ARAF

Summary

Gene Symbol: ARAF
Description: A-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase
Alias: A-RAF, ARAF1, PKS2, RAFA1, serine/threonine-protein kinase A-Raf, A-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase, Oncogene ARAF1, Ras-binding protein DA-Raf, proto-oncogene A-Raf-1, proto-oncogene Pks, v-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene homolog 1, v-raf murine sarcoma 3611 viral oncogene-like protein
Species: human
Products:     ARAF

Top Publications

  1. Yuryev A, Ono M, Goff S, Macaluso F, Wennogle L. Isoform-specific localization of A-RAF in mitochondria. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4870-8 pubmed
    ..This information is discussed in view of the important role of mitochondria in cellular functions involving energy balance, proliferation, and apoptosis and the potential role of A-RAF in regulating these systems. ..
  2. Razzaque M, Nishizawa T, Komoike Y, Yagi H, Furutani M, Amo R, et al. Germline gain-of-function mutations in RAF1 cause Noonan syndrome. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1013-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings implicate RAF1 gain-of-function mutations as a causative agent of a human developmental disorder, representing a new genetic mechanism for the activation of the MAPK pathway...
  3. Chen Y, Liu D, Wang D, Lai S, Zhong R, Liu Y, et al. Hypoglycemic activity and gut microbiota regulation of a novel polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa in type 2 diabetic mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2019;: pubmed publisher
    ..and D-glucose and mainly contained three kinds of linkage type units as →2,6)-α-D-Manp-(1 → 4, α-L-Araf-C1→, and →3,6)-β-D-Glcp-(1 → ...
  4. Yang S, Chen P, Chang S, Weng Y, Chang F, Chang K, et al. Luteolin attenuates neutrophilic oxidative stress and inflammatory arthritis by inhibiting Raf1 activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 2018;154:384-396 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the molecular mechanism further revealed that luteolin acts as a Raf-1 inhibitor...
  5. Queiroz A, Medina Cleghorn D, Marjanovic O, Nomura D, Riley L. Comparative metabolic profiling of mce1 operon mutant vs wild-type Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Pathog Dis. 2015;73:ftv066 pubmed publisher
    ..The mutant showed reduced expression of mmpL8, mmpL10, stf0, pks2 and papA2 genes involved in transport and metabolism of lipids recognized to induce proinflammatory response; these ..
  6. Zha X, Lu C, Cui S, Pan L, Zhang H, Wang J, et al. Structural identification and immunostimulating activity of a Laminaria japonica polysaccharide. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015;78:429-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The 1-linked β-L-Araf was linked to the C-6 of (1→3)-α-D-Manp and the sulfate group was attached to the C-4 of (1→6)-β..
  7. Yang S, Park Y, Kim J, Lee Y, Lee T, Jang B. LY3009120, a pan-Raf kinase inhibitor, inhibits adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells by controlling the expression and phosphorylation of C/EBP-α, PPAR-γ, STAT‑3, FAS, ACC, perilipin A, and AMPK. Int J Mol Med. 2018;42:3477-3484 pubmed publisher
  8. Rani L, Minz R, Arora A, Kannan M, Sharma A, Anand S, et al. Serum proteomic profiling in granumomatosis with polyangiitis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis along with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Int J Rheum Dis. 2014;17:910-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides potential protein markers of active disease versus remission in GPA. ..
  9. Jiang L, Xie Y, Wei L, Zhou Q, Shen X, Jiang X, et al. Identification of the vascular endothelial growth factor signalling pathway by quantitative proteomic analysis of rat condylar cartilage. FEBS Open Bio. 2017;7:44-53 pubmed publisher
    ..mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in condylar cartilage, including VEGFD, VGFR2, KPCB, KPCT, KPCZ, ARAF, RASN, PLCG2, PLCG1, JUN and M3K12...

More Information

Publications137 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wang Y, Huang M, Sun R, Pan L. Extraction, characterization of a Ginseng fruits polysaccharide and its immune modulating activities in rats with Lewis lung carcinoma. Carbohydr Polym. 2015;127:215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..3,6)-linked-Galp and (1 → 3,6)-linked-Glcp residues, which was terminated with terminal (1 →)-linked-Araf or -Rhap attached to O-3 position of (1 → 3,6)-linked-Galp and (1 → 3,6)-linked-Glcp...
  2. Virk N, Li D, Tian L, Huang L, Hong Y, Li X, et al. Arabidopsis Raf-Like Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Gene Raf43 Is Required for Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0133975 pubmed publisher
    ..cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Our results demonstrate that Raf43, encoding for a Raf-like MAPKKK, is required for tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis.
  3. Jiang J, Gao L, Bie X, Lu Z, Liu H, Zhang C, et al. Identification of novel surfactin derivatives from NRPS modification of Bacillus subtilis and its antifungal activity against Fusarium moniliforme. BMC Microbiol. 2016;16:31 pubmed publisher
    ..subtilis BP2-L1 were successfully knocked-out using a temperature-sensitive plasmid, pKS2-mediated-based, homologous, recombination method...
  4. Ozkaya N, Rosenblum M, Durham B, Pichardo J, Abdel Wahab O, Hameed M, et al. The histopathology of Erdheim-Chester disease: a comprehensive review of a molecularly characterized cohort. Mod Pathol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Somatic mutations involving BRAF (25/38), MAP2K1 (6/38), ARAF (2/38), MAP2K2 (1/38), KRAS (1/38), and NRAS (1/38) genes were detected...
