Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: aquaporin 4
Description: aquaporin 4
Alias: MIWC, WCH4, aquaporin-4, aquaporin type4, mercurial-insensitive water channel
Products: aquaporin 4
- Jimi T, Wakayama Y, Matsuzaki Y, Hara H, Inoue M, Shibuya S. Reduced expression of aquaporin 4 in human muscles with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurogenic atrophies. Pathol Res Pract. 2004;200:203-9 pubmedb>Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a water channel protein that is widely distributed in human tissues. However, the precise functional role of AQP4 in skeletal muscle tissue has not yet been determined...
- Wakayama Y, Jimi T, Inoue M, Kojima H, Murahashi M, Kumagai T, et al. Reduced aquaporin 4 expression in the muscle plasma membrane of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Arch Neurol. 2002;59:431-7 pubmed..Recent investigations showed that orthogonal arrays were composed of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) molecules, a member of the water channel protein family...
- Kreda S, Gynn M, Fenstermacher D, Boucher R, Gabriel S. Expression and localization of epithelial aquaporins in the adult human lung. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001;24:224-34 pubmed..This study describes an intricate network of AQP expression that mediates water transport across the human airway epithelium. ..
- Mader S, Lutterotti A, Di Pauli F, Kuenz B, Schanda K, Aboul Enein F, et al. Patterns of antibody binding to aquaporin-4 isoforms in neuromyelitis optica. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10455 pubmed publisher..Our results confirm M-23 AQP4-IgG Abs as reliable biomarkers in patients with NMO and high risk syndromes. M-1 and M-23 AQP4-IgG Abs are significantly associated with a higher number of relapses and longer disease duration. ..
- Iorio R, Fryer J, Hinson S, Fallier Becker P, Wolburg H, Pittock S, et al. Astrocytic autoantibody of neuromyelitis optica (NMO-IgG) binds to aquaporin-4 extracellular loops, monomers, tetramers and high order arrays. J Autoimmun. 2013;40:21-7 pubmed publisher..The relative abundance and localization of AQP4 high order arrays in distinct CNS regions may explain the variability in clinical phenotype of NMO spectrum disorders. ..
- Lu M, Lee M, Smith B, Jung J, Agre P, Verdijk M, et al. The human AQP4 gene: definition of the locus encoding two water channel polypeptides in brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10908-12 pubmed..2 and q12.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. These studies may now permit molecular characterization of AQP4 during human development and in clinical disorders. ..
- Yang B, Brown D, Verkman A. The mercurial insensitive water channel (AQP-4) forms orthogonal arrays in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:4577-80 pubmedThe mercurial insensitive water channel (MIWC, AQP-4) is a water-selective transporter expressed at the basolateral plasma membrane of principal cells in kidney collecting duct, airway epithelium, and gastric parietal cells, as well as ..
- Matsuoka T, Suzuki S, Iwaki T, Tabira T, Ordinario A, Kira J. Aquaporin-4 astrocytopathy in Baló's disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;120:651-60 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, acute BCS lesions are characterized by extensive AQP4 loss without vasculocentric deposition of complement or immunoglobulin. ..
- Rossi A, Pisani F, Nicchia G, Svelto M, Frigeri A. Evidences for a leaky scanning mechanism for the synthesis of the shorter M23 protein isoform of aquaporin-4: implication in orthogonal array formation and neuromyelitis optica antibody interaction. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4562-9 pubmed publisher..In this study we also provide evidence that AQP4-M1 is mobile in the plasma membrane, that it is inserted and not excluded into immobile OAPs, and that it is an important determinant of OAP structure and size. ..
- Preston G, Carroll T, Guggino W, Agre P. Appearance of water channels in Xenopus oocytes expressing red cell CHIP28 protein. Science. 1992;256:385-7 pubmed..Therefore it is likely that CHIP28 is a functional unit of membrane water channels. ..
- Bennett J, Lam C, Kalluri S, Saikali P, Bautista K, DuPree C, et al. Intrathecal pathogenic anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies in early neuromyelitis optica. Ann Neurol. 2009;66:617-29 pubmed publisher..AQP4 is now the first confirmed antigenic target in human demyelinating disease. ..
