ARL3

Summary

Gene Symbol: ARL3
Description: ADP ribosylation factor like GTPase 3
Alias: ARFL3, ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 3, ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3, ARF-like 3
Species: human
Products:     ARL3

Top Publications

  1. Thomas S, Wright K, Le Corre S, Micalizzi A, Romani M, Abhyankar A, et al. A homozygous PDE6D mutation in Joubert syndrome impairs targeting of farnesylated INPP5E protein to the primary cilium. Hum Mutat. 2014;35:137-46 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, mutant PDE6D is unable to bind to GTP-bound ARL3, which acts as a cargo-release factor for PDE6D-bound INPP5E...
  2. Bhattarai S, Begum S, Popow R, Ezratty E. The ciliary GTPase Arl3 maintains tissue architecture by directing planar spindle orientation during epidermal morphogenesis. Development. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that ciliary GTPase Arl3 is required for mitotic spindle orientation of basal stem cells during skin development...
  3. Miertzschke M, Koerner C, Spoerner M, Wittinghofer A. Structural insights into the small G-protein Arl13B and implications for Joubert syndrome. Biochem J. 2014;457:301-11 pubmed publisher
    ..A corresponding mutation in Arl3 induces considerable defects in effector and GAP (GTPase-activating protein) binding, suggesting a loss of Arl13B ..
  4. Alkanderi S, Molinari E, Shaheen R, Elmaghloob Y, Stephen L, Sammut V, et al. ARL3 Mutations Cause Joubert Syndrome by Disrupting Ciliary Protein Composition. Am J Hum Genet. 2018;103:612-620 pubmed publisher
    ..10 (chr10: 101569997-109106128, UCSC Genome Browser hg 19), and exome sequencing revealed two missense variants in ARL3 within the candidate locus...
  5. Luo G, Sun Y, Feng R, Zhao Q, Wen T. ARL3 subcellular localization and its suspected role in autophagy. Biochimie. 2018;154:187-193 pubmed publisher
    ADP-ribosylation factor-like3 (ARL3) is a member of the ADP-ribosylation factor family of GTP-binding proteins that plays important role in regulating Ciliary trafficking. It ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues and tumor cell lines...
  6. Stephen L, Elmaghloob Y, McIlwraith M, Yelland T, Castro Sánchez P, Roda Navarro P, et al. The Ciliary Machinery Is Repurposed for T Cell Immune Synapse Trafficking of LCK. Dev Cell. 2018;47:122-132.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..the hydrophobic myristoyl group, followed by release at the target membrane under the control of the ciliary ARL3/ARL13B...
  7. Hanke Gogokhia C, Frederick J, Zhang H, Baehr W. Binary Function of ARL3-GTP Revealed by Gene Knockouts. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1074:317-325 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigate mechanisms of trafficking which are controlled by Arf-like protein 3 (Arl3), a small GTPase. The activity of ARL3 is regulated by a GEF (ARL13b) and a GAP (RP2)...
  8. Zhang H, Hanke Gogokhia C, Jiang L, Li X, Wang P, Gerstner C, et al. Mistrafficking of prenylated proteins causes retinitis pigmentosa 2. FASEB J. 2015;29:932-42 pubmed publisher
    The retinitis pigmentosa 2 polypeptide (RP2) functions as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for ARL3 (Arf-like protein 3), a small GTPase...
  9. Ismail S. A GDI/GDF-like system for sorting and shuttling ciliary proteins. Small Gtpases. 2017;8:208-211 pubmed publisher
    ..In a paper published by Fansa et al, the authors propose that sorting of cargo is dependent on the differential release by bona fide GDFs, Arl2 and Arl3, and the localization of the active Arl3GTP in cilia.

More Information

Publications59

  1. Zhang Y, Huang Y, Srivathsan A, Lim T, Lin Q, He C. The unusual flagellar-targeting mechanism and functions of the trypanosome ortholog of the ciliary GTPase Arl13b. J Cell Sci. 2018;131: pubmed publisher
    ..is primarily associated with the ciliary membrane, where it acts as a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) for Arl3 and is implicated in a variety of ciliary and cellular functions...
