Gene Symbol: ARRB1
Description: arrestin beta 1
Alias: ARB1, ARR1, beta-arrestin-1, arrestin 2, non-visual arrestin-2
Species: human
Products:     ARRB1

Top Publications

  1. Zou L, Yang R, Chai J, Pei G. Rapid xenograft tumor progression in beta-arrestin1 transgenic mice due to enhanced tumor angiogenesis. FASEB J. 2008;22:355-64 pubmed
    ..We found that the xenograft tumor initiated earlier and grew more rapidly in beta-Arr1 transgenic mice than in both the beta-Arr2 transgenic and wild-type mice after inoculating murine liver cancer ..
  2. Gao H, Sun Y, Wu Y, Luan B, Wang Y, Qu B, et al. Identification of beta-arrestin2 as a G protein-coupled receptor-stimulated regulator of NF-kappaB pathways. Mol Cell. 2004;14:303-17 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the current study may present a novel mechanism for regulation of the immune system by the sympathetic nervous system. ..
  3. Buchanan F, Gorden D, Matta P, Shi Q, Matrisian L, DuBois R. Role of beta-arrestin 1 in the metastatic progression of colorectal cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1492-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our data implicate a functional role for beta-arrestin 1 as a mediator of cellular migration and metastasis. ..
  4. Marion S, Oakley R, Kim K, Caron M, Barak L. A beta-arrestin binding determinant common to the second intracellular loops of rhodopsin family G protein-coupled receptors. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2932-8 pubmed
  5. Ge L, Shenoy S, Lefkowitz R, DeFea K. Constitutive protease-activated receptor-2-mediated migration of MDA MB-231 breast cancer cells requires both beta-arrestin-1 and -2. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:55419-24 pubmed
  6. Ahn S, Nelson C, Garrison T, Miller W, Lefkowitz R. Desensitization, internalization, and signaling functions of beta-arrestins demonstrated by RNA interference. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:1740-4 pubmed
    ..This approach should allow discovery of novel signaling and regulatory roles for the beta-arrestins in many seven-membrane-spanning receptor systems. ..
  7. Kim J, Lakshmikanthan V, Frilot N, Daaka Y. Prostaglandin E2 promotes lung cancer cell migration via EP4-betaArrestin1-c-Src signalsome. Mol Cancer Res. 2010;8:569-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective targeting of EP4 with a ligand antagonist may provide an efficient approach to better manage patients with advanced lung cancer. ..
  8. Chen W, Hu L, Semenov M, Yanagawa S, Kikuchi A, Lefkowitz R, et al. beta-Arrestin1 modulates lymphoid enhancer factor transcriptional activity through interaction with phosphorylated dishevelled proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14889-94 pubmed
  9. Hara M, Kovacs J, Whalen E, Rajagopal S, Strachan R, Grant W, et al. A stress response pathway regulates DNA damage through ?2-adrenoreceptors and ?-arrestin-1. Nature. 2011;477:349-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice and in human cell lines, ?-arrestin-1 (ARRB1), activated via ?(2)-adrenoreceptors, facilitates AKT-mediated activation of MDM2 and also promotes MDM2 binding ..

More Information


  1. Cheng Z, Zhao J, Sun Y, Hu W, Wu Y, Cen B, et al. beta-arrestin differentially regulates the chemokine receptor CXCR4-mediated signaling and receptor internalization, and this implicates multiple interaction sites between beta-arrestin and CXCR4. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:2479-85 pubmed
    ..Moreover, beta(2)V54D, the dominant inhibitory mutant of beta-arrestin 2, exerted no effects on CXCR4/G protein signaling, but strongly influenced receptor internalization and ..
  2. Orsini M, Parent J, Mundell S, Marchese A, Benovic J. Trafficking of the HIV coreceptor CXCR4. Role of arrestins and identification of residues in the c-terminal tail that mediate receptor internalization. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:31076-86 pubmed
  3. Shenoy S, McDonald P, Kohout T, Lefkowitz R. Regulation of receptor fate by ubiquitination of activated beta 2-adrenergic receptor and beta-arrestin. Science. 2001;294:1307-13 pubmed
  4. Singh S, Bora Singhal N, Kroeger J, Laklai H, Chellappan S. ?Arrestin-1 and Mcl-1 modulate self-renewal growth of cancer stem-like side-population cells in non-small cell lung cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55982 pubmed publisher
    ..Arrestin-1 (?Arr1) is involved in the progression of various cancers including NSCLCs and we find that depletion of ?Arr1 ..