- McCoy E, Haas B, Sontheimer H. Water permeability through aquaporin-4 is regulated by protein kinase C and becomes rate-limiting for glioma invasion. Neuroscience. 2010;168:971-81 pubmed publisher..AQP4 expressing glioma cells showed significantly reduced invasion compared to AQP1 and S180 expressing tumors as determined by quantitative stereology, consistent with a differential role for AQP1 and AQP4 in this process. ..
- McKeon A, Fryer J, Apiwattanakul M, Lennon V, Hinson S, Kryzer T, et al. Diagnosis of neuromyelitis spectrum disorders: comparative sensitivities and specificities of immunohistochemical and immunoprecipitation assays. Arch Neurol. 2009;66:1134-8 pubmed publisher..In this large, clinical practice-based study, NMO-IgG detected by IF or IP was highly specific for NMO spectrum disorders. The IP assay was significantly less sensitive than IF. Combined testing improved sensitivity by 5%. ..
- Assereto S, Mastrototaro M, Stringara S, Gazzerro E, Broda P, Nicchia G, et al. Aquaporin-4 expression is severely reduced in human sarcoglycanopathies and dysferlinopathies. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:2199-207 pubmed..In conclusion, AQP4 expression and membrane localization are markedly reduced in LGMD 2B-2F. The role of AQP4 in the degenerative mechanism occurring in these diseases will be the object of our future research. ..
- SORANI M, Zador Z, Hurowitz E, Yan D, Giacomini K, Manley G. Novel variants in human Aquaporin-4 reduce cellular water permeability. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2379-89 pubmed publisher..Our experiments provide insight into the function of the AQP4 protein. These nsSNPs may have clinical implications for patients with cerebral edema and related disorders. ..
- Graber D, Levy M, Kerr D, Wade W. Neuromyelitis optica pathogenesis and aquaporin 4. J Neuroinflammation. 2008;5:22 pubmed publisher..An IgG1 autoantibody (NMO-IgG) that binds aquaporin 4 (AQP4) has been identified in the sera of a significant number of NMO patients, as well as in patients with two ..
- Au C, Butler T, Egan J, Cooper S, Lo H, Compton A, et al. Changes in skeletal muscle expression of AQP1 and AQP4 in dystrophinopathy and dysferlinopathy patients. Acta Neuropathol. 2008;116:235-46 pubmed publisher..Our study shows that AQP4 downregulation can occur in muscular dystrophies with either normal or disrupted expression of dystrophin-associated proteins, and that this might be associated with upregulation of AQP1. ..
- Nico B, Ribatti D. Role of aquaporins in cell migration and edema formation in human brain tumors. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317:2391-6 pubmed publisher..This review article summarizes literature data concerning the involvement of AQP-1 and -4 in human brain tumor growth and edema formation and suggests a potential therapeutic approach by antagonizing their biological activity. ..
- McCoy E, Sontheimer H. Expression and function of water channels (aquaporins) in migrating malignant astrocytes. Glia. 2007;55:1034-43 pubmed..Yet, only the presence of AQP1, but not AQP4, enhanced cell growth and migration, typical properties of gliomas, while AQP4 enhanced cell adhesion suggesting differential biological roles for AQP1 and AQP4 in glioma cell biology. ..
- Pittock S, Weinshenker B, Lucchinetti C, Wingerchuk D, Corboy J, Lennon V. Neuromyelitis optica brain lesions localized at sites of high aquaporin 4 expression. Arch Neurol. 2006;63:964-8 pubmedNeuromyelitis optica (NMO)-IgG is a specific autoantibody marker for NMO. It binds selectively to aquaporin 4 (AQP4), which is highly concentrated in astrocytic foot processes at the blood-brain barrier and is not restricted to optic ..
- Aoki K, Uchihara T, Tsuchiya K, Nakamura A, Ikeda K, Wakayama Y. Enhanced expression of aquaporin 4 in human brain with infarction. Acta Neuropathol. 2003;106:121-4 pubmed..brains with cerebral infarction obtained at autopsy were investigated to clarify the possible contribution of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) to the development of brain edema...
- Isobe N, Yonekawa T, Matsushita T, Kawano Y, Masaki K, Yoshimura S, et al. Quantitative assays for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody with subclass analysis in neuromyelitis optica. Mult Scler. 2012;18:1541-51 pubmed publisher..FCMA and bridging ELISA are useful for detecting and quantifying anti-AQP4 antibodies. ..