  2. Baehr W. Membrane protein transport in photoreceptors: the function of PDEδ: the Proctor lecture. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:8653-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Binding of cargo to PDEδ is controlled by Arf-like proteins, ARL2 and ARL3, charged with guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP)...
  3. Kim H, Xu H, Yao Q, Li W, Huang Q, Outeda P, et al. Ciliary membrane proteins traffic through the Golgi via a Rabep1/GGA1/Arl3-dependent mechanism. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5482 pubmed publisher
    ..Using yeast two-hybrid screening coupled with a candidate approach, we identify a Rabep1/GGA1/Arl3-dependent ciliary targeting mechanism, whereby Rabep1 couples the polycystin complex to a GGA1/Arl3-based ciliary ..
  4. Jin M, Yamada M, Arai Y, Nagai T, Hirotsune S. Arl3 and LC8 regulate dissociation of dynactin from dynein. Nat Commun. 2014;5:5295 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3 (Arl3) and dynein light chain LC8 induce dissociation of dynactin from dynein...
  5. Kapoor S, Fansa E, Möbitz S, Ismail S, Winter R, Wittinghofer A, et al. Effect of the N-Terminal Helix and Nucleotide Loading on the Membrane and Effector Binding of Arl2/3. Biophys J. 2015;109:1619-29 pubmed publisher
    The small GTP-binding proteins Arl2 and Arl3, which are close homologs, share a number of interacting partners and act as displacement factors for prenylated and myristoylated cargo...
  6. Li D, Ji Y, Wang F, Wang M, Zhang C, Zhang W, et al. Regulation of crucial lncRNAs in differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells to spermatogonia stem cells. Anim Genet. 2017;48:191-204 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses, we found lnc-SSC1, lnc-SSC5, lnc-SSC2 and lnc-ESC2 negatively regulated target genes SUFU, EPHA3, KLF3, ARL3 and TRIM8, whereas SHH, NOTCH, TGF-?, cAMP/cGMP and JAK/STAT signaling pathways were promoted, causing ..
  7. Li C, Kim Y, Dorajoo R, Li H, Lee I, Cheng C, et al. Genome-Wide Association Study Meta-Analysis of Long-Term Average Blood Pressure in East Asians. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2017;10:e001527 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified 1 novel ARL3 variant, rs4919669 at 10q24.32, influencing LTA systolic BP (stage-1 P=5...
  8. Hanke Gogokhia C, Wu Z, Gerstner C, Frederick J, Zhang H, Baehr W. Arf-like Protein 3 (ARL3) Regulates Protein Trafficking and Ciliogenesis in Mouse Photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:7142-55 pubmed publisher
    Arf-like protein 3 (ARL3) is a ubiquitous small GTPase expressed in ciliated cells of plants and animals. Germline deletion ofArl3in mice causes multiorgan ciliopathy reminiscent of Bardet-Biedl or Joubert syndromes...
  9. Wang Z, Sun L, Guan W, Zhou C, Tang B, Cheng Y, et al. De novo transcriptome sequencing and analysis of male and female swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) reproductive systems during mating embrace (stage II). BMC Genet. 2018;19:3 pubmed publisher
    ..trituberculatus were identified: ADRA1B, BAP1, ARL3, and TRPA1...
  10. Myat M, Patel U. Receptor-Type Guanylyl Cyclase at 76C (Gyc76C) Regulates De Novo Lumen Formation during Drosophila Tracheal Development. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0161865 pubmed publisher
    ..These DT lumen formation defects were accompanied by altered localization of the Arf-like 3 GTPase (Arl3), a known regulator of vesicle-vesicle and vesicle-membrane fusion...
