apolipoprotein D


Gene Symbol: apolipoprotein D
Description: apolipoprotein D
Alias: apolipoprotein D, apo-D
Species: human
Products:     apolipoprotein D

Top Publications

  1. Peitsch M, Boguski M. Is apolipoprotein D a mammalian bilin-binding protein?. New Biol. 1990;2:197-206 pubmed
    Human apolipoprotein D (APO-D) is a serum glycoprotein that has no sequence similarity with other apolipoproteins but rather belongs to the alpha 2-microglobulin superfamily whose other members transport small hydrophobic ligands in a ..
  2. Fielding P, Fielding C. A cholesteryl ester transfer complex in human plasma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980;77:3327-30 pubmed
    ..3.1.43) (LCAT) and transfer protein (apo D)...
  3. Del Valle E, Navarro A, Astudillo A, Tolivia J. Apolipoprotein D expression in human brain reactive astrocytes. J Histochem Cytochem. 2003;51:1285-90 pubmed
    ..One of these biomolecules is apolipoprotein D (apo D), a member of the lipocalin family implicated in the transport of small hydrophobic molecules...
  4. Sanchez D, Ganfornina M, Martinez S. Expression pattern of the lipocalin apolipoprotein D during mouse embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 2002;110:225-9 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a secreted protein that belongs to the lipocalin family. We describe the expression pattern of ApