possible mechanism for terminating PAR1 signaling. ..
  57. Paradis J, Ly S, Blondel Tepaz Ã, Galan J, Beautrait A, Scott M, et al. Receptor sequestration in response to β-arrestin-2 phosphorylation by ERK1/2 governs steady-state levels of GPCR cell-surface expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E5160-8 pubmed publisher
  58. Octeau J, Schrader J, Masuho I, Sharma M, Aiudi C, Chen C, et al. G protein beta 5 is targeted to D2-dopamine receptor-containing biochemical compartments and blocks dopamine-dependent receptor internalization. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e105791 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter data suggest that the interactions between D2R and Gβ5 are not mediated by endogenously expressed R7 RGS proteins. ..
  59. Li H, Sun X, Lesage G, Zhang Y, Liang Z, Chen J, et al. ?-arrestin 2 regulates Toll-like receptor 4-mediated apoptotic signalling through glycogen synthase kinase-3?. Immunology. 2010;130:556-63 pubmed publisher
  60. Manson M, Corey D, Bederman I, Burgess J, Kelley T. Regulatory role of ?-arrestin-2 in cholesterol processing in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:1268-76 pubmed publisher
    Cystic fibrosis (CF) cells exhibit an increase in the protein expression of ?-arrestin-2 (?arr2) coincident with perinuclear accumulation of free cholesterol...
  61. Zhang P, He X, Tan J, Zhou X, Zou L. ?-arrestin2 mediates ?-2 adrenergic receptor signaling inducing prostate cancer cell progression. Oncol Rep. 2011;26:1471-7 pubmed publisher
    ..activation of ERK1/2 and cell proliferation using stable overexpressing ?-arrestin2 LNCaP (LNCaP-?Arr2) cells...
  62. Borroto Escuela D, Romero Fernandez W, Tarakanov A, Ciruela F, Agnati L, Fuxe K. On the existence of a possible A2A-D2-?-Arrestin2 complex: A2A agonist modulation of D2 agonist-induced ?-arrestin2 recruitment. J Mol Biol. 2011;406:687-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ?-arrestin2 action becomes more rapid and short-lasting and, in this way, mimics G-protein-mediated signaling. ..
  63. Klenk C, Vetter T, Zürn A, Vilardaga J, Friedman P, Wang B, et al. Formation of a ternary complex among NHERF1, beta-arrestin, and parathyroid hormone receptor. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:30355-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a model in which NHERF1 may serve as an adaptor, bringing ?-arrestin2 into close proximity to the PTHR, thereby facilitating ?-arrestin2 recruitment after receptor activation. ..
  64. Lee J, Banu S, Burghardt R, Starzinski Powitz A, Arosh J. Selective inhibition of prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 and EP4 inhibits adhesion of human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells through suppression of integrin-mediated mechanisms. Biol Reprod. 2013;88:77 pubmed publisher
  65. Lipina T, Fletcher P, Lee F, Wong A, Roder J. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 Gln31Leu polymorphism results in social anhedonia associated with monoaminergic imbalance and reduction of CREB and ?-arrestin-1,2 in the nucleus accumbens in a mouse model of depression. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013;38:423-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we find neurobiological changes accompanying social anhedonia in the NAC of DISC1-Q31L mutant mice, consistent with a role for DISC1 in regulating social reward as an endophenotype of depression. ..
  66. Roy R, Ardeshirylajimi A, Dinarvand P, Yang L, Rezaie A. Occupancy of human EPCR by protein C induces ?-arrestin-2 biased PAR1 signaling by both APC and thrombin. Blood. 2016;128:1884-1893 pubmed publisher
    ..In support of a physiological relevance for these results, intraperitoneal administration of PC-S195A conferred a cytoprotective effect for thrombin in an in vivo inflammatory model. ..
  67. Li Y, Li H, Liu X, Bao G, Tao Y, Wu Z, et al. Regulation of amygdalar PKA by beta-arrestin-2/phosphodiesterase-4 complex is critical for fear conditioning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21918-23 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Arrb2(-/-) mice exhibit impaired conditioned fear memory and long-term potentiation at the lateral amygdalar synapses...