  11. Osberg C, Aksnes H, Ninzima S, Marie M, Arnesen T. Microscopy-based Saccharomyces cerevisiae complementation model reveals functional conservation and redundancy of N-terminal acetyltransferases. Sci Rep. 2016;6:31627 pubmed publisher
    ..The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Arl3 depends on interaction with Sys1 for its localization to the Golgi and this targeting strictly requires NatC-..
  12. Francis J, Turn R, Newman L, Schiavon C, Kahn R. Higher order signaling: ARL2 as regulator of both mitochondrial fusion and microtubule dynamics allows integration of 2 essential cell functions. Small Gtpases. 2016;7:188-196 pubmed
    ..Other studies have revealed roles for ARL2, in concert with its closest paralog ARL3, in the traffic of farnesylated cargos between membranes and specifically to cilia and photoreceptor cells...
  13. Liu F, Chen J, Yu S, Raghupathy R, Liu X, Qin Y, et al. Knockout of RP2 decreases GRK1 and rod transducin subunits and leads to photoreceptor degeneration in zebrafish. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:4648-59 pubmed publisher
    ..RP2 has been considered to be a GTPase activator protein for ARL3 and to play a role in the traffic of ciliary proteins. The mechanism of how RP2 mutations cause RP is still unclear...
  14. Chase A, Wombacher R, Fackler O. Intrinsic properties and plasma membrane trafficking route of Src family kinase SH4 domains sensitive to retargeting by HIV-1 Nef. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:7824-7840 pubmed publisher
    ..For Nef-sensitive SH4 domains, ectopic expression of the lipoprotein binding chaperone Unc119a or the GTPase Arl3 or reduction of their endogenous expression phenocopied the effect of Nef...
  15. Gotthardt K, Lokaj M, Koerner C, Falk N, Gießl A, Wittinghofer A. A G-protein activation cascade from Arl13B to Arl3 and implications for ciliary targeting of lipidated proteins. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Active Arl3 is involved in targeting and releasing lipidated cargo proteins from their carriers PDE6δ and UNC119a/b to the ..
  16. Labbaoui H, Bogliolo S, Ghugtyal V, Solis N, Filler S, Arkowitz R, et al. Role of Arf GTPases in fungal morphogenesis and virulence. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006205 pubmed publisher
    ..albicans, we generated loss of function mutants in all 3 Arf proteins, Arf1-Arf3, and 2 Arf-like proteins, Arl1 and Arl3. Our results indicate that of these proteins, Arf2 is required for viability and sensitivity to antifungal drugs...
  17. Fansa E, Kösling S, Zent E, Wittinghofer A, Ismail S. PDE6?-mediated sorting of INPP5E into the cilium is determined by cargo-carrier affinity. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11366 pubmed publisher
    ..High-affinity cargo is exclusively released by the ciliary transport regulator Arl3, while low-affinity cargo is released by Arl3 and its non-ciliary homologue Arl2...
  18. Hanke Gogokhia C, Zhang H, Frederick J, Baehr W. The Function of Arf-like Proteins ARL2 and ARL3 in Photoreceptors. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;854:655-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In photoreceptors, ARL2 and ARL3 participate in the trafficking of lipidated membrane-associated proteins and colocalize in the inner segment with ..
  19. Yu H, Yan H, Li J, Li Z, Zhang X, Ma Y, et al. Common variants on 2p16.1, 6p22.1 and 10q24.32 are associated with schizophrenia in Han Chinese population. Mol Psychiatry. 2017;22:954-960 pubmed publisher
    ..77) and 10q24.32 (rs10883795 in an intron of AS3MT, P=7.94 × 10-10, OR=0.87; rs10883765 at an intron of ARL3, P=3.06 × 10-9, OR=0.87)...
  20. Lyraki R, Lokaj M, Soares D, Little A, Vermeren M, Marsh J, et al. Characterization of a novel RP2-OSTF1 interaction and its implication for actin remodelling. J Cell Sci. 2018;131: pubmed publisher
    ..RP2 was previously shown to have GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity towards the small GTPase ARL3 via its N-terminus, but the function of the C-terminus remains elusive...