- Kim Y, Jung S, Kim Y, Park Y, Han K, Oh E. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies in neuromyelitis optica: comparison of tissue-based and cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assays and ELISA. J Clin Lab Anal. 2012;26:184-9 pubmed publisher..01). In summary, we observed an increased prevalence of NMO-IgG in patients with NMO and NMO spectrum disorders. ELISA-AQP4 may be more sensitive and specific when confirmed by IIF-AQP4. ..
- Misaka T, Abe K, Iwabuchi K, Kusakabe Y, Ichinose M, Miki K, et al. A water channel closely related to rat brain aquaporin 4 is expressed in acid- and pepsinogen-secretory cells of human stomach. FEBS Lett. 1996;381:208-12 pubmed..The protein was designated human aquaporin 4 (hAQP4) because of its 94% sequence similarity to rat brain AQP4...
- Jung J, Bhat R, Preston G, Guggino W, Baraban J, Agre P. Molecular characterization of an aquaporin cDNA from brain: candidate osmoreceptor and regulator of water balance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:13052-6 pubmed
- Crane J, Lam C, Rossi A, Gupta T, Bennett J, Verkman A. Binding affinity and specificity of neuromyelitis optica autoantibodies to aquaporin-4 M1/M23 isoforms and orthogonal arrays. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16516-24 pubmed publisher..Our study establishes a quantitative assay of NMO-IgG binding to AQP4 and indicates remarkable, OAP-dependent heterogeneity in NMO autoantibody binding specificity. ..
- Kim W, Lee J, Li X, Kim S, Han B, Lee B, et al. Quantitative measurement of anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using purified recombinant human aquaporin-4. Mult Scler. 2012;18:578-86 pubmed publisher..Two of the 13 initially seronegative patients converted to seropositive following acute exacerbations. We established an AQP4-Ab ELISA, which could be a potential monitoring tool of disease activity. ..
- Ding T, Ma Y, Li W, Liu X, Ying G, Fu L, et al. Role of aquaporin-4 in the regulation of migration and invasion of human glioma cells. Int J Oncol. 2011;38:1521-31 pubmed publisher..In summary, our results indicate that AQP4 is involved in the control of glioblastoma cell migration and invasion and may be a potential therapeutic target for glioblastoma cell in?ltration. ..
- Xu H, Zhang Y, Wei W, Shen L, Wu W. Differential expression of aquaporin-4 in human gastric normal and cancer tissues. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2009;33:72-6 pubmed publisher..More cases and further research may be necessary to elucidate their exact role in normal or pathologic proliferation and/or differentiation. ..
- Yasui M, Kwon T, Knepper M, Nielsen S, Agre P. Aquaporin-6: An intracellular vesicle water channel protein in renal epithelia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5808-13 pubmed..Moreover, our studies predict that AQP6 participates in distinct physiological functions such as glomerular filtration, tubular endocytosis, and acid-base metabolism. ..
- Kleffner I, Bungeroth M, Schiffbauer H, Schabitz W, Ringelstein E, Kuhlenbäumer G. The role of aquaporin-4 polymorphisms in the development of brain edema after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Stroke. 2008;39:1333-5 pubmed publisher..This explorative study shows that genetic variation in AQP4 might contribute to brain edema formation after middle cerebral artery occlusion and warrants further investigation. ..
- Neely J, Amiry Moghaddam M, Ottersen O, Froehner S, Agre P, Adams M. Syntrophin-dependent expression and localization of Aquaporin-4 water channel protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14108-13 pubmed..These results demonstrate that perivascular localization of AQP4 in brain requires alpha-Syn, and stability of AQP4 in the membrane is increased by the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. ..
- Satoh J, Tabunoki H, Yamamura T, Arima K, Konno H. Human astrocytes express aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-4 in vitro and in vivo. Neuropathology. 2007;27:245-56 pubmed
- Nicchia G, Srinivas M, Li W, Brosnan C, Frigeri A, Spray D. New possible roles for aquaporin-4 in astrocytes: cell cytoskeleton and functional relationship with connexin43. FASEB J. 2005;19:1674-6 pubmed..Finally, the strong down-regulation of Cx43 and cell coupling in AQP4 KD mouse astrocytes indicate that a functional relationship likely exists between water channels and gap junctions in brain astrocytes. ..