  5. Lukassen M, Saei W, Sondergaard T, Tamminen A, Kumar A, Kempken F, et al. Identification of the Scopularide Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Mar Drugs. 2015;13:4331-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The scopularide A gene cluster includes a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS1), a polyketide synthase (PKS2), a CoA ligase, an acyltransferase, and a transcription factor. Homologous recombination was low in S...
  6. Margalef P, Colomer C, Villanueva A, Montagut C, Iglesias M, Bellosillo B, et al. BRAF-induced tumorigenesis is IKKα-dependent but NF-κB-independent. Sci Signal. 2015;8:ra38 pubmed publisher
    ..BRAF(V600E) CRC cells had a high abundance of phosphorylated p45-IKKα, which was decreased by a RAF inhibitor...
  7. Braesel J, Fricke J, Schwenk D, Hoffmeister D. Biochemical and genetic basis of orsellinic acid biosynthesis and prenylation in a stereaceous basidiomycete. Fungal Genet Biol. 2017;98:12-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes for two non-reducing polyketide synthases (PKS1 and PKS2) were identified in the BY1 genome, and heterologously expressed in Aspergillus niger...
  8. Zha Z, Wang S, Chu W, Lv Y, Kan H, Chen Q, et al. Isolation, purification, structural characterization and immunostimulatory activity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Lepidium meyenii. Phytochemistry. 2018;147:184-193 pubmed publisher
    ..4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, →6)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, →3)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, and β-D-Araf-(1→, with branching at O-6 of →4,6)-α-D-Glcp-(1 → ...
  9. Chai Y, Zhao M. Purification, characterization and anti-proliferation activities of polysaccharides extracted from Viscum coloratum (Kom.) Nakai. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;149:121-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The linkage patterns of VCP2 were evaluated by methylation analysis: 1,5-linked Araf, 1,4-linked Galp, 1,2-linked Rhap, and 1,2,4-linked Rhap. The degree of esterification was 50%...
  10. Du D, Lu Y, Cheng Z, Chen D. Structure characterization of two novel polysaccharides isolated from the spikes of Prunella vulgaris and their anticomplement activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;193:345-353 pubmed publisher
    ..6: 1.0: 1.3: 1.8: 3.4. The main linkages between the sugar residues of PW-PS2 included terminal Araf, 1,4-linked ?-d-Xylp, 1,3-linked ?-d-Rhap, terminal ?-d-Galp, and 1,4,6-linked ?-d-Galp...
  11. Mathew L, Huangyang P, Mucaj V, Lee S, Skuli N, Eisinger Mathason T, et al. Feedback circuitry between miR-218 repression and RTK activation in glioblastoma. Sci Signal. 2015;8:ra42 pubmed publisher
    ..the RTK epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phospholipase C-γ1 (PLCγ1), and the kinases PIK3CA and ARAF. However, increased RTK signaling usually activates negative feedback mechanisms to maintain homeostasis...
  12. Liu Q, Fang J, Wang P, Du Z, Li Y, Wang S, et al. Characterization of a pectin from Lonicera japonica Thunb. and its inhibition effect on A?42 aggregation and promotion of neuritogenesis. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;107:112-120 pubmed publisher
    ..The side chain was involved with ?-d-1,4-Galp, ?-d-1,3-Galp, ?-d-1,3,6-Galp and branched ?-l-1,5-Araf. Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavine T (ThT) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) results showed that ..
  13. Tang Y, Zhu Z, Liu Y, Sun H, Song Q, Zhang Y. The chemical structure and anti-aging bioactivity of an acid polysaccharide obtained from rose buds. Food Funct. 2018;9:2300-2312 pubmed publisher
    ..NMR analysis, reveals that R-PL has a backbone of ?1)-?-d-Glcp-(6? with side chains of ?1)-?-d-Galp-(4,6?, ?1)-?-d-Araf-(5?, ?1)-?-d-Xylp-(4?, ?1)-?-d-GlcpA-(2? and ?1)-?-d-GalpA-(4?...
  14. Jiao Y, Wang D, Wang L, Jiang C, Wang Y. VqMAPKKK38 is essential for stilbene accumulation in grapevine. Hortic Res. 2017;4:17058 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, a Raf-like MAPKKK gene, VqMAPKKK38, was identified and functionally characterized from the Chinese wild grapevine ..
  15. Huang D, Li Y, Cui F, Chen J, Sun J. Purification and characterization of a novel polysaccharide-peptide complex from Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;137:701-708 pubmed publisher
    ..Its side chain might be composed of 1-linked Araf, 1,6-linked Galp and 1-linked Rhap residues...
  16. Lin C, Yu M, Chiang C, Bien M, Chien M, Chen B. Thrombin-induced NF-?B activation and IL-8/CXCL8 release is mediated by c-Src-dependent Shc, Raf-1, and ERK pathways in lung epithelial cells. Cell Signal. 2013;25:1166-75 pubmed publisher
    ..release and ?B-luciferase activity were inhibited by the Shc small interfering RNA (siRNA), p66Shc siRNA, GW 5074 (a Raf-1 inhibitor), and PD98059 (a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase (MEK) inhibitor)...
