Gene Symbol: ARHGEF2
Description: Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2
Alias: GEF, GEF-H1, GEFH1, LFP40, NEDMHM, P40, rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2, Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 2, guanine nucleotide exchange factor H1, microtubule-regulated Rho-GEF, proliferating cell nucleolar antigen p40
Species: human
Products:     ARHGEF2

Top Publications

  1. Krendel M, Zenke F, Bokoch G. Nucleotide exchange factor GEF-H1 mediates cross-talk between microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:294-301 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)-H1 is regulated by an interaction with microtubules...
  2. Callow M, Zozulya S, Gishizky M, Jallal B, Smeal T. PAK4 mediates morphological changes through the regulation of GEF-H1. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1861-72 pubmed
    ..mediates morphological changes through its association with the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), GEF-H1. We show that this association is dependent upon a novel GEF-H1 interaction domain (GID) within PAK4...
  3. Aijaz S, D Atri F, Citi S, Balda M, Matter K. Binding of GEF-H1 to the tight junction-associated adaptor cingulin results in inhibition of Rho signaling and G1/S phase transition. Dev Cell. 2005;8:777-86 pubmed
    ..Here we show that GEF-H1/Lfc, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RhoA, directly interacts with cingulin, a junctional adaptor...
  4. Mizuarai S, Yamanaka K, Kotani H. Mutant p53 induces the GEF-H1 oncogene, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1 for RhoA, resulting in accelerated cell proliferation in tumor cells. Cancer Res. 2006;66:6319-26 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we showed that GEF-H1, a guanine exchange factor-H1 for RhoA, is transcriptionally activated by the induction of mutant p53 proteins, ..
  5. Fujishiro S, Tanimura S, Mure S, Kashimoto Y, Watanabe K, Kohno M. ERK1/2 phosphorylate GEF-H1 to enhance its guanine nucleotide exchange activity toward RhoA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;368:162-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We have examined whether ERK1/2 are involved in the phosphorylation of GEF-H1, a GEF toward RhoA, to modulate its activity...
  6. Nalbant P, Chang Y, Birkenfeld J, Chang Z, Bokoch G. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1 regulates cell migration via localized activation of RhoA at the leading edge. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4070-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The microtubule-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF)-H1 activates RhoA when released from microtubules to initiate a RhoA/Rho kinase/myosin light chain signaling ..
  7. Zenke F, Krendel M, DerMardirossian C, King C, Bohl B, Bokoch G. p21-activated kinase 1 phosphorylates and regulates 14-3-3 binding to GEF-H1, a microtubule-localized Rho exchange factor. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:18392-400 pubmed
    b>GEF-H1 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho whose activity is regulated through a cycle of microtubule binding and release...
  8. Chang Y, Nalbant P, Birkenfeld J, Chang Z, Bokoch G. GEF-H1 couples nocodazole-induced microtubule disassembly to cell contractility via RhoA. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2147-53 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GEF-H1 is a microtubule-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor that activates RhoA upon release from ..
  9. Heck J, Ponik S, García Mendoza M, Pehlke C, Inman D, Eliceiri K, et al. Microtubules regulate GEF-H1 in response to extracellular matrix stiffness. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:2583-92 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the upstream signaling mechanisms are poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that the Rho exchange factor GEF-H1 mediates RhoA activation in response to extracellular matrix stiffness...

More Information

Publications127 found, 100 shown here

  1. Ren Y, Li R, Zheng Y, Busch H. Cloning and characterization of GEF-H1, a microtubule-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac and Rho GTPases. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34954-60 pubmed
    ..The Dbl-like guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) have been implicated in direct activation of these GTPases...
  2. Birkenfeld J, Nalbant P, Bohl B, Pertz O, Hahn K, Bokoch G. GEF-H1 modulates localized RhoA activation during cytokinesis under the control of mitotic kinases. Dev Cell. 2007;12:699-712 pubmed
    Formation of the mitotic cleavage furrow is dependent upon both microtubules and activity of the small GTPase RhoA. GEF-H1 is a microtubule-regulated exchange factor that couples microtubule dynamics to RhoA activation...
  3. Tsapara A, Luthert P, Greenwood J, Hill C, Matter K, Balda M. The RhoA activator GEF-H1/Lfc is a transforming growth factor-beta target gene and effector that regulates alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and cell migration. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:860-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that primary RPE cells up-regulated GEF-H1 in response to TGF-beta...
  4. Kakiashvili E, Dan Q, Vandermeer M, Zhang Y, Waheed F, Pham M, et al. The epidermal growth factor receptor mediates tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced activation of the ERK/GEF-H1/RhoA pathway in tubular epithelium. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:9268-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that ERK-mediated stimulation of the RhoA GDP/GTP exchange factor GEF-H1/Lfc is critical for TNF-?-induced RhoA stimulation...