- Freedman J, McClane B, Uzal F. New insights into Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin activation and action on the brain during enterotoxemia. Anaerobe. 2016;41:27-31 pubmed publisher..These results show that ETX activation in vivo seems to be more complex than previously thought and this toxin acts on the brain, affecting vascular permeability, but also damaging neurons and other cells. ..
- Tuller F, Holzer H, Schanda K, Aboulenein Djamshidian F, Hoftberger R, Khalil M, et al. Characterization of the binding pattern of human aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. J Neuroinflammation. 2016;13:176 pubmed publisher..Our study demonstrates that AQP4-IgG in sera of NMOSD patients show distinct patterns of antibody recognition. The clinical and diagnostic relevance of these findings have to be addressed in prospective studies. ..
- Takeda T, Asaoka D, Tajima Y, Matsumoto K, Takeda N, Hiromoto T, et al. Hemorrhagic polyps formed like fundic gland polyps during long-term proton pump inhibitor administration. Clin J Gastroenterol. 2017;10:478-484 pubmed publisher..Bleeding from polyps resembling FGPs is generally rare, with indications that long-term PPI administration may induce such bleeding. ..
- Gong G, Yin L, Yuan L, Sui D, Sun Y, Fu H, et al. Ganglioside GM1 protects against high altitude cerebral edema in rats by suppressing the oxidative stress and inflammatory response via the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway. Mol Immunol. 2018;95:91-98 pubmed publisher..Overall, GM1 may afford a protective intervention in HACE by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory response via activating the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway, implying a promising agent for the treatment of HACE. ..
- Zhao Z, Li P, Ye S, Ning Y, Wang H, Peng Y, et al. Perivascular AQP4 dysregulation in the hippocampal CA1 area after traumatic brain injury is alleviated by adenosine A2A receptor inactivation. Sci Rep. 2017;7:2254 pubmed publisher..This may explain why TBI patients are more vulnerable to cognitive dysfunction. ..
- Liang R, Yong S, Huang X, Kong H, Hu G, Fan Y. Aquaporin-4 Mediates the Suppressive Effect of Lipopolysaccharide on Hippocampal Neurogenesis. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2016;23:309-317 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that AQP4 mediates the suppressive effect of neuroinflammation on hippocampal neurogenesis via regulation of the astroglial response. ..
- Puccioni Sohler M, Ornelas A, de Souza A, Cabral Castro M, Ramos J, Rosadas C, et al. First report of persistent dengue-1-associated autoimmune neurological disturbance: neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. J Neurovirol. 2017;23:768-771 pubmed publisher..Magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal cord and brainstem lesions. Antibody for aquaporin 4 was negative...
- Seok J, Cho E, Lee H, Cho H, Min J, Lee K, et al. Clinical characteristics of disabling attacks at onset in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. J Neurol Sci. 2016;368:209-13 pubmed publisher..003). Our study showed characteristics of NMO onset attacks that caused severe disability. However, no clinically modifiable factors predicted disabling attacks, except attack severity. ..
- Nakamura M, Iwasaki Y, Takahashi T, Kaneko K, Nakashima I, Kunieda T, et al. A case of MOG antibody-positive bilateral optic neuritis and meningoganglionitis following a genital herpes simplex virus infection. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2017;17:148-150 pubmed publisher..Clinicians should thus consider testing for MOG antibodies in patients with post-infectious neurological symptoms due to an HSV infection. ..
- Nobuyoshi S, Kanamori A, Matsumoto Y, Nakamura M. Rescue effects of intravenous immunoglobulin on optic nerve degeneration in a rat model of neuromyelitis optica. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2016;60:419-23 pubmed publisher..037). IVIG administration reduced optic nerve degeneration in a rat model of NMO-optic neuritis. IVIG could be used as a treatment in the acute phase of NMO. ..