  17. Wang L, Li T, Liu F, Liu D, Xu Y, Yang Y, et al. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction and characterization of polysaccharides from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) leaves. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019;126:846-856 pubmed publisher
    ..consisted of →4)-α-D-Galp-(1→, →4)-β-D-Manp-(1→, →4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, →2,4)-α-L-Rhap-(1→, and α-L-Araf-(1→ with branching at O-2 and O-4 of →2,4)-α-L-Rhap-(1→...
  18. Abla O, Jacobsen E, Picarsic J, Krenova Z, Jaffe R, Emile J, et al. Consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and clinical management of Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes disease. Blood. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies have found NRAS, KRAS, MAP2K1 and ARAF mutations in lesional tissues, raising the possibility of a clonal origin in some forms of RDD...
  19. Zheng C, Dong Q, Du Z, Wang P, Ding K. Structural elucidation of a polysaccharide from Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers with anti-angiogenic activity. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015;79:674-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, some of 1,2-linked α-Xylp was substituted at O-4 by α-Araf-(1→5)-α-Araf-(1→6)-β-Galp...
  20. Li K, Zhu L, Li H, Zhu Y, Pan C, Gao X, et al. Structural characterization and rheological properties of a pectin with anti-constipation activity from the roots of Arctium lappa L. Carbohydr Polym. 2019;215:119-129 pubmed publisher
    ..of NMR revealed that the dominant linkage types of ALP-2 were →4-α-GalpA-6-OMe-(1→, →2-α-Rha-(1→, →5-α-Araf-(1→ and →3,6-β-Galp-(1→. The ELISA results indicated ALP-2 was a typical pectin with HG chain and RG-I chain...
  21. Zheng C, Dong Q, Chen H, Cong Q, Ding K. Structural characterization of a polysaccharide from Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers and its antioxidant activity. Carbohydr Polym. 2015;130:113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..About 40% of 1, 6-linked β-Galp with T-linked α-Glcp was substituted at O-3 by α-Araf-(1→[5)-α-Araf-(1]3...
  22. Ru Y, Chen X, Wang J, Guo L, Lin Z, Peng X, et al. Structural characterization, hypoglycemic effects and mechanism of a novel polysaccharide from Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019;123:775-783 pubmed publisher
    ..and →4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→, and main branches of β-D-Manp-(1→, →3,6-β-D-Manp-1→ and α-D-Araf-(1→...
  23. Klosterhoff R, Bark J, Glänzel N, Iacomini M, Martinez G, Winnischofer S, et al. Structure and intracellular antioxidant activity of pectic polysaccharide from acerola (Malpighia emarginata). Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;106:473-480 pubmed publisher
    ..The main chain of arabinan consisted of (1?5)-linked ?-Araf, branched only at O-3...
  24. Kandasamy R, Vladimer G, Snijder B, Müller A, Rebsamen M, Bigenzahn J, et al. A time-resolved molecular map of the macrophage response to VSV infection. NPJ Syst Biol Appl. 2016;2:16027 pubmed publisher
    ..the hierarchical relationships, we analyzed kinase-substrate relationships and found RAF1 and, to a lesser extent, ARAF to be inhibiting VSV replication and necessary for NF?B activation, and AKT2, but not AKT1, to be supporting VSV ..
  25. Tran G, Huynh T, Paller A. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: A neoplastic disorder driven by Ras-ERK pathway mutations. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018;78:579-590.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..1% of reported patients) and MAP2K1 (21.7%) and uncommonly found in MAP3K1 or ARAF. Increased levels of phospho-ERK in lesional tissue, activation of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling with these mutations ..
  26. Ho G, Ahmed A, Zou Y, Aslaksen T, Wangensteen H, Barsett H. Structure-activity relationship of immunomodulating pectins from elderberries. Carbohydr Polym. 2015;125:314-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced bioactivity was observed after reduction of Araf residues and 1→3,6 Gal by weak acid hydrolysis...
  27. Bronte F, Bronte G, Cusenza S, Fiorentino E, Rolfo C, Cicero G, et al. Targeted therapies in hepatocellular carcinoma. Curr Med Chem. 2014;21:966-74 pubmed
    ..Until now sorafenib, a Raf and multi-kinase inhibitor has been the best, choice to treat HCC systemically...
  28. Chen W, Wu S, Lin T, Lin S, Wu Hsieh B. Human dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing non-integrin downstream signaling alleviates renal fibrosis via Raf-1 activation in systemic candidiasis. Cell Mol Immunol. 2019;16:288-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, treating the infected transgenic mice with a Raf-1 inhibitor increased the levels of the Tgfb1, Kim1, and Acta2 transcripts...
  29. Huang L, Cohen A, Colman H, Jensen R, Fults D, Couldwell W. IGFBP2 expression predicts IDH-mutant glioma patient survival. Oncotarget. 2017;8:191-202 pubmed publisher
    ..increased expression of tumor-suppressor genes (NF1, PTEN, and PIK3R1) and decreased expression of oncogenes(AKT2, ARAF, ERBB2, FGFR3, and PDGFRB) and glioma progression genes (FOXM1, IGFBP2, and WWTR1) compared with IDH-wildtype ..