  21. Rafiullah R, Long A, Ivanova A, Ali H, Berkel S, Mustafa G, et al. A novel homozygous ARL13B variant in patients with Joubert syndrome impairs its guanine nucleotide-exchange factor activity. Eur J Hum Genet. 2017;25:1324-1334 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, ARL13B-c.[223G>A] (p.(Gly75Arg) displayed a marked loss of ARL3 guanine nucleotide-exchange factor activity, with retention of its GTPase activities, highlighting the correlation ..
  22. Liu F, Qin Y, Yu S, Soares D, Yang L, Weng J, et al. Pathogenic mutations in retinitis pigmentosa 2 predominantly result in loss of RP2 protein stability in humans and zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:6225-6239 pubmed publisher
    ..E138G, and R211H/R211L are suggested to impair the interaction between RP2 and its protein partners (such as ARL3) or with as yet unknown partners...
  23. Hanzal Bayer M, Renault L, Roversi P, Wittinghofer A, Hillig R. The complex of Arl2-GTP and PDE delta: from structure to function. EMBO J. 2002;21:2095-106 pubmed
    ..We suggest PDE delta to be a specific soluble transport factor for certain prenylated proteins and Arl2-GTP a regulator of PDE delta-mediated transport. ..
  24. Stephen L, Ismail S. Shuttling and sorting lipid-modified cargo into the cilia. Biochem Soc Trans. 2016;44:1273-1280 pubmed
    ..of the GDI-like solubilising factors, uncoordinated (UNC)119a, UNC119b and PDE6D, to the lipid-modified ciliary cargo and the specific release of the cargo in the cilia by the ciliary small G-protein Arl3 in a GTP-dependent manner.
  25. Wright K, Baye L, Olivier Mason A, Mukhopadhyay S, Sang L, Kwong M, et al. An ARL3-UNC119-RP2 GTPase cycle targets myristoylated NPHP3 to the primary cilium. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2347-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a proteomic approach, we identified the ARL3 effector UNC119 as a binding partner of the myristoylated ciliopathy protein nephrocystin-3 (NPHP3)...
  26. Van Valkenburgh H, Shern J, Sharer J, Zhu X, Kahn R. ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) and ARF-like 1 (ARL1) have both specific and shared effectors: characterizing ARL1-binding proteins. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:22826-37 pubmed
    ..Two previously identified partners of ARFs, MKLP1 and Arfaptin2/POR1, also bind ARL1 but not ARL2 or ARL3. Two-hybrid screens of human cDNA libraries with dominant active mutants of human ARL1, ARL2, and ARL3 identified ..
  27. Jaiswal M, Fansa E, Kösling S, Mejuch T, Waldmann H, Wittinghofer A. Novel Biochemical and Structural Insights into the Interaction of Myristoylated Cargo with Unc119 Protein and Their Release by Arl2/3. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:20766-78 pubmed publisher
    ..that prenylated proteins are sorted according to their affinity to the carrier protein PDE6? and the ability of Arl3 but not Arl2 to release high affinity cargo inside the cilia (Fansa, E. K., Kösling, S. K., Zent, E...
  28. Zhou C, Cunningham L, Marcus A, Li Y, Kahn R. Arl2 and Arl3 regulate different microtubule-dependent processes. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:2476-87 pubmed
    Arl2 and Arl3 are closely related members of the Arf family of regulatory GTPases that arose from a common ancestor early in eukaryotic evolution yet retain extensive structural, biochemical, and functional features...
  29. Kösling S, Fansa E, Maffini S, Wittinghofer A. Mechanism and dynamics of INPP5E transport into and inside the ciliary compartment. Biol Chem. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..subunit (PDE6?) mediates the sorting of farnesylated INPP5E into cilia due to high affinity binding and release by Arl3 GTP. However, the dynamics of INPP5E transport into and inside the ciliary compartment are not fully understood...