  5. Xiao K, McClatchy D, Shukla A, Zhao Y, Chen M, Shenoy S, et al. Functional specialization of beta-arrestin interactions revealed by proteomic analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12011-6 pubmed
    ..As determined by LC tandem MS, 71 proteins interacted with beta-arrestin 1, 164 interacted with beta-arrestin 2, and 102 interacted with both beta-arrestins...
  6. Nelson C, Kovacs J, Nobles K, Whalen E, Lefkowitz R. Beta-arrestin scaffolding of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase Ialpha promotes agonist-stimulated sequestration of the beta2-adrenergic receptor. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:21093-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data support a model in which beta-arrestins direct the localization of PIP5K Ialpha and PIP(2) production to agonist-activated 7TMRs, thereby regulating receptor internalization. ..
  7. Scott M, Pierotti V, Storez H, Lindberg E, Thuret A, Muntaner O, et al. Cooperative regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and cell shape change by filamin A and beta-arrestins. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3432-45 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that betaarr and FLNA cooperate to regulate ERK activation and actin cytoskeleton reorganization. ..
  8. Kang J, Shi Y, Xiang B, Qu B, Su W, Zhu M, et al. A nuclear function of beta-arrestin1 in GPCR signaling: regulation of histone acetylation and gene transcription. Cell. 2005;123:833-47 pubmed
  9. Rosanò L, Cianfrocca R, Masi S, Spinella F, Di Castro V, Biroccio A, et al. Beta-arrestin links endothelin A receptor to beta-catenin signaling to induce ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:2806-11 pubmed publisher
    ..ZD4054 treatment significantly inhibits metastases, suggesting that specific ET(A)R antagonists, by disabling multiple signaling activated by ET(A)R/beta-arrestin, may represent new therapeutic opportunities for ovarian cancer. ..
  10. Shenoy S, Modi A, Shukla A, Xiao K, Berthouze M, Ahn S, et al. Beta-arrestin-dependent signaling and trafficking of 7-transmembrane receptors is reciprocally regulated by the deubiquitinase USP33 and the E3 ligase Mdm2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:6650-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, USP33-beta-arrestin interaction is a key regulatory step in 7TMR trafficking and signal transmission from the activated receptors to downstream effectors. ..
  11. Szabo E, Numata M, Lukashova V, Iannuzzi P, Orlowski J. beta-Arrestins bind and decrease cell-surface abundance of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE5 isoform. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:2790-5 pubmed
    ..Comparable results were also obtained for the beta-arrestin1 isoform. These data reveal a broader role for arrestins in the trafficking of integral plasma membrane proteins than previously recognized. ..
  12. Witherow D, Garrison T, Miller W, Lefkowitz R. beta-Arrestin inhibits NF-kappaB activity by means of its interaction with the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaBalpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8603-7 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of either beta-arrestin 1 or beta-arrestin 2 led to marked inhibition of NF-kappaB activity, as measured by reporter gene activity...
  13. Galliera E, Jala V, Trent J, Bonecchi R, Signorelli P, Lefkowitz R, et al. beta-Arrestin-dependent constitutive internalization of the human chemokine decoy receptor D6. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:25590-7 pubmed
    ..Neither the native D6 nor mutants uncoupled from beta-arrestin activate any G-protein-mediated signaling pathways. Therefore, D6 may be considered a decoy receptor structurally adapted to perform chemokine scavenging. ..