  30. Dong C, Liu L, Wang C, Fu Z, Zhang Y, Hou X, et al. Structural characterization of polysaccharides from Saposhnikovia divaricata and their antagonistic effects against the immunosuppression by the culture supernatants of melanoma cells on RAW264.7 macrophages. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;113:748-756 pubmed publisher
    ..of (1?6)-linked Galp were substituted at O-3 and O-4 by branches that mainly consisted of terminal and (1?5)-linked Araf residues...
  31. Zhu Z, Zhang J, Liu F, Chen L, Chen L, Tang Y. Characterization and lymphocyte proliferation activity of an oligosaccharide degraded from Astragalus polysaccharide. Medchemcomm. 2017;8:1521-1530 pubmed publisher
    ..results indicated that AOS is an octasaccharide that consists of (3?)-linked-Rha, (1?3)-linked-Rha, (1?3,4)-linked-Araf, (1?3)-linked-Gal, terminal-linked-Gal and terminal-linked-Glc...
  32. Maruta A, Yamane M, Matsubara M, Suzuki S, Nakazawa M, Ueda M, et al. A novel α-galactosidase from Fusarium oxysporum and its application in determining the structure of the gum arabic side chain. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2017;103:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..hydrolyzed the α-1,3-galactosidic linkage within the side chain structure of [α-d-Galp-(1→3)-α-l-Araf-(1→] in gum arabic...
  33. Ma F, Kong S, Tan H, Wu R, Xia B, Zhou Y, et al. Structural characterization and antiviral effect of a novel polysaccharide PSP-2B from Prunellae Spica. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;152:699-709 pubmed publisher
    ..of PSP-2B is speculated to be a branched arabinogalactomannan, and the side chains are terminated primarily by the Araf residues. PSP-2B also contains 2.98% protein...
  34. Shakhmatov E, Belyy V, Makarova E. Structural characteristics of water-soluble polysaccharides from Norway spruce (Picea abies). Carbohydr Polym. 2017;175:699-711 pubmed publisher
    ..The side chains of AG-II are formed of 1,6- and 1,3,6-β-d-Galp, 1,3- and 1,5-α-l-Araf, β-d-GlcpA and 1,4-β-d-GlcpA, T-α-l-Araf, T-α-l-Rhap and T-α-l-Fucp residues. The AGPs of P...
  35. Hu H, Liang H, Li H, Yuan R, Sun J, Zhang L, et al. Isolation, purification, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from the stem barks of Acanthopanax leucorrhizus. Carbohydr Polym. 2018;196:359-367 pubmed publisher
    ..1:1.1:1.0, owning a backbone structure of 1,6-linked ?-d-Galp residues with some branches of ?-d-Manp-(1???3)-?-l-Araf residues at O-3 and ?-d-Galp residues at O-4 of 1,6-linked ?-d-Galp...
  36. Si H, Chen N, Chen N, Huang C, Li J, Wang H. Structural characterisation of a water-soluble polysaccharide from tissue-cultured Dendrobium huoshanense C.Z. Tang et S.J. Cheng. Nat Prod Res. 2018;32:252-260 pubmed publisher
    ..Glcp-(1?4)-?-Rhap-(1?3)-?-Galp-(1?, ?-Galp-(1?6)-?-Manp-(1?3)-?-Galp-(1?, and ?-l-Araf-(1?2)-?-Manp-(1?3)-?-Galp-(1? were identified as the branches attached to the C-3 position of (1?6)-linked ..
  37. Lin L, Wang P, Du Z, Wang W, Cong Q, Zheng C, et al. Structural elucidation of a pectin from flowers of Lonicera japonica and its antipancreatic cancer activity. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;88:130-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The branches were determined to be T- and 1,4,6-linked ?-d-Galp, T- and 1,5-linked ?-l-Araf. The polysaccharide might inhibit BxPC-3 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells growth at the concentration of 1mg/mL ..
  38. Chen S, Zhang Y, Van Horn R, Yin T, Buchanan S, Yadav V, et al. Oncogenic BRAF Deletions That Function as Homodimers and Are Sensitive to Inhibition by RAF Dimer Inhibitor LY3009120. Cancer Discov. 2016;6:300-15 pubmed publisher
    ..assays in BRAF deletion cells, which are resistant to the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib and sensitive to LY3009120, a RAF dimer inhibitor...
  39. Ren D, Lin D, Alim A, Zheng Q, Yang X. Chemical characterization of a novel polysaccharide ASKP-1 from Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seed and its macrophage activation via MAPK, PI3k/Akt and NF-?B signaling pathways in RAW264.7 cells. Food Funct. 2017;8:1299-1312 pubmed publisher
    ..8%), 1?6)-Galp (18.8%), 1?3,6)-Manp (19.6%), 1?)-Glcp (10.8%), 2?6)-Manp (4.0%) and 2?3,5)-Araf (7.0%)...
  40. Huang K, Li S, Mertins P, Cao S, Gunawardena H, Ruggles K, et al. Proteogenomic integration reveals therapeutic targets in breast cancer xenografts. Nat Commun. 2017;8:14864 pubmed publisher
    ..However, several protein/phosphoprotein events such as overexpression of AKT proteins and ARAF, BRAF, HSP90AB1 phosphosites are not readily explainable by genomic analysis, suggesting that druggable ..
  41. Ding H, Qian K, Goff H, Wang Q, Cui S. Structural and conformational characterization of arabinoxylans from flaxseed mucilage. Food Chem. 2018;254:266-271 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible branches included → 5)-α-l-Araf-(1 → (17.3 mol%), → 3)-α-l-Araf-(1 → (4.9 mol%), and → 4)-α-d-Glcp-(1 → (3...