  5. Liao Y, Ruan J, Lua I, Li M, Chen W, Wang J, et al. Overexpressed hPTTG1 promotes breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis by regulating GEF-H1/RhoA signalling. Oncogene. 2012;31:3086-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we showed that Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1 (GEF-H1) was transcriptionally activated by hPTTG1, thereby promoting breast cancer metastasis...
  6. Xu H, Jiang W, Feng L, Liu Y, Wu P, Jiang J, et al. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depresses the growth, head kidney and spleen immunity and structural integrity by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, apoptosis and MLCK signaling in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;52:111-38 pubmed publisher
    ..factors, tumor necrosis factor α, interferon γ2, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 P35 (only in spleen), IL-12 P40, IL-15, IL-17D, nuclear factor κB p65, IκB kinases (IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ), target of rapamycin and ..
  7. Xu H, Jiang W, Feng L, Liu Y, Wu P, Jiang J, et al. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depressed the gill physical barriers and immune barriers referring to Nrf2, apoptosis, MLCK, NF-?B and TOR signaling in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) under infection of Flavobacterium columnare. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;58:177-192 pubmed publisher
    ..05), and up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines-related factors interferon ?2, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 P35, IL-12 P40, nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) p65 (rather than NF-?B p52), I?B kinases (IKK) (only IKK? and IKK?), target of rapamycin ..
  8. Saito T, Tsuta K, Fukumoto K, Matsui H, Konobu T, Torii Y, et al. Combined small cell lung carcinoma and giant cell carcinoma: a case report. Surg Case Rep. 2017;3:52 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the small and giant cell components were thyroid transcription factor-1-positive and p40-negative and exhibited neuroendocrine differentiation, as indicated by positivity for synaptophysin and CD56 and ..
  9. Pepper S, Britz M. An Acid Up-Regulated Surface Protein of Lactobacillus paracasei Strain GCRL 46 is Phylogenetically Related to the Secreted Glucan- (GpbB) and Immunoglobulin-Binding (SibA) Protein of Pathogenic Streptococci. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20: pubmed publisher
    ..This protein is a homologue of the p40 (Msp2) secreted protein of L...
  10. Vijgen J, de Borst B, Weber R, Stobiecki T, Forter M. HCH and lindane contaminated sites: European and global need for a permanent solution for a long-time neglected issue. Environ Pollut. 2019;248:696-705 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, current country activities supported by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the "financing mechanism" of the convention, are listed...
  11. Prasad V, Suomalainen M, Pennauer M, Yakimovich A, Andriasyan V, Hemmi S, et al. Chemical induction of unfolded protein response enhances cancer cell killing through lytic virus infection. J Virol. 2014;88:13086-98 pubmed publisher
    ..GBF-1 is a GEF for ADP ribosylation factors (Arfs) regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi apparatus and intra-Golgi ..
  12. Chumsakul O, Anantsri D, Quirke T, Oshima T, Nakamura K, Ishikawa S, et al. Genome-Wide Analysis of ResD, NsrR, and Fur Binding in Bacillus subtilis during Anaerobic Fermentative Growth by In Vivo Footprinting. J Bacteriol. 2017;199: pubmed publisher
    ..with chromatin affinity precipitation sequencing (ChAP-seq; genome footprinting by high-throughput sequencing [GeF-seq]). A significant number of sites were targets of ResD and NsrR, and a majority of them were also bound by Fur...
  13. Stelmach I, Zaczeniuk M, Sztafińska A, Majak P, Jerzynska J, Kuklinska Pijanka A, et al. Serum tryptase level and inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate of children with exercise-induced symptoms. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2016;37:84-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured the following molecules: eotaxin, interleukin (IL) 8, IL-1ra, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-1 alpha, IL-12(p40), IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, IL-7, IL-15, IL-4, IL-2, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor ..
  14. de Santana F, Dalboni L, Nascimento K, Konno F, Alvares Saraiva A, Correia M, et al. High dilutions of antimony modulate cytokines production and macrophage - Leishmania (L.) amazonensis interaction in vitro. Cytokine. 2017;92:33-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Both dilutions potentiated the parasite-induced reduction of cytokines production, especially IL-6, IL 12 p40 and γ-IFN, after 48h of incubation...
  15. D Amato L, Dell aversana C, Conte M, Ciotta A, Scisciola L, Carissimo A, et al. ARHGEF3 controls HDACi-induced differentiation via RhoA-dependent pathways in acute myeloid leukemias. Epigenetics. 2015;10:6-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that GEF protein modulation by HDAC inhibition impacts on cell differentiation may be important for understanding the ..