  14. Ahn S, Wei H, Garrison T, Lefkowitz R. Reciprocal regulation of angiotensin receptor-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases by beta-arrestins 1 and 2. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7807-11 pubmed
  15. Wang P, Wu Y, Ge X, Ma L, Pei G. Subcellular localization of beta-arrestins is determined by their intact N domain and the nuclear export signal at the C terminus. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11648-53 pubmed
  16. Bhattacharya M, Anborgh P, Babwah A, Dale L, Dobransky T, Benovic J, et al. Beta-arrestins regulate a Ral-GDS Ral effector pathway that mediates cytoskeletal reorganization. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:547-55 pubmed
    ..Thus, beta-arrestins regulate multiple steps in the Ral-dependent processes that result in chemoattractant-induced cytoskeletal reorganization. ..
  17. Cianfrocca R, Rosanò L, Spinella F, Di Castro V, Natali P, Bagnato A. Beta-arrestin-1 mediates the endothelin-1-induced activation of Akt and integrin-linked kinase. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;88:796-801 pubmed publisher
  18. Li T, Alemayehu M, Aziziyeh A, Pape C, Pampillo M, Postovit L, et al. Beta-arrestin/Ral signaling regulates lysophosphatidic acid-mediated migration and invasion of human breast tumor cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:1064-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we found that the mRNA levels of LPA1, LPA2, beta-arrestin 2, and Ral GTPases are elevated in the advanced stages of breast cancer...
  19. Lefkowitz R. G protein-coupled receptors. III. New roles for receptor kinases and beta-arrestins in receptor signaling and desensitization. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:18677-80 pubmed
  20. Mo W, Zhang L, Yang G, Zhai J, Hu Z, Chen Y, et al. Nuclear beta-arrestin1 functions as a scaffold for the dephosphorylation of STAT1 and moderates the antiviral activity of IFN-gamma. Mol Cell. 2008;31:695-707 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that nuclear beta-arrestin1, acting as a scaffold for the dephosphorylation of STAT1, is an essential negative regulator of IFN-gamma signaling and participates in the IFN-gamma-induced cellular antiviral response. ..
  21. Shenoy S, Han S, Zhao Y, Hara M, Oliver T, Cao Y, et al. ?-arrestin1 mediates metastatic growth of breast cancer cells by facilitating HIF-1-dependent VEGF expression. Oncogene. 2012;31:282-92 pubmed publisher
  22. Yang M, He R, Benovic J, Ye R. beta-Arrestin1 interacts with the G-protein subunits beta1gamma2 and promotes beta1gamma2-dependent Akt signalling for NF-kappaB activation. Biochem J. 2009;417:287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify novel functions of beta-arrestin1 in binding to the beta1gamma2 subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins and promoting G(betagamma)-mediated Akt signalling for NF-kappaB activation. ..
  23. Shenoy S, Xiao K, Venkataramanan V, Snyder P, Freedman N, Weissman A. Nedd4 mediates agonist-dependent ubiquitination, lysosomal targeting, and degradation of the beta2-adrenergic receptor. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:22166-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings indicate that the degradative fate of the beta(2)AR in the lysosomal compartments is dependent upon beta-arrestin2-mediated recruitment of Nedd4 to the activated receptor and Nedd4-catalyzed ubiquitination. ..
  24. Liu H, Long J, Zhang P, Li K, Tan J, Sun B, et al. Elevated ?-arrestin1 expression correlated with risk stratification in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Int J Hematol. 2011;93:494-501 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ?-arrestin1 may be a useful predictor of risk stratification and prognosis of ALL, and thus of potential use in the design of individualized therapy strategies. ..
  25. Bhandari D, Trejo J, Benovic J, Marchese A. Arrestin-2 interacts with the ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase atrophin-interacting protein 4 and mediates endosomal sorting of the chemokine receptor CXCR4. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:36971-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that the AIP4.arrestin-2 complex functions on endosomes to regulate sorting of CXCR4 into the degradative pathway. ..
  26. Dasgupta P, Rizwani W, Pillai S, Davis R, Banerjee S, Hug K, et al. ARRB1-mediated regulation of E2F target genes in nicotine-induced growth of lung tumors. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:317-33 pubmed publisher
    ..of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the arrestin, ?1 (ARRB1) protein...
  27. Gesty Palmer D, Chen M, Reiter E, Ahn S, Nelson C, Wang S, et al. Distinct beta-arrestin- and G protein-dependent pathways for parathyroid hormone receptor-stimulated ERK1/2 activation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10856-64 pubmed
    ..This later phase of ERK1/2 activation at 30-60 min was blocked by depletion of cellular beta-arrestin 2 and beta-arrestin 1 by small interfering RNA...