  42. Fransen K, Klintenäs M, Osterström A, Dimberg J, Monstein H, Söderkvist P. Mutation analysis of the BRAF, ARAF and RAF-1 genes in human colorectal adenocarcinomas. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:527-33 pubmed
    ..We also performed mutation analysis of the corresponding conserved regions in the ARAF and RAF-1 genes. Mutations in the BRAF and KRAS genes were found in 11.5 and 40% of the tumors, respectively...
  43. Scoparo C, Souza L, Dartora N, Sassaki G, Santana Filho A, Werner M, et al. Chemical characterization of heteropolysaccharides from green and black teas (Camellia sinensis) and their anti-ulcer effect. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;86:772-81 pubmed publisher
    ..main chain of (1→3)-β-Galp, substituted at O-6 by (1→6)-linked β-Galp with side chains of α-Araf and terminal units of α-Araf, α-Fucp and α-Rhap...
  44. Zhu W, Xue X, Zhang Z. Structural, physicochemical, antioxidant and antitumor property of an acidic polysaccharide from Polygonum multiflorum. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017;96:494-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses showed APS was mainly composed by the residues of ?5)-?-l-Araf-(1?, ?3)-?-d-Galp-(1?, ?3,6)-?-d-Galp-(1?, ?4)-?-d-GalAp-(1? and ?2)-?-l-Rhap-(1? in the backbone...
  45. Møller S, Yi X, Velasquez S, Gille S, Hansen P, Poulsen C, et al. Identification and evolution of a plant cell wall specific glycoprotein glycosyl transferase, ExAD. Sci Rep. 2017;7:45341 pubmed publisher
    ..gene, At3g57630, in clade E of the inverting Glycosyltransferase family GT47 as a candidate for the transfer of Araf to Hyp-arabinofuranotriose (Hyp-β1,4Araf-β1,2Araf-β1,2Araf) side chains in an α-linkage, to yield Hyp-Araf..
  46. Castro L, Alves S, Chaves S, Costa J, Soares P, Preto A. RAF-1 promotes survival of thyroid cancer cells harboring RET/PTC1 rearrangement independently of ERK activation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;415:64-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that depletion of RAF-1, a RAF family member with a poorly defined role in TC, decreases proliferation and increases apoptosis in TPC-1 cells and,..
  47. Yuan Y, Wang Y, Jiang Y, Prasad K, Yang J, Qu H, et al. Structure identification of a polysaccharide purified from Lycium barbarium fruit. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;82:696-701 pubmed publisher
    ..This arabinogalactan was comprised of Araf, Galp, GlcpA and Rhap with a molar ratio of 9.2:6.6:1.0:0.9...
  48. Bigi A, Beltrami E, Trinei M, Stendardo M, Pelicci P, Giorgio M. Cyclophilin D counteracts P53-mediated growth arrest and promotes Ras tumorigenesis. Oncogene. 2016;35:5132-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Ras oncogene leads to proliferative signals through a Raf-1/MEK/ERK kinase cascade, whose components have been found to be also associated with mitochondria...
  49. Li S, Li M, Yue H, Zhou L, Huang L, Du Z, et al. Structural elucidation of a pectic polysaccharide from Fructus Mori and its bioactivity on intestinal bacteria strains. Carbohydr Polym. 2018;186:168-175 pubmed publisher
    ..The branches were composed of 1, 4-linked ?-Galp, terminal (T) - and 1, 3, 6-linked ?-Galp, T- and 1, 5-linked ?-Araf. Bioactivity test results suggested that FMP-6-S2 and its degraded product could promote growth of intestinal ..
  50. Pfeiffer V, Götz R, Camarero G, Heinsen H, Blum R, Rapp U. Impaired neuronal maturation of hippocampal neural progenitor cells in mice lacking CRAF. PLoS ONE. 2018;13:e0192067 pubmed publisher
    ..In mammals, the family of RAF proteins consists of three members, ARAF, BRAF, and CRAF...
  51. Diamond E, Durham B, Haroche J, Yao Z, Ma J, Parikh S, et al. Diverse and Targetable Kinase Alterations Drive Histiocytic Neoplasms. Cancer Discov. 2016;6:154-65 pubmed publisher
    ..we identified recurrent kinase fusions involving BRAF, ALK, and NTRK1, as well as recurrent, activating MAP2K1 and ARAF mutations in patients with BRAF(V600E)-wild-type non-LCH...
  52. Kuttiyatveetil J, Sanders D. Analysis of plant UDP-arabinopyranose mutase (UAM): Role of divalent metals and structure prediction. Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom. 2017;1865:510-519 pubmed publisher
    ..a plant enzyme which interconverts UDP-arabinopyranose (UDP-Arap; a six-membered sugar) to UDP-arabinofuranose (UDP-Araf; a five-membered sugar). Plant mutases belong to a small gene family called Reversibly Glycosylated Proteins (RGPs)...
  53. Lee H, Yoon G. Kinase Assay for CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE 1 (CTR1) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1573:133-140 pubmed publisher
    ..CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE 1 (CTR1) is a Raf-like protein kinase that functions as a negative regulator in the phytohormone ethylene signaling pathway...