- Eide P, Eidsvaag V, Nagelhus E, Hansson H. Cortical astrogliosis and increased perivascular aquaporin-4 in idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Brain Res. 2016;1644:161-75 pubmed publisher..e. intracranial compliance, and contributes to the IIH by restricting the outflow of fluid from the cranium. The increased perivascular AQP4 in IIH may represent a compensatory mechanism to enhance brain fluid drainage. ..
- Oklinski M, Choi H, Kwon T. Peripheral nerve injury induces aquaporin-4 expression and astrocytic enlargement in spinal cord. Neuroscience. 2015;311:138-52 pubmed publisher..The findings could provide novel insights on the understanding of pathophysiology of spinal cords after PNI. ..
- Yang J, Li M, Luo Y, Chen T, Liu J, Fang P, et al. Chronic ceftriaxone treatment rescues hippocampal memory deficit in AQP4 knockout mice via activation of GLT-1. Neuropharmacology. 2013;75:213-22 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that AQP4 functions as the modulator of synaptic plasticity and memory, and chronic Cef treatment rescues hippocampal memory deficit induced by AQP4 knockout. ..
- Sass P, Dąbrowski M, Charzynska A, Sachadyn P. Transcriptomic responses to wounding: meta-analysis of gene expression microarray data. BMC Genomics. 2017;18:850 pubmed publisher..Notably, we distinguished transcriptional induction of inflammatory genes not only in the initial response to wounding, but also later, during wound repair and tissue remodelling. ..
- Malaeb S, Izzetoglu M, MCGOWAN J, Delivoria Papadopoulos M. Non-invasive monitoring of brain edema after hypoxia in newborn piglets. Pediatr Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher..The present study tests the ability of a non-invasive cerebral edema monitoring system that uses near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with water as the chromophore of interest to detect brain edema following hypoxia...
- Yuan M, Ge M, Yin J, Dai Z, Xie L, Li Y, et al. Isoflurane post-conditioning down-regulates expression of aquaporin 4 in rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and is possibly related to bone morphogenetic protein 4/Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018;97:429-438 pubmed publisher..05). Isoflurane post-conditioning may inhibit occurrence of brain edema and reduce cerebral I/R injury through down-regulating expression of AQP4, This process may be related to the activation of BMP4/Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway. ..
- Abe Y, Goda W, Ikeshima Kataoka H, Yasui M. The dual effects of the astrocyte-specific enhancer of the AQP4 M1 promoter. FEBS Lett. 2017;591:3906-3915 pubmed publisher..Importantly, the ASE inhibits downstream promoter activity in NIH3T3 cells, indicating that the ASE also functions as a silencer in cells lacking aquaporin-4. ..
- Matsushita T, Isobe N, Matsuoka T, Shi N, Kawano Y, Wu X, et al. Aquaporin-4 autoimmune syndrome and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-negative opticospinal multiple sclerosis in Japanese. Mult Scler. 2009;15:834-47 pubmed publisher..Anti-AQP4 antibody-positive patients are immunologically distinct from anti-AQP4 antibody-negative OSMS patients owing to a Th2 shift in the former group in comparison to a Th1 shift in the latter. ..
- Tradtrantip L, Yao X, Su T, Smith A, Verkman A. Bystander mechanism for complement-initiated early oligodendrocyte injury in neuromyelitis optica. Acta Neuropathol. 2017;134:35-44 pubmed publisher..These results support a novel complement bystander mechanism for early oligodendrocyte injury and demyelination in NMO. ..
- Wang S, Yang T, Wan J, Zhang Y, Fan Y. Elevated C-X-C motif ligand 13 and B-cell-activating factor levels in neuromyelitis optica during remission. Brain Behav. 2017;7:e00648 pubmed publisher..During remission, serum CXCL13 and BAFF levels have not decreased to normal in NMO patients, and B-cell-related autoimmune response persists. Immunosuppressive therapy decreased serum BAFF levels, but did not affect CXCL13 expression. ..
- Salman M, Kitchen P, Woodroofe M, Brown J, Bill R, Conner A, et al. Hypothermia increases aquaporin 4 (AQP4) plasma membrane abundance in human primary cortical astrocytes via a calcium/transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4)- and calmodulin-mediated mechanism. Eur J Neurosci. 2017;46:2542-2547 pubmed publisherHuman aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is the primary water channel protein in brain astrocytes. Hypothermia is known to cause astrocyte swelling in culture, but the precise role of AQP4 in this process is unknown...