  28. Shenoy S, Drake M, Nelson C, Houtz D, Xiao K, Madabushi S, et al. beta-arrestin-dependent, G protein-independent ERK1/2 activation by the beta2 adrenergic receptor. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:1261-73 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that the beta2AR can signal to ERK via a GRK5/6-beta-arrestin-dependent pathway, which is independent of G protein coupling...
  29. Luttrell L, Ferguson S, Daaka Y, Miller W, Maudsley S, Della Rocca G, et al. Beta-arrestin-dependent formation of beta2 adrenergic receptor-Src protein kinase complexes. Science. 1999;283:655-61 pubmed
  30. Beaulieu J, Sotnikova T, Marion S, Lefkowitz R, Gainetdinov R, Caron M. An Akt/beta-arrestin 2/PP2A signaling complex mediates dopaminergic neurotransmission and behavior. Cell. 2005;122:261-73 pubmed
    ..that D2 class-receptor-mediated Akt regulation involves the formation of signaling complexes containing beta-arrestin 2, PP2A, and Akt...
  31. Girnita L, Shenoy S, Sehat B, Vasilcanu R, Girnita A, Lefkowitz R, et al. {beta}-Arrestin is crucial for ubiquitination and down-regulation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor by acting as adaptor for the MDM2 E3 ligase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24412-9 pubmed
    ..In mouse P6 cells (overexpressing human IGF-1R) absence of beta-arrestin 1, but not of beta-arrestin 2, blocked ubiquitination of IGF-1R...
  32. Barlic J, Andrews J, Kelvin A, Bosinger S, DeVries M, Xu L, et al. Regulation of tyrosine kinase activation and granule release through beta-arrestin by CXCRI. Nat Immunol. 2000;1:227-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, beta-arrestins regulate chemokine-induced granule exocytosis, indicating a broader role for beta-arrestins in the regulation of cellular functions than was previously suspected. ..
  33. Kroeger K, Hanyaloglu A, Seeber R, Miles L, Eidne K. Constitutive and agonist-dependent homo-oligomerization of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor. Detection in living cells using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:12736-43 pubmed
    ..This study supports the usefulness of BRET as a powerful tool for studying GPCR aggregations and receptor/protein interactions in general and presents evidence that the functioning unit of TRHRs exists as homomeric complexes. ..
  34. Mototani Y, Okamura T, Goto M, Shimizu Y, Yanobu Takanashi R, Ito A, et al. Role of G protein-regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 3 (GRIN3) in β-arrestin 2-Akt signaling and dopaminergic behaviors. Pflugers Arch. 2018;470:937-947 pubmed publisher
    ..Among GRINs, only GRIN3, which is highly expressed in striatum, strongly interacted with β-arrestin 2. We also generated GRIN3-knockout mice (GRIN3KO)...
  35. Zhan Y, Xu C, Liu Z, Tan S, Yang Y, Jiang J, et al. β-Arrestin1 inhibits chemotherapy-induced intestinal stem cell apoptosis and mucositis. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2229 pubmed publisher
    ..whether chemotherapy induces ISC apoptosis to contribute to mucositis in CIGIS and whether β-arrestin1 (β-arr1) is involved in this apoptosis. Different chemotherapeutic agents were used to generate a CIGIS model...
  36. Pera T, Hegde A, Deshpande D, Morgan S, Tiegs B, Theriot B, et al. Specificity of arrestin subtypes in regulating airway smooth muscle G protein-coupled receptor signaling and function. FASEB J. 2015;29:4227-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Arrestin subtypes differentially regulate ASM GPCRs and β-arrestin-1 inhibition represents a novel approach to managing bronchospasm in obstructive lung diseases. ..
  37. Zhuo Y, Vishnivetskiy S, Zhan X, Gurevich V, Klug C. Identification of receptor binding-induced conformational changes in non-visual arrestins. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:20991-1002 pubmed publisher
    ..The arrestin-2 results also suggest that there is no clam shell-like closure of the N- and C-domains and that the loop containing residue 136 (homolog of 139 in arrestin-1) has high flexibility in both free and receptor-bound states. ..