  54. Liu W, Liu Y, Zhu R, Yu J, Lu W, Pan C, et al. Structure characterization, chemical and enzymatic degradation, and chain conformation of an acidic polysaccharide from Lycium barbarum L. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;147:114-124 pubmed publisher
    ..existed branches forming by →4-β-Galp-(1→, →3-β-Galp-(1→ or →5-α-Araf-(1→, while on the C-6 of partial →3-β-Galp-(1→ residues existed secondary branches forming ..
  55. Fu X, Cao C, Ren B, Zhang B, Huang Q, Li C. Structural characterization and in vitro fermentation of a novel polysaccharide from Sargassum thunbergii and its impact on gut microbiota. Carbohydr Polym. 2018;183:230-239 pubmed publisher
    ..The main linkage types were identified as (1???5)-?-L-Araf, (1???3)-?-L-Manp, (1???3,6)-?-D-Galp, (1???6)-?-D-Glcp, and (1???3)-?-D-Xylp, respectively...
  56. Liu W, Shen X, Yang Y, Yin X, Xie J, Yan J, et al. Trihydrophobin 1 is a new negative regulator of A-Raf kinase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:10167-75 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data provide a clue to understanding the cellular function of TH1 on Raf isoform-specific regulation. ..
  57. Pu X, Ma X, Liu L, Ren J, Li H, Li X, et al. Structural characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from angelica and astragalus. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;137:154-164 pubmed publisher
    ..that a preliminary structure of AAP-2A was proposed as follows: 1,3-linked Rhap, 1,3-linked Galp, 1,3-linked Araf, 1,5-linked Araf, 1,3,5-linked Araf, 1,4-linked Glcp and 1,4,6-linked Glcp interspersed with terminal Glcp...
  58. Bagchi S, Kumar K. Studies on water soluble polysaccharides from Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. seeds. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;138:215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Methylation analysis confirmed that the polysaccharide is composed of Arabinose (Araf) units. The chemical shifts of anomeric proton region were found in the region of 4.4-5.5ppm...
  59. Sbaraini N, Guedes R, Andreis F, Junges A, de Morais G, Vainstein M, et al. Secondary metabolite gene clusters in the entomopathogen fungus Metarhizium anisopliae: genome identification and patterns of expression in a cuticle infection model. BMC Genomics. 2016;17:736 pubmed
    ..for the following three BGCs: a tropolone/citrinin-related compound (MaPKS1), a pseurotin-related compound (MaNRPS-PKS2), and a putative helvolic acid (MaTERP1). Among 73 BGCs identified in M...
  60. Okimoto R, Lin L, Olivas V, Chan E, Markegard E, Rymar A, et al. Preclinical efficacy of a RAF inhibitor that evades paradoxical MAPK pathway activation in protein kinase BRAF-mutant lung cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:13456-13461 pubmed
    ..Our study provides a biological rationale and potential polytherapy strategy to aid the deployment of PLX8394 in lung cancer patients. ..
  61. Tan A, Yzer S, Atebara N, Marr B, Verdijk R, Dalm V, et al. Three Cases of Erdheim-Chester Disease With Intraocular Manifestations: Imaging and Histopathology Findings of a Rare Entity. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;176:141-147 pubmed publisher
    ..In another case, with a novel ARAF positive mutation, treatment with sorafenib showed regression of the choroidal lesions and resolution of the SRD on ..
  62. Inaba M, Maruyama T, Yoshimi Y, Kotake T, Matsuoka K, Koyama T, et al. L-Fucose-containing arabinogalactan-protein in radish leaves. Carbohydr Res. 2015;415:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..than 10, L-Fuc groups were attached through L-Ara residues as the sequence, α-L-Fucp-(1 → 2)-α-L-Araf-(1 →...
  63. Peng S, Henry J, Kaufman M, Lu W, Smith B, Vogeti S, et al. Inhibition of RAF Isoforms and Active Dimers by LY3009120 Leads to Anti-tumor Activities in RAS or BRAF Mutant Cancers. Cancer Cell. 2015;28:384-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Biochemical and cellular analyses revealed that LY3009120 inhibits ARAF, BRAF, and CRAF isoforms with similar affinity, while vemurafenib or dabrafenib have little or modest CRAF activity ..
  64. Duchow S, Dahlke R, Geske T, Blaschek W, Classen B. Arabinogalactan-proteins stimulate somatic embryogenesis and plant propagation of Pelargonium sidoides. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;152:149-155 pubmed publisher
    ..AGPs are characterized by a 1,3-linked Galp backbone, branched at C6 to 1,6-linked Galp side chains terminated by Araf and to a minor extent by GlcpA, Galp or Rhap. Treatment of explants of P...
  65. Wei C, He P, He L, Ye X, Cheng J, Wang Y, et al. Structure characterization and biological activities of a pectic polysaccharide from cupule of Castanea henryi. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;109:65-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Its side chains were attached by two branches to O-4 of Rhap with 1,4-?-linked d-Galp units and 1,5-?-l-linked Araf units bearing 3,5-substituted ?-l-linked Araf residues as branching points...
  66. Mallikarjuna S, Dharmesh S. Swallow root (Decalepis hamiltonii) pectic oligosaccharide (SRO1) induces cancer cell death via modulation of galectin-3 and survivin. Carbohydr Polym. 2018;186:402-410 pubmed publisher
    ..that it is a rhamnogalacturonan I type, bearing arabinogalactan side chain with ?-d-(1?4) galactose along with ?-l-Araf (1?5)-?-l-Araf (1?3) structure on ?-d-GalA-OAc-(1?2)-?-l-Rha-(1?4)- linear backbone...