  30. Strom S, Clark M, Martinez A, Garcia S, Abelazeem A, Matynia A, et al. De Novo Occurrence of a Variant in ARL3 and Apparent Autosomal Dominant Transmission of Retinitis Pigmentosa. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0150944 pubmed publisher
    ..Of these, one of the strongest genetic and functional candidates is a c.269A>G (p.Tyr90Cys) variant in ARL3. Follow-up testing established that this variant occurred de novo in the index case...
  31. Schwarz N, Lane A, Jovanovic K, Parfitt D, Aguilà M, Thompson C, et al. Arl3 and RP2 regulate the trafficking of ciliary tip kinesins. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:2480-2492 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identified the ciliary tip kinesins Kif7 and Kif17 as novel interaction partners of the small GTPase Arl3 and its regulatory GTPase activating protein (GAP) Retinitis Pigmentosa 2 (RP2)...
  32. Ivanova A, Caspary T, Seyfried N, Duong D, West A, Liu Z, et al. Biochemical characterization of purified mammalian ARL13B protein indicates that it is an atypical GTPase and ARL3 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). J Biol Chem. 2017;292:11091-11108 pubmed publisher
    ..from assays for solution-based nucleotide binding, intrinsic and GTPase-activating protein-stimulated GTPase, and ARL3 guanine nucleotide exchange factor activities...
  33. Loll Krippleber R, Brown G. P-body proteins regulate transcriptional rewiring to promote DNA replication stress resistance. Nat Commun. 2017;8:558 pubmed publisher
    ..The key P-body protein Lsm1 controls the abundance of HHT1, ACF4, ARL3, TMA16, RRS1 and YOX1 mRNAs to prevent their toxic accumulation during replication stress...
  34. Hanke Gogokhia C, Wu Z, Sharif A, Yazigi H, Frederick J, Baehr W. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Arf-like protein 13b is essential for assembly of the mouse photoreceptor transition zone and outer segment. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:21442-21456 pubmed publisher
    Arf-like protein 13b (ARL13b) is a small GTPase that functions as a guanosine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for ARL3-GDP...
  35. Togi S, Muromoto R, Hirashima K, Kitai Y, Okayama T, Ikeda O, et al. A New STAT3-binding Partner, ARL3, Enhances the Phosphorylation and Nuclear Accumulation of STAT3. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:11161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified ARL3 (ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3) as a novel STAT3-binding partner...
  36. Cavenagh M, Breiner M, Schurmann A, Rosenwald A, Terui T, Zhang C, et al. ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-like 3, a new member of the ARF family of GTP-binding proteins cloned from human and rat tissues. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:18937-42 pubmed
    ..rat homologues of a new member of the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family of 21-kDa GTP-binding proteins, termed Arl3, were identified as an expressed sequence tag (human) and as a product of polymerase chain reaction amplification ..
  37. Wright Z, Singh R, Alpino R, Goldberg A, Sokolov M, Ramamurthy V. ARL3 regulates trafficking of prenylated phototransduction proteins to the rod outer segment. Hum Mol Genet. 2016;25:2031-2044 pubmed
    The small GTPase, ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3 (ARL3), has been proposed to participate in the transport of proteins in photoreceptor cells...
  38. Zhang Q, Hu J, Ling K. Molecular views of Arf-like small GTPases in cilia and ciliopathies. Exp Cell Res. 2013;319:2316-22 pubmed publisher
    ..However, how these small GTPases affect cilia formation and function remains poorly understood. Here we review and discuss the ciliary role of three Arf-like small GTPases (Arls), Arl3, Arl6, and Arl13b.
  39. Ismail S, Chen Y, Miertzschke M, Vetter I, Koerner C, Wittinghofer A. Structural basis for Arl3-specific release of myristoylated ciliary cargo from UNC119. EMBO J. 2012;31:4085-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we have shown that the closely homologous small G proteins Arl2 and Arl3 allosterically regulate prenylated cargo release from PDE?...