  38. Hoeppner C, Cheng N, Ye R. Identification of a nuclear localization sequence in ?-arrestin-1 and its functional implications. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:8932-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a critical role for ?-arrestin-1 nuclear localization in scaffolding and transcriptional regulation. ..
  39. Gómez Herreros F, Margaritis T, Rodríguez Galán O, Pelechano V, Begley V, Millán Zambrano G, et al. The ribosome assembly gene network is controlled by the feedback regulation of transcription elongation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:9302-9318 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the in vivo depletion of one of these factors, Arb1, activated transcription elongation in the set of genes involved directly in ribosome assembly...
  40. Jafri F, El Shewy H, Lee M, Kelly M, Luttrell D, Luttrell L. Constitutive ERK1/2 activation by a chimeric neurokinin 1 receptor-beta-arrestin1 fusion protein. Probing the composition and function of the G protein-coupled receptor "signalsome". J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19346-57 pubmed
  41. Zhang X, Wang F, Chen X, Li J, Xiang B, Zhang Y, et al. Beta-arrestin1 and beta-arrestin2 are differentially required for phosphorylation-dependent and -independent internalization of delta-opioid receptors. J Neurochem. 2005;95:169-78 pubmed
    ..These results thus provide the first evidence of different requirement for beta-arrestin isoforms in the agonist induced phosphorylation-dependent and -independent GPCR internalization. ..
  42. Kuo F, Lu T, Fu H. Opposing effects of beta-arrestin1 and beta-arrestin2 on activation and degradation of Src induced by protease-activated receptor 1. Cell Signal. 2006;18:1914-23 pubmed
    ..beta-Arrestin2 also appears to promote PAR1-induced degradation of Src. This degradation of Src provides a possible mechanism for terminating PAR1 signaling. ..
  43. Li S, Guan J, Ge M, Huang P, Lin Y, Gan X. Intestinal mucosal injury induced by tryptase-activated protease-activated receptor 2 requires β-arrestin-2 in vitro. Mol Med Rep. 2015;12:7181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that tryptase may directly damage IEC‑6 cells via PAR-2 and the downstream activation of ERK, and demonstrate that the signaling pathway requires β-arrestin-2. ..
  44. Gatto F, Feelders R, van der Pas R, Kros J, Dogan F, van Koetsveld P, et al. ?-Arrestin 1 and 2 and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 expression in pituitary adenomas: role in the regulation of response to somatostatin analogue treatment in patients with acromegaly. Endocrinology. 2013;154:4715-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated mRNA expression of multiple SSTRs, GRK2, ?-arrestin 1, and ?-arrestin 2 in 41 pituitary adenomas (31 GHomas, 6 nonfunctioning [NFPAs], and 4 prolactinomas [PRLomas])...
  45. Del Guidice T, Beaulieu J. Selective disruption of dopamine D2-receptors/beta-arrestin2 signaling by mood stabilizers. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2015;35:224-32 pubmed publisher
    ..When administered chronically to mice lacking either D2 receptors or beta-arrestin 2, lamotrigine, lithium and valproate failed to affect Akt/GSK3 signaling as they do in normal littermates...
  46. Watts A, Verkaar F, van der Lee M, Timmerman C, Kuijer M, van Offenbeek J, et al. ?-Arrestin recruitment and G protein signaling by the atypical human chemokine decoy receptor CCX-CKR. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:7169-81 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, recruitment of the putative signaling scaffold ?-arrestin to CCX-CKR in response to chemokines might allow activation of yet to be identified signal transduction pathways. ..
  47. Malik R, Marchese A. Arrestin-2 interacts with the endosomal sorting complex required for transport machinery to modulate endosomal sorting of CXCR4. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2529-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a mechanism whereby arrestin-2 via its interaction with STAM-1 modulates CXCR4 sorting by regulating the ubiquitination status of HRS. ..
  48. Kim I, Tilley D, Chen J, Salazar N, Whalen E, Violin J, et al. Beta-blockers alprenolol and carvedilol stimulate beta-arrestin-mediated EGFR transactivation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14555-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that Alp and Car are ligands that not only act as classical receptor antagonists, but can also stimulate signaling pathways in a G protein-independent, beta-arrestin-dependent fashion...