  67. Noh H, Hah Y, Zada S, Ha J, Sim G, Hwang J, et al. PEBP1, a RAF kinase inhibitory protein, negatively regulates starvation-induced autophagy by direct interaction with LC3. Autophagy. 2016;12:2183-2196 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that PEBP1 can act as a negative mediator in autophagy through stimulation of the AKT-MTORC1 pathway and direct interaction with LC3. ..
  68. Park H, Park S, Hong H, Suh H, Shin K. Structural elucidation of anti-metastatic rhamnogalacturonan II from the pectinase digest of citrus peels (Citrus unshiu). Int J Biol Macromol. 2017;94:161-169 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequential degradation using partial acid hydrolysis indicated that CPE-II contained Rhap-(1?5)-Kdo, Araf-(1?5)-Dha, an AceA-containing nonasaccharide, and an uronic acid-rich oligosaccharide in addition to an ?-(1?4)-..
  69. Ji X, Liu F, Peng Q, Wang M. Purification, structural characterization, and hypolipidemic effects of a neutral polysaccharide from Ziziphus Jujuba cv. Muzao. Food Chem. 2018;245:1124-1130 pubmed publisher
    ..36: 3.29:2.68:1.05:1.00. The majorly backbone of PZMP1 is composed of 1,3,5-linked Araf, 1,3-linked Araf, 1,5-linked Araf, 1,4-linked Glcp, and 1-linked Araf, 1-linked Glcp...
  70. Chen M, Wu J, Shi S, Chen Y, Wang H, Fan H, et al. Structure analysis of a heteropolysaccharide from Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. and anticomplementary activity of its sulfated derivatives. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;152:241-252 pubmed publisher
    ..DPSW-A contains Terminal-Galp, 1,3-Galp, 1,6-Galp, 1,3,6-Galp, and 1,2,4-Rhap; the branched chain contains Terminal-Araf, 1,5-Araf, and 1,3,5-Araf...
  71. Horman S, To J, Lamb J, Zoll J, Leonetti N, Tu B, et al. Functional profiling of microtumors to identify cancer associated fibroblast-derived drug targets. Oncotarget. 2017;8:99913-99930 pubmed publisher
    ..Along with previously reported genes such as WNT, we identify CAF-derived targets such as ARAF and COL3A1 upon which the tumor compartment depends for spheroid development...
  72. He T, Huang Y, Huang Y, Wang X, Hu J, Sheng J. Structural elucidation and antioxidant activity of an arabinogalactan from the leaves of Moringa oleifera. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018;112:126-133 pubmed publisher
    ..The branches were composed of ?1)-?-d-Galp-(4?, ?1)-?-d-Galp-(2?, Araf-(1?, Galp-(1?...
  73. Shahzad Z, Canut M, Tournaire Roux C, Martinière A, Boursiac Y, Loudet O, et al. A Potassium-Dependent Oxygen Sensing Pathway Regulates Plant Root Hydraulics. Cell. 2016;167:87-98.e14 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we used a quantitative genetics approach in Arabidopsis to clone Hydraulic Conductivity of Root 1 (HCR1), a Raf-like MAPKKK that negatively controls Lpr...
  74. Zhang S, Zhang Q, Zhang D, Wang C, Yan C. Anti-osteoporosis activity of a novel Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharide via stimulating bone formation. Carbohydr Polym. 2018;184:288-298 pubmed publisher
    ..its structure was characterized as a repeating unit consisting of ?4)-?-d-GalpA-(1?, ?2,4)-?-l-Rhap-(1?, ?5)-?-l-Araf-(1?, ?2,3,5)-?-l-Araf-(1?, ?3)-?-d-Galp-(1?, ?3,4,6)-?-d-Galp-(1?, terminated with ?-l-Araf, ?-l-Rhap and ?-d-Galp...
  75. Yuryev A, Wennogle L. Novel raf kinase protein-protein interactions found by an exhaustive yeast two-hybrid analysis. Genomics. 2003;81:112-25 pubmed
    ..We propose possible functional consequences of these novel Raf interactions. ..
  76. Imaizumi C, Tomatsu H, Kitazawa K, Yoshimi Y, Shibano S, Kikuchi K, et al. Heterologous expression and characterization of an Arabidopsis ?-l-arabinopyranosidase and ?-d-galactosidases acting on ?-l-arabinopyranosyl residues. J Exp Bot. 2017;68:4651-4661 pubmed publisher
    The major plant sugar l-arabinose (l-Ara) has two different ring forms, l-arabinofuranose (l-Araf) and l-arabinopyranose (l-Arap)...
  77. King T, Fang Y, Mahon E, Anderson D. Using a phage display library to identify basic residues in A-Raf required to mediate binding to the Src homology 2 domains of the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:36450-6 pubmed
    ..This is the first description of a phosphotyrosine-independent SH2 domain interaction that requires basic residues on the SH2 ligand. ..
  78. Fang Y, Johnson L, Mahon E, Anderson D. Two phosphorylation-independent sites on the p85 SH2 domains bind A-Raf kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;290:1267-74 pubmed
    ..This is the first evidence for a second binding site on an SH2 domain, distinct from the phosphotyrosine-binding pocket. ..