  16. Mavragani C, Sagalovskiy I, Guo Q, Nezos A, Kapsogeorgou E, Lu P, et al. Expression of Long Interspersed Nuclear Element 1 Retroelements and Induction of Type I Interferon in Patients With Systemic Autoimmune Disease. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68:2686-2696 pubmed publisher
    ..L1 open-reading frame 1/p40 protein and IFN? were expressed in MSG ductal epithelial cells and in lupus nephritis kidneys, and IFN? was ..
  17. Kaneko K, Williams R, Dransfield D, Nixon A, Sandison A, Itoh Y. Selective Inhibition of Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase Abrogates Progression of Experimental Inflammatory Arthritis: Synergy With Tumor Necrosis Factor Blockade. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016;68:521-31 pubmed publisher
    ..DX-2400 also inhibited the up-regulation of interleukin-12 (IL-12)/IL-23 p40 via polarization toward an M2 phenotype in bone marrow-derived macrophages...
  18. Karki P, Ke Y, Tian Y, Ohmura T, Sitikov A, Sarich N, et al. Staphylococcus aureus-induced endothelial permeability and inflammation are mediated by microtubule destabilization. J Biol Chem. 2019;294:3369-3384 pubmed publisher
    ..with increased Rho GTPase activity via activation of MT-bound Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1 (GEF-H1) and was abolished by HDAC6 down-regulation...
  19. Ansari M, Roberts K, Scheff S. A time course of NADPH-oxidase up-regulation and endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation in the hippocampus following neurotrauma. Free Radic Biol Med. 2014;77:21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition we evaluated the translocation of cytosolic NOX proteins (p67(Phox), p47(Phox), and p40(Phox)) to the membrane, along with total NO and the activation (phosphorylation) of endothelial nitric oxide ..
  20. Liu W, Lin Y, Spearman M, Cheng P, Butler M, Wu S. Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins with Different N-Glycan Patterns Activate Dendritic Cells In Vitro. J Virol. 2016;90:6085-6096 pubmed publisher
    ..and single-GlcNAc-type N-glycans, but not complex-type N-glycans, are capable of inducing more active hIL12 p40, hIL12 p70, and hIL-10 production in human DCs...
  21. Chen W, Zang X, Niu S, Lyu C, Zhao L, Sheng B, et al. [Early predictive value of hemodynamic parameters during fluid resuscitation in patients with sepsis shock]. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2015;27:43-7 pubmed publisher
    ..mean arterial pressure ( MAP ), stroke volume index ( SVI ), cardiac index ( CI ), global ejection fraction ( GEF ), global end diastolic volume index ( GEDVI ), intrathoracic blood volume index ( ITBVI ), extravascular lung ..
  22. Clarke K, Chintanaboina J. Allergic and Immunologic Perspectives of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..agents including anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-?) drugs, anti-integrins, and antibodies to the p40 subunit of IL12/23 are approved for induction and maintenance of remission of IBD...
  23. Kumar B, Chandran B. KSHV Entry and Trafficking in Target Cells-Hijacking of Cell Signal Pathways, Actin and Membrane Dynamics. Viruses. 2016;8: pubmed the simultaneous induction of FAK, Src, PI3-K, Rho-GTPase, ROS, Dia-2, PKC ?, c-Cbl, CIB1, Crk, p130Cas and GEF-C3G signal and adaptor molecules that play critical roles in the modulation of membrane and actin dynamics, and in ..
  24. Chen X, Wang P, Zhao C, Yan L, Lin H, Qiu L. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of IL-12p40 from Chinese sea bass (Lateolabrax maculatus) under biotic and abiotic stresses. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2018;83:373-385 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the LmIL-12p40 dimer (LmIL-12p80) could be produced via protein-protein interactions by incubating p40 monomer expressed from the pET28a vector (pET28a-LmIL-12p40) with p40 monomer expressed from the pGEX4T-1 vector (..
  25. Adamowicz K, Wang H, Jotwani R, Zeller I, Potempa J, Scott D. Inhibition of GSK3 abolishes bacterial-induced periodontal bone loss in mice. Mol Med. 2012;18:1190-6 pubmed publisher
    ..infiltration and interleukin [IL]-17) and systemic (tumor necrosis factor [TNF], IL-6, Il-1? and IL-12/IL-23 p40) inflammatory indices also were monitored. SB216763 unequivocally abrogated mean P...
  26. Brundu S, Palma L, Picceri G, Ligi D, Orlandi C, Galluzzi L, et al. Glutathione Depletion Is Linked with Th2 Polarization in Mice with a Retrovirus-Induced Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Murine AIDS: Role of Proglutathione Molecules as Immunotherapeutics. J Virol. 2016;90:7118-7130 pubmed publisher
    ..that during the very early phases of infection, GSH depletion and the downregulation of interleukin-12 (IL-12) p40 mRNA were correlated with the dose of LP-BM5 used to infect the macrophages...