- Assentoft M, Kaptan S, Schneider H, Deitmer J, de Groot B, MacAulay N. Aquaporin 4 as a NH3 Channel. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:19184-95 pubmed publisher..b>Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is highly expressed at perivascular glia end-feet in the mammalian brain and may, with this prominent ..
- Pecorelli A, Natrella F, Belmonte G, Miracco C, Cervellati F, Ciccoli L, et al. NADPH oxidase activation and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal/aquaporin-4 adducts as possible new players in oxidative neuronal damage presents in drug-resistant epilepsy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1852:507-19 pubmed publisher..Therefore, we suggest that seizure induces oxidative damage as well as neuronal loss, thereby promoting neuronal hyperexcitability, also affecting water and ion balance by AQP4 modulation, and thus generating a vicious cycle. ..
- Saji E, Arakawa M, Yanagawa K, Toyoshima Y, Yokoseki A, Okamoto K, et al. Cognitive impairment and cortical degeneration in neuromyelitis optica. Ann Neurol. 2013;73:65-76 pubmed publisher..The aim of this study is to elucidate the characteristics and pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration in NMOsd brains...
- Silberstein C, Kierbel A, Amodeo G, Zotta E, Bigi F, Berkowski D, et al. Functional characterization and localization of AQP3 in the human colon. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1999;32:1303-13 pubmed..The presence of AQP3 in villus epithelial cells suggests that AQP3 is implicated in water absorption across human colonic surface cells. ..
- Wang J, Tian Y, Shao Y, Feng H, Qin L, Xu W, et al. Comparison of spontaneous brain activity revealed by regional homogeneity in AQP4-IgG neuromyelitis optica-optic neuritis versus MOG-IgG optic neuritis patients: a resting-state functional MRI study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2017;13:2669-2679 pubmed publisher..However, differences in spontaneous brain activity between myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG ON and aquaporin 4(AQP4)-neuromyelitis optica-optic neuritis (ON) remain unknown...
- Kerty E, Heuser K, Indahl U, Berg P, Nakken S, Lien S, et al. Is the brain water channel aquaporin-4 a pathogenetic factor in idiopathic intracranial hypertension? Results from a combined clinical and genetic study in a Norwegian cohort. Acta Ophthalmol. 2013;91:88-91 pubmed publisher..However, the theory of an etiopathogenic link between IIH and AQP4 is tempting, and discussed in this article. Association studies with large sample size are difficult to perform owing is the rarity of the condition. ..
- Annus Á, Bencsik K, Obál I, Kincses Z, Tiszlavicz L, Hoftberger R, et al. Paraneoplastic neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: A case report and review of the literature. J Clin Neurosci. 2018;48:7-10 pubmed publisher..Anti-AQP-4 was present in both the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of the patient. However, immunhistological staining of the malignant tissue did not show presence of AQP-4 on the surface of tumour cells. ..
- Muroishi T, Sakai K, Yanase D, Ikeda Y, Machiya T, Kato Motozaki Y, et al. Serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder presenting as acute eosinophilic encephalomyelitis. J Clin Neurosci. 2018;48:93-94 pubmed publisher..Although activation of eosinophils is known to be an important factor in the development of NMOSD lesions, prominent eosinophilia in the CSF at the early stage of the disease has never been reported in patients with NMOSD. ..
- Alrashdi S, Deliyanti D, Talia D, Wilkinson Berka J. Endothelin-2 Injures the Blood-Retinal Barrier and Macroglial Müller Cells: Interactions with Angiotensin II, Aldosterone, and NADPH Oxidase. Am J Pathol. 2018;188:805-817 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, Edn2 has detrimental effects on the BRB and Müller cells that involve interactions with the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system and Nox1/4. ..
- Hayakawa S, Mori M, Okuta A, Kamegawa A, Fujiyoshi Y, Yoshiyama Y, et al. Neuromyelitis optica and anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Neuroimmunol. 2008;196:181-7 pubmed publisher..3% of 46 patients with multiple sclerosis, none of 51 normal controls, and 2.6% of 115 patients with other neurological diseases. The ELISA system can be substituted for the conventional NMO-IgG assay. ..