  49. Zhan X, Stoy H, Kaoud T, Perry N, Chen Q, Perez A, et al. Peptide mini-scaffold facilitates JNK3 activation in cells. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21025 pubmed publisher
    ..The arrestin-3 peptide is the smallest MAPK scaffold known. This peptide or its mimics can regulate MAPKs, affecting cellular decisions to live or die. ..
  50. Peng X, Li J, Tan S, Xu M, Tao J, Jiang J, et al. COX-1/PGE2/EP4 alleviates mucosal injury by upregulating ?-arr1-mediated Akt signaling in colitis. Sci Rep. 2017;7:1055 pubmed publisher
    COX-1/PGE2 is an important protective mediator in ulcerative colitis (UC). ?-arrestin1 (?-arr1), which acts as a scaffold protein, is involved in PGE2-mediated signaling pathways...
  51. Liu Y, Jia M, Xie Z, Liu X, Hui Yang -, Zheng X, et al. Arrestins contribute to amyloid beta-induced cell death via modulation of autophagy and the α7nAch receptor in SH-SY5Y cells. Sci Rep. 2017;7:3446 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation revealed that the accumulation of β-arrestin 1 (ARRB1) caused by Aβ25-35 contributed to the induction of autophagic flux...
  52. Duan X, Zhang T, Kong Z, Mai X, Lan C, Chen D, et al. ?-arrestin1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition via modulating GSK-3?/?-catenin pathway in prostate cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;479:204-210 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a novel mechanism of ?-arrestin1 in modulating EMT and GSK-3?/?-catenin signaling in prostate cancer, thereby suggest that assessment of ?-arrestin1 may provide a potential therapeutic target for prostate cancer. ..
  53. Nguyen L, Al Sawalha N, Parra S, Pokkunuri I, Omoluabi O, Okulate A, et al. ?2-Adrenoceptor signaling in airway epithelial cells promotes eosinophilic inflammation, mucous metaplasia, and airway contractility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E9163-E9171 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify ?2AR signaling in the airway epithelium as capable of controlling integrated responses to IL-13 and affecting the function of other cell types such as airway smooth muscle cells. ..
  54. Alekhina O, Marchese A. ?-Arrestin1 and Signal-transducing Adaptor Molecule 1 (STAM1) Cooperate to Promote Focal Adhesion Kinase Autophosphorylation and Chemotaxis via the Chemokine Receptor CXCR4. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:26083-26097 pubmed
    ..The ?-arrestin1·STAM1 complex is a promising target for blocking CXCR4-promoted FAK autophosphorylation and chemotaxis. ..
  55. Santos Zas I, Gurriarán Rodríguez U, Cid Díaz T, Figueroa G, González Sánchez J, Bouzo Lorenzo M, et al. β-Arrestin scaffolds and signaling elements essential for the obestatin/GPR39 system that determine the myogenic program in human myoblast cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016;73:617-35 pubmed publisher
  56. Shea F, ROWELL J, Li Y, Chang T, Alvarez C. Mammalian ? arrestins link activated seven transmembrane receptors to Nedd4 family e3 ubiquitin ligases and interact with ? arrestins. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50557 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the implications of the alpha arrestin functions in fungi having evolved into coordinated alpha/beta arrestin functions in animals. ..
  57. Rosanò L, Cianfrocca R, Tocci P, Spinella F, Di Castro V, Caprara V, et al. Endothelin A receptor/β-arrestin signaling to the Wnt pathway renders ovarian cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy. Cancer Res. 2014;74:7453-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we define a novel bypass mechanism through which ETAR/β-arrestin-1 (β-arr1, ARRB1) links Wnt signaling to acquire chemoresistant and EMT phenotype...
  58. Violin J, DeWire S, Barnes W, Lefkowitz R. G protein-coupled receptor kinase and beta-arrestin-mediated desensitization of the angiotensin II type 1A receptor elucidated by diacylglycerol dynamics. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36411-9 pubmed
  59. ter Haar E, Musacchio A, Harrison S, Kirchhausen T. Atomic structure of clathrin: a beta propeller terminal domain joins an alpha zigzag linker. Cell. 1998;95:563-73 pubmed
    ..The linker is an alpha-helical zigzag emanating from the propeller domain. We propose that this simple motif may extend into the rest of the clathrin leg. ..
  60. Nogués L, Salcedo A, Mayor F, Penela P. Multiple scaffolding functions of {beta}-arrestins in the degradation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:1165-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of ?-arrestins to play different scaffold functions would allow coordination of both Mdm2-dependent and -independent processes aimed at the specific modulation of GRK2 turnover in different signaling contexts. ..
  61. Braun L, Christophe T, Boulay F. Phosphorylation of key serine residues is required for internalization of the complement 5a (C5a) anaphylatoxin receptor via a beta-arrestin, dynamin, and clathrin-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:4277-85 pubmed
    ..Thus, the results suggest that the C5aR is internalized via a pathway dependent on beta-arrestin, clathrin, and dynamin. ..
  62. DeWire S, Kim J, Whalen E, Ahn S, Chen M, Lefkowitz R. Beta-arrestin-mediated signaling regulates protein synthesis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:10611-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel demonstration that beta-arrestins regulate protein synthesis reveals that the spectrum of beta-arrestin-mediated signaling events is broader than previously imagined. ..
  63. Perumal D, Pillai S, Nguyen J, Schaal C, Coppola D, Chellappan S. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors induce c-Kit ligand/Stem Cell Factor and promote stemness in an ARRB1/ β-arrestin-1 dependent manner in NSCLC. Oncotarget. 2014;5:10486-502 pubmed
    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. β-arrestin-1 (ARRB1), a scaffolding protein involved in the desensitization of signals arising from activated G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), has been ..
  64. Cianfrocca R, Tocci P, Semprucci E, Spinella F, Di Castro V, Bagnato A, et al. β-Arrestin 1 is required for endothelin-1-induced NF-κB activation in ovarian cancer cells. Life Sci. 2014;118:179-84 pubmed publisher MAPK, Akt, and β-catenin, through specific cytosolic and nuclear scaffolding functions of β-arrestin 1 (β-arr1)...
  65. Parruti G, Peracchia F, Sallese M, Ambrosini G, Masini M, Rotilio D, et al. Molecular analysis of human beta-arrestin-1: cloning, tissue distribution, and regulation of expression. Identification of two isoforms generated by alternative splicing. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:9753-61 pubmed
  66. Semprucci E, Tocci P, Cianfrocca R, Sestito R, Caprara V, Veglione M, et al. Endothelin A receptor drives invadopodia function and cell motility through the β-arrestin/PDZ-RhoGEF pathway in ovarian carcinoma. Oncogene. 2016;35:3432-42 pubmed publisher
    ..process promoted by ET-1 is tumor cell invasion, which requires the scaffolding functions of β-arrestin-1 (β-arr1) downstream of the receptor; however, the potential role of ET-1 in inducing invadopodia, which are crucial for ..
  67. Canals M, Scholten D, de Munnik S, Han M, Smit M, Leurs R. Ubiquitination of CXCR7 controls receptor trafficking. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34192 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data demonstrate the differential regulation of CXCR7 compared to the related CXCR3 and CXCR4 receptors, and highlight the importance of understanding the molecular determinants responsible for this process. ..
  68. Ahmed M, Zhan X, Song X, Kook S, Gurevich V, Gurevich E. Ubiquitin ligase parkin promotes Mdm2-arrestin interaction but inhibits arrestin ubiquitination. Biochemistry. 2011;50:3749-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Parkin binding to arrestins along with its effects on arrestin interaction with Mdm2 and ubiquitination is a novel function of this protein with implications for Parkinson's disease pathology. ..
  69. Cen B, Yu Q, Guo J, Wu Y, Ling K, Cheng Z, et al. Direct binding of beta-arrestins to two distinct intracellular domains of the delta opioid receptor. J Neurochem. 2001;76:1887-94 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrated for the first time the direct binding of beta-arrestins to the two distinct domains, the carboxyl terminus and the third intracellular loop, of DOR. ..
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