  40. Evans R, Schwarz N, Nagel Wolfrum K, Wolfrum U, Hardcastle A, Cheetham M. The retinitis pigmentosa protein RP2 links pericentriolar vesicle transport between the Golgi and the primary cilium. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1358-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the retinitis pigmentosa protein RP2, which is a GTPase activating protein (GAP) for Arl3, localizes to the ciliary apparatus, namely the basal body and the associated centriole at the base of the ..
  41. Kühnel K, Veltel S, Schlichting I, Wittinghofer A. Crystal structure of the human retinitis pigmentosa 2 protein and its interaction with Arl3. Structure. 2006;14:367-78 pubmed
    ..RP2 is a specific effector protein of Arl3. The N-terminal 34 residues and beta helix domain of RP2 are required for this interaction...
  42. Grayson C, Bartolini F, Chapple J, Willison K, Bhamidipati A, Lewis S, et al. Localization in the human retina of the X-linked retinitis pigmentosa protein RP2, its homologue cofactor C and the RP2 interacting protein Arl3. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:3065-74 pubmed
    ..RP2 has also been shown to interact with ADP ribosylation factor-like 3 (Arl3) in a nucleotide and myristoylation-dependant manner...
  43. Hillig R, Hanzal Bayer M, Linari M, Becker J, Wittinghofer A, Renault L. Structural and biochemical properties show ARL3-GDP as a distinct GTP binding protein. Structure. 2000;8:1239-45 pubmed
    ..The 1.7 A crystal structure of murine ARL3-GDP provides a first insight into the structural features of this subgroup of Ar proteins...
  44. Linari M, Hanzal Bayer M, Becker J. The delta subunit of rod specific cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase, PDE delta, interacts with the Arf-like protein Arl3 in a GTP specific manner. FEBS Lett. 1999;458:55-9 pubmed
    ..the two-hybrid system, we identify a member of the Arf-like protein family of Ras-related GTP-binding proteins, Arl3, that interacts with PDE delta...
  45. Kim H. Assignment of the human ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3 (ARL3) gene to chromosome 10 band q23.3 by radiation hybrid mapping. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1998;83:246 pubmed
  46. Caviglia S, Brankatschk M, Fischer E, Eaton S, Luschnig S. Staccato/Unc-13-4 controls secretory lysosome-mediated lumen fusion during epithelial tube anastomosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2016;18:727-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The GTPase Arl3 is necessary and sufficient for Stac LRO formation and promotes Stac-dependent intracellular fusion of juxtaposed ..
  47. Lokaj M, Kösling S, Koerner C, Lange S, van Beersum S, van Reeuwijk J, et al. The Interaction of CCDC104/BARTL1 with Arl3 and Implications for Ciliary Function. Structure. 2015;23:2122-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The ciliary protein Arl3 has been shown to act as a specific release factor for myristoylated and farnesylated ciliary cargo molecules by ..
  48. Ismail S, Chen Y, Rusinova A, Chandra A, Bierbaum M, Gremer L, et al. Arl2-GTP and Arl3-GTP regulate a GDI-like transport system for farnesylated cargo. Nat Chem Biol. 2011;7:942-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the G proteins Arl2 and Arl3 act in a GTP-dependent manner as allosteric release factors for farnesylated cargo...
  49. Veltel S, Kravchenko A, Ismail S, Wittinghofer A. Specificity of Arl2/Arl3 signaling is mediated by a ternary Arl3-effector-GAP complex. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:2501-7 pubmed publisher
    Arl2 and Arl3, members of the Arf subfamily of small G proteins, are believed to be involved in ciliary and microtubule-dependent processes...
  50. Bartolini F, Bhamidipati A, Thomas S, Schwahn U, Lewis S, Cowan N. Functional overlap between retinitis pigmentosa 2 protein and the tubulin-specific chaperone cofactor C. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:14629-34 pubmed
    ..Finally, we find that RP2 interacts with GTP-bound ADP ribosylation factor-like 3 protein, providing a link between RP2 and several retinal-specific proteins, mutations in which also cause retinitis pigmentosa. ..