  79. Camarero G, Tyrsin O, Xiang C, Pfeiffer V, Pleiser S, Wiese S, et al. Cortical migration defects in mice expressing A-RAF from the B-RAF locus. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7103-15 pubmed
    ..Our data reveal that B-RAF is an important mediator of neuronal survival, migration, and dendrite formation and that A-RAF cannot fully compensate for these functions. ..
  80. Nelson D, Quispel W, Badalian Very G, van Halteren A, van den Bos C, Bovee J, et al. Somatic activating ARAF mutations in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Blood. 2014;123:3152-5 pubmed publisher
    ..One patient with wild-type BRAF alleles in his histiocytes had compound mutations in the kinase domain of ARAF. Unlike wild-type ARAF, this mutant was a highly active mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase in vitro and was ..
  81. An S, Yang Y, Ward R, Liu Y, Guo X, Xu T. A-Raf: A new star of the family of raf kinases. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;50:520-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We also describe the scaffold functions of A-Raf and summarize the unexpected complexity of Raf signaling. ..
  82. Rauch J, VanDamme D, Mack B, McCann B, Volinsky N, Blanco A, et al. Differential localization of A-Raf regulates MST2-mediated apoptosis during epithelial differentiation. Cell Death Differ. 2016;23:1283-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings offer a new paradigm to understand how differential localization of Raf complexes affects diverse signaling functions in normal cells and carcinomas. ..
  83. Horiuchi Y, Nakatsu D, Kano F, Murata M. Pyruvate kinase M1 interacts with A-Raf and inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis by activating MEK1/ERK pathway in mouse insulinoma cells. Cell Signal. 2017;38:212-222 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PKM1 knockdown activates the caspase-9/caspase-3 pathway under ER stress conditions and leads to apoptosis. ..
  84. Benaoun F, Delattre C, Boual Z, Ursu A, Vial C, Gardarin C, et al. Structural characterization and rheological behavior of a heteroxylan extracted from Plantago notata Lagasca (Plantaginaceae) seeds. Carbohydr Polym. 2017;175:96-104 pubmed publisher
    ..through (O)-2 and (O)-3 positions of ?-(1,4)-d-Xylp by various side chains and terminal monosaccharides such as ?-l-Araf-(1,3)-?-d-Xylp, ?-d-Xylp-(1,2)-?-d-Xylp, terminal Xylp or terminal Araf...
  85. Jahanbin K, Abbasian A, Ahang M. Isolation, purification and structural characterization of a new water-soluble polysaccharide from Eremurus stenophyllus (boiss. & buhse) baker roots. Carbohydr Polym. 2017;178:386-393 pubmed publisher
    ..It has a backbone of (1?6)-?-d-galactopyranosyl residues, with branches at O-3 consisting of ?-d-Manp-(1?3)-?-l-Araf-(1?3)-?-l-Araf-(1?3)-?-l-Araf-(1?...
  86. Honta H, Inamura T, Konishi T, Satoh S, Iwai H. UDP-arabinopyranose mutase gene expressions are required for the biosynthesis of the arabinose side chain of both pectin and arabinoxyloglucan, and normal leaf expansion in Nicotiana tabacum. J Plant Res. 2018;131:307-317 pubmed publisher
    ..mutases (UAMs) have been demonstrated to convert UDP-arabinopyranose (UDP-Arap) to UDP-arabinofuranose (UDP-Araf) in rice (Oryza sativa L.)...
  87. Pasari S, Manmode S, Walke G, Hotha S. A Versatile Synthesis of Pentacosafuranoside Subunit Reminiscent of Mycobacterial Arabinogalactan Employing One Strategic Glycosidation Protocol. Chemistry. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..the neighbouring group participation for 1, 2-trans linkages and oxidation-reduction method for the 1, 2-cis Araf respectively...
  88. Kanno E, Kawasaki O, Takahashi K, Takano K, Endo T. DA-Raf, a dominant-negative antagonist of the Ras-ERK pathway, is a putative tumor suppressor. Exp Cell Res. 2018;362:111-120 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that DA-Raf represents a tumor suppressor protein against Ras-induced tumorigenesis. ..
  89. Jing H, Zhang X, Wisner S, Chen X, Spiegelman N, Linder M, et al. SIRT2 and lysine fatty acylation regulate the transforming activity of K-Ras4a. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the biological significance of lysine fatty acylation and sirtuin-catalyzed protein lysine defatty-acylation. ..
  90. Beck T, Huleihel M, Gunnell M, Bonner T, Rapp U. The complete coding sequence of the human A-raf-1 oncogene and transforming activity of a human A-raf carrying retrovirus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:595-609 pubmed
    ..Functionally, human A-raf is similar to v-raf and v-mos in that transformation is independent of ras gene function. ..
  91. Mark G, Seeley T, Shows T, Mountz J. Pks, a raf-related sequence in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986;83:6312-6 pubmed
    ..Analysis of somatic cell hybrids for segregation of the pks locus revealed the presence of an additional locus closely related to the pks sequence. ..
  92. Yin X, Chen S, Gu J. Identification of TH1 as an interaction partner of A-Raf kinase. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002;231:69-74 pubmed
    ..This specific interaction may have played a critical role in the activation of A-Raf. ..