  27. Feng L, Ni P, Jiang W, Wu P, Liu Y, Jiang J, et al. Decreased enteritis resistance ability by dietary low or excess levels of lipids through impairing the intestinal physical and immune barriers function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2017;67:493-512 pubmed publisher
    ..05), and up-regulating tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interferon ?2 (IFN-?2), IL-1?, IL-8, IL-12 p40 (not p35), nuclear factor ?B p65 (NF-?B p65), I?B kinase ? (IKK?), IKK?, IKK?, and eIF4E-binding protein (4EBP) in ..
  28. Gomez Cambronero J. New concepts in phospholipase D signaling in inflammation and cancer. ScientificWorldJournal. 2010;10:1356-69 pubmed publisher
    ..PA is necessary for full chemotaxis. PA enriches the localization of the atypical guanine exchange factor (GEF), DOCK2, at the leading edge of polarized neutrophils...
  29. Wang H, Graves M, Zhou H, Gu Z, Lamont R, Scott D. 2-Amino-4-(3,4-(methylenedioxy)benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine is an anti-inflammatory TLR-2, -4 and -5 response mediator in human monocytes. Inflamm Res. 2016;65:61-9 pubmed publisher
    ..typhimurium flagellin (0-0.25 μg/ml). TLR-induced cytokine release (TNF, IL-6, IL-12 p40) was monitored by ELISA while Wnt-related signals (GSK3β, p65, IκB, β-catenin) were assessed by Western ..
  30. Sero J, Bakal C. Multiparametric Analysis of Cell Shape Demonstrates that ?-PIX Directly Couples YAP Activation to Extracellular Matrix Adhesion. Cell Syst. 2017;4:84-96.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..GTPase activating proteins (GAPs), together with targeted chemical perturbations, we found that ?-PIX, a Rac1/Ccd42 GEF, and PAK2, a Rac1/Cdc42 effector, drive both YAP activation and cell-ECM adhesion turnover during cell spreading...
  31. Ma X, Aoki T, Narumiya S. Prostaglandin E2-EP4 signaling persistently amplifies CD40-mediated induction of IL-23 p19 expression through canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways. Cell Mol Immunol. 2016;13:240-50 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-23 is a heterodimer composed of p19 and p40, the latter being shared with IL-12...
  32. Fujiwara S, Ohashi K, Mashiko T, Kondo H, Mizuno K. Interplay between Solo and keratin filaments is crucial for mechanical force-induced stress fiber reinforcement. Mol Biol Cell. 2016;27:954-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Solo (ARHGEF40) is a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) involved in cyclical stretch-induced human endothelial cell reorientation and convergent extension cell movement ..
  33. Ozmen O, Ozluk K, Ozmen S, Basut O. Can We Improve Pressure Feedback Methods in Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials by Applying Custom Pressures?. J Int Adv Otol. 2017;13:247-253 pubmed publisher
    ..potential (VEMP) measurements were made using a custom-built VEMP chair at a constant pressure level of 40 mmHg (P40) or at 50% of the maximum pressure (Pmax50%) that could be generated by the SCM muscle...
  34. Fine N, Dimitriou I, Rottapel R. Go with the flow: GEF-H1 mediated shear stress mechanotransduction in neutrophils. Small Gtpases. 2017;:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In our recent work, we showed that GEF-H1, a RhoA specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), is required to maintain neutrophil motility and ..
  35. Paclet M, Berthier S, Kuhn L, Garin J, Morel F. Regulation of phagocyte NADPH oxidase activity: identification of two cytochrome b558 activation states. FASEB J. 2007;21:1244-55 pubmed
    Activation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (phox) requires the association of cytosolic proteins (p67-phox, p47-phox, p40-phox, and Rac1/2) with the membrane cytochrome b558, leading to a hemoprotein conformation change...
  36. Walck Shannon E, Reiner D, Hardin J. Polarized Rac-dependent protrusions drive epithelial intercalation in the embryonic epidermis of C. elegans. Development. 2015;142:3549-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identify UNC-73, the C. elegans ortholog of Trio, as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) upstream of both CED-10 and MIG-2...
  37. Mizuki Y, Takaki M, Sakamoto S, Okamoto S, Kishimoto M, Okahisa Y, et al. Human Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 11 (ARHGEF11) Regulates Dendritic Morphogenesis. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 11 (ARHGEF11) is a specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) for RhoA, which is a critical regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and organization of dendritic spines and ..
  38. von Rundstedt F, Scovell J, Bian S, Lee D, Mayer W, Link R. Percent of Tracer Clearance at 40?Minutes in MAG3 Renal Scans Is More Sensitive Than T1/2 for Symptomatic Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction. Urology. 2017;103:245-250 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of patients (95%) demonstrated an improvement in P40 after pyeloplasty...
  39. Li D, Lei Y, Deng J, Zhou C, Zhang Y, Li W, et al. Human but Not Laboratory Borna Disease Virus Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Human Oligodendrocytes In Vitro. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66623 pubmed publisher
    ..BDV infection was assayed by BDV nucleoprotein (p40) immunofluorescence, cell proliferation was assayed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), and cell cycle phases and ..
  40. Kimura A, Namekata K, Guo X, Harada C, Harada T. Dock3-NMDA receptor interaction as a target for glaucoma therapy. Histol Histopathol. 2017;32:215-221 pubmed publisher
    ..Dedicator of cytokinesis 3 (Dock3) is an atypical guanine exchange factor (GEF) that belongs to a family of Dock proteins, Dock1-11...
  41. Wyse M, Goicoechea S, Garcia Mata R, Nestor Kalinoski A, Eisenmann K. mDia2 and CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine signaling intersect to drive tumor cell amoeboid morphological transitions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;484:255-261 pubmed publisher
    ..The Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) Net1 is required for CXCL12-driven RhoA activation and subsequent blebbing...
  42. Shimizu H, Toma Fukai S, Saijo S, Shimizu N, Kontani K, Katada T, et al. Structure-based analysis of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SmgGDS reveals armadillo-repeat motifs and key regions for activity and GTPase binding. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:13441-13448 pubmed publisher
    ..The smg GDP dissociation stimulator (SmgGDS) protein functions as a GEF for the RhoA and RhoC small GTPases...
  43. Jauregui Amezaga A, Somers M, De Schepper H, Macken E. Next generation of biologics for the treatment of Crohn's disease: an evidence-based review on ustekinumab. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2017;10:293-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Ustekinumab is a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody which targets the common p40 subunit of the cytokines interleukin-12 as well as interleukin-23...
  44. Suárez Fariñas M, Ungar B, Noda S, Shroff A, Mansouri Y, Fuentes Duculan J, et al. Alopecia areata profiling shows TH1, TH2, and IL-23 cytokine activation without parallel TH17/TH22 skewing. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;136:1277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..were those noted in TH2 (IL13, CCL18, CCL26, thymic stromal lymphopoietin, and periostin), TH9/IL-9, IL-23 (p40 and p19), and IL-16 mediators (all P < .05). There were no increases in TH17/TH22 markers...
  45. van Unen J, Reinhard N, Yin T, Wu Y, Postma M, Gadella T, et al. Plasma membrane restricted RhoGEF activity is sufficient for RhoA-mediated actin polymerization. Sci Rep. 2015;5:14693 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the kinetics and subcellular localization of GEF activity towards RhoA are poorly defined...
  46. Aznar N, Kalogriopoulos N, Midde K, Ghosh P. Heterotrimeric G protein signaling via GIV/Girdin: Breaking the rules of engagement, space, and time. Bioessays. 2016;38:379-93 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway for activation of heterotrimeric G proteins by the non-receptor guanidine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), GIV/Girdin...
  47. Fu J, Wu Y, Nguyen H, Heinrichs J, Schutt S, Liu Y, et al. T-bet Promotes Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease by Regulating Recipient Hematopoietic Cells in Mice. J Immunol. 2016;196:3168-79 pubmed publisher
    ..dendritic cells expressed higher levels of Trail, whereas they produced lower levels of IFN-γ and IL-12/23 p40, as well as chemokine CXCL9, resulting in significantly higher levels of apoptosis, less priming, and infiltration ..
  48. Terry Lorenzo R, Torres V, Wagh D, Galaz J, Swanson S, Florens L, et al. Trio, a Rho Family GEF, Interacts with the Presynaptic Active Zone Proteins Piccolo and Bassoon. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0167535 pubmed publisher
  49. Gomez Cambronero J, Morris A, Henkels K. PLD Protein-Protein Interactions With Signaling Molecules and Modulation by PA. Methods Enzymol. 2017;583:327-357 pubmed publisher
    ..association or dissociation of Rac2 with PLD2, as well as the PLD2 lipase and guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activities...
  50. Maher H, Alzoman N, Shehata S. Simultaneous determination of selected tyrosine kinase inhibitors with corticosteroids and antiemetics in rat plasma by solid phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Application to pharmacokinetic intera. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016;124:216-227 pubmed publisher
    ..been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of selected tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)(gefitinib GEF, erlotinib ERL), corticosteroids (dexamethasone DEX, prednisolone PRED), and the antiemetic ondansetron (OND) in ..
  51. Lechpammer M, Tran Y, Wintermark P, Martínez Cerdeño V, Krishnan V, Ahmed W, et al. Upregulation of cystathionine β-synthase and p70S6K/S6 in neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury. Brain Pathol. 2017;27:449-458 pubmed publisher
    ..CBS remained elevated through P21, and, to a lesser extent, at P40. The mTOR downstream target 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K and phospho-p70S6K) and 40S ribosomal ..
  52. Samereier M, Schleicher M, Roth H, Brechtefeld D, Walzog B, Müller Taubenberger A. EB1 contributes to proper front-to-back polarity in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells. Eur J Cell Biol. 2017;96:143-153 pubmed publisher
    ..EB1-knockdown cells show significant changes in levels of GEF-H1, a microtubule-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor that links microtubule integrity to RhoA-dependent ..
  53. Vetter M, Wang J, Lorentzen E, Deretic D. Novel topography of the Rab11-effector interaction network within a ciliary membrane targeting complex. Small Gtpases. 2015;6:165-73 pubmed publisher
    ..into functional networks that regulate intracellular membrane traffic through diverse mechanisms that include GEF and GAP cascades, GEF-effector interactions, common effectors and positive feedback loops linking interacting ..
  54. Vignaud J. [Squamous cell carcinoma, basaloid squamous cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma in the lung]. Ann Pathol. 2016;36:15-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In non-keratinizing SqCC, immuno-histochemistry is required. Recent studies have shown p40 and TTF1 to be the two best markers of SqCC and adenocarcinoma respectively...
  55. Lukkes J, Meda S, Thompson B, Freund N, Andersen S. Early life stress and later peer distress on depressive behavior in adolescent female rats: Effects of a novel intervention on GABA and D2 receptors. Behav Brain Res. 2017;330:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Subjects were tested for learned helplessness to assess depressive-like behavior at P40 (adolescence)...
  56. Franssen E, Zhao R, Koseki H, Kanamarlapudi V, Hoogenraad C, Eva R, et al. Exclusion of integrins from CNS axons is regulated by Arf6 activation and the AIS. J Neurosci. 2015;35:8359-75 pubmed publisher
    ..of transport is controlled through the activation state of ARF6, with developmental upregulation of the ARF6 GEF ARNO enhancing retrograde transport...
  57. Timmerman I, Heemskerk N, Kroon J, Schaefer A, van Rijssel J, Hoogenboezem M, et al. A local VE-cadherin and Trio-based signaling complex stabilizes endothelial junctions through Rac1. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:3041-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify a crucial role for the Rho-GEF Trio in stabilizing junctions based around vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin (also known as CDH5)...
  58. Bamias G, Pizarro T, Cominelli F. Pathway-based approaches to the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Transl Res. 2016;167:104-15 pubmed publisher
    ..the blockade of novel, nontumor necrosis factor inflammatory mediators via monoclonal antibodies against the common p40 chain of interleukin (IL-12) and IL-23, Janus kinase inhibitors, or antisense oligonucleotides against inhibitors ..
  59. Weger S, Hammer E, Gonsior M, Stutika C, Heilbronn R. A Regulatory Element Near the 3' End of the Adeno-Associated Virus rep Gene Inhibits Adenovirus Replication in cis by Means of p40 Promoter-Associated Short Transcripts. J Virol. 2016;90:3981-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that inhibition of adenoviral replication by RIS-Ad requires an active AAV p40 promoter and the 5' half of the intron...
  60. Lee C, Wu C, Lin T. Role of chicken melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 in induction and activation of innate and adaptive immune responses to infectious bursal disease virus in cultured macrophages. Arch Virol. 2015;160:3021-35 pubmed publisher
    ..nitric oxide production and expression levels of chicken MDA5, IFN-β, PKR, OAS, Mx, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12(p40), IL-18, IL-10, iNOS, MHC class I and CD86 at 24 hpi...
  61. Wils P, Bouhnik Y, Michetti P, Flourie B, Brixi H, Bourrier A, et al. Subcutaneous Ustekinumab Provides Clinical Benefit for Two-Thirds of Patients With Crohn's Disease Refractory to Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Agents. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016;14:242-50.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    Ustekinumab, a human monoclonal antibody against the p40 subunit of interleukins-12 and -23, is effective in inducing and maintaining remission in patients with luminal Crohn's disease (CD)...
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    ..Thrombin), reaching transient, localized FRET ratio changes up to 200%. These RhoA/B/C FRET sensors show localized GEF and GAP activity and reveal spatial activation differences between RhoA/C and RhoB...
  63. Guadagno E, Del Basso De Caro M, Pignatiello S, Sciammarella C, Solari D, Cappabianca P, et al. Expression of p40 (?Np63) protein in meningiomas, an unexpected finding: immunohistochemical study and evaluation of its possible prognostic role. J Neurooncol. 2016;129:405-413 pubmed publisher
    ..However, they sometimes result unreliable, especially when discordant. p40 is the short form of the p53 homologue gene p63, also named ?Np63, and its antibody has recently been introduced as ..
  64. Guo Z, Carbone M, Zhang X, Su D, Sun W, Lou J, et al. Improving the Accuracy of Mesothelioma Diagnosis in China. J Thorac Oncol. 2017;12:714-723 pubmed publisher
    ..staining for the epithelial markers carcinoembryonic antigen, thyroid transcription factor-1, MOC31, BerEP4, p63, p40, paired box 8, ER and PR were negative...
  65. Sarfraz M, Suleman M, Tikoo S, Wheler C, Potter A, Gerdts V, et al. Immune responses to in ovo vaccine formulations containing inactivated fowl adenovirus 8b with poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]phosphazene (PCEP) and avian beta defensin as adjuvants in chickens. Vaccine. 2017;35:981-986 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, significant enhancement of IFN-?, IFN-?, IL-12(p40) and IL-6 gene expression under the influence of PCEP suggests that as an in ovo adjuvant PCEP has the ability to ..
  66. Ali M, Mali V, Haddox S, AbdelGhany S, El Deek S, Abulfadl A, et al. Essential Role of IL-12 in Angiogenesis in Type 2 Diabetes. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:2590-2601 pubmed publisher
    ..To induce type 2 diabetes, wild-type (WT), p40IL-12-/- (p40-/-), and p35IL-12-/- (p35-/-) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks...
  67. Zaman K. Biofuel consumption, biodiversity, and the environmental Kuznets curve: trivariate analysis in a panel of biofuel consuming countries. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017;24:24602-24610 pubmed publisher
    ..The study used Global Environmental Facility (GEF) biodiversity benefits index and forest biodiversity index in an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) framework...
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    Ustekinumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to the shared p40 subunit of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23, is approved in the USA and Europe for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis...
  69. Ryan M, Finn A, Pedone K, Thomas N, Der C, Cox A. ERK/MAPK Signaling Drives Overexpression of the Rac-GEF, PREX1, in BRAF- and NRAS-Mutant Melanoma. Mol Cancer Res. 2016;14:1009-1018 pubmed
    ..This study identifies an ERK-dependent mechanism that drives PREX1 upregulation and subsequent RAC1-dependent invasion in BRAF- and NRAS-mutant melanoma. Mol Cancer Res; 14(10); 1009-18. ©2016 AACR. ..
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    ..a heterodecameric complex of two sets of the ?, ?, ?, ?, and ? subunits, is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) specific for eIF2, a heterotrimeric G protein consisting of the ?, ?, and ? subunits...
  72. Pathak R, Delorme Walker V, Howell M, Anselmo A, White M, Bokoch G, et al. The microtubule-associated Rho activating factor GEF-H1 interacts with exocyst complex to regulate vesicle traffic. Dev Cell. 2012;23:397-411 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we present evidence that depletion of GEF-H1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho proteins, affects vesicle trafficking...
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    ..established marker of preload thought to reflect the volume of all four heart chambers, global ejection fraction (GEF) and cardiac function index (CFI) as variables of cardiac function, and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) as ..
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    ..These identified DEGs, including GNB2, LILRA2, ARRB2 and ARHGEF2, may be potential key genes involved in the treatment of major burn injuries and prevention of complications.
  75. Guo F, Zheng Y. Vav1: Friend and Foe of Cancer. Trends Cell Biol. 2017;27:879-880 pubmed publisher
    A recent study shows that the protumorigenic guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Vav1 functions as a tumor suppressor in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) through its ability to complex with the Cbl-b ubiquitin ligase and ..
  76. Miki H, Suetsugu S, Takenawa T. WAVE, a novel WASP-family protein involved in actin reorganization induced by Rac. EMBO J. 1998;17:6932-41 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we conclude that WAVE plays a critical role downstream of Rac in regulating the actin cytoskeleton required for membrane ruffling. ..
  77. Gimeno Ferrer F, Pastor Cantizano N, Bernat Silvestre C, Selvi Martínez P, Vera Sirera F, Gao C, et al. ?2-COP is involved in early secretory traffic in Arabidopsis and is required for plant growth. J Exp Bot. 2017;68:391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..mutant; this also occurs in a mutant of a gene upstream of COPI assembly, GNL1, which encodes an ARF-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). These findings suggest that loss of ?2-COP affects the expression of secretory pathway genes.
  78. Peurois F, Veyron S, Ferrandez Y, Ladid I, Benabdi S, Zeghouf M, et al. Characterization of the activation of small GTPases by their GEFs on membranes using artificial membrane tethering. Biochem J. 2017;474:1259-1272 pubmed publisher
    ..It demonstrated that membranes stimulate the GEF activity of Trio toward RhoG by ?30 fold and Rac1 by ?10 fold, and uncovered a previously unknown broader ..
  79. Torres P, Díaz J, Arce M, SILVA P, Mendoza P, Lois P, et al. The salivary peptide histatin-1 promotes endothelial cell adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis. FASEB J. 2017;31:4946-4958 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling axis, as histatin-1 increased the recruitment of RIN2, a Rab5-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) to early endosomes, leading to sequential Rab5/Rac1 activation...
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    ..This work identifies BCR as a critical player in Rac1 regulation during OGD in hippocampal neurons. ..
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    ..Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we analyzed the role of guanine-nucleotide exchange factor H1 (GEF-H1) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-dependent IL-6/TNF-? expression in endothelial cells...
  82. Li R, Rodriguez Furlan C, Wang J, van de Ven W, Gao T, Raikhel N, et al. Different Endomembrane Trafficking Pathways Establish Apical and Basal Polarities. Plant Cell. 2017;29:90-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies have shown that the large ARF-GEF GNOM plays a key role in the establishment of basal (rootward) polarity, whereas the apically (shootward) polarized ..
  83. Bove F, Luigetti M, Gallicchio L, Recchia V, Petruzzellis A, Di Iorio R, et al. Central conduction abnormalities in patients receiving levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusion. Neurol Sci. 2017;38:1869-1872 pubmed publisher
    ..we found significant reduction in sural nerve SNAP amplitude, increase of central sensory conduction time N22-P40, and increases of central motor conduction time recorded from I dorsal interosseous and tibialis anterior...
  84. Liu T, Li H, Hong W, Han W. Brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide exchange protein 3 is localized in lysosomes and regulates GABA signaling in hippocampal neurons. J Neurochem. 2016;139:748-756 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on sequence similarity to brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide exchange protein (BIG)/GBF of the Arf-GEF family, we recently identified BIG3 as a novel ARF GEF protein with a non-functional catalytic motif in the SEC7 ..
  85. Amado Azevedo J, Reinhard N, van Bezu J, de Menezes R, van Beusechem V, van Nieuw Amerongen G, et al. A CDC42-centered signaling unit is a dominant positive regulator of endothelial integrity. Sci Rep. 2017;7:10132 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the Rac1-GEF (Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor) TIAM2 is a positive regulator and the Cdc42(Rac1)-GAP (GTPase-Activating ..
  86. Chen W, Zhao Y, Li X, Kubiak J, Ghobrial R, Kloc M. Rho-specific Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (Rho-GEFs) inhibition affects macrophage phenotype and disrupts Golgi complex. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2017;93:12-24 pubmed publisher
    ..flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy we studied how a direct inhibition of Rho-GEFs with Rhosin (Rho GEF-binding domain blocker) and Y16 (Rho GEF DH-PH domain blocker) affects M0, M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes...
  87. Hamilton A, Lambert J, Parajuli L, Vivas O, Park D, Stein I, et al. A dual role for the RhoGEF Ephexin5 in regulation of dendritic spine outgrowth. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2017;80:66-74 pubmed publisher
    ..reducing Ephexin5 levels increased spine outgrowth, and increasing Ephexin5 levels decreased spine outgrowth in a GEF-dependent manner, suggesting that Ephexin5 acts as an inhibitor of spine outgrowth...
  88. Alaki E, Aljobair F, Alaklobi F, Al Shamrani M, Al Zahim F, Dongues A, et al. Chronic Disseminated Salmonellosis in a Patient With Interleukin-12p40 Deficiency. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018;37:90-93 pubmed publisher
    Interleukin (IL)-12 is composed of p35 and p40 subunits; in this case, IL-12p40 deficiency is a rare genetic etiology of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease...
  89. Leyme A, Marivin A, Maziarz M, DiGiacomo V, Papakonstantinou M, Patel P, et al. Specific inhibition of GPCR-independent G protein signaling by a rationally engineered protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E10319-E10328 pubmed publisher
    ..sequence named the G?-binding and activating (GBA) motif, which confers guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity in vitro and promotes G protein-dependent signaling in cells...
  90. Song Z, Bouchab L, Hudik E, Le Bars R, Nüsse O, Dupre Crochet S. Phosphoinositol 3-phosphate acts as a timer for reactive oxygen species production in the phagosome. J Leukoc Biol. 2017;101:1155-1168 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphoinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P) regulates ROS production at the phagosome via p40phox by an unknown mechanism...
  91. Yu Z, Zhang C, Zhou M, Li Q, Li H, Duan W, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis PPE44 (Rv2770c) is involved in response to multiple stresses and promotes the macrophage expression of IL-12 p40 and IL-6 via the p38, ERK, and NF-κB signaling axis. Int Immunopharmacol. 2017;50:319-329 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study implicated that Rv2770c was a virulent factor actively engaged in the interaction with host macrophage. ..
  92. Selyunin A, Iles L, Bartholomeusz G, Mukhopadhyay S. Genome-wide siRNA screen identifies UNC50 as a regulator of Shiga toxin 2 trafficking. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:3249-3262 pubmed publisher
    ..UNC50 acted by recruiting GBF1, an ADP ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF), to the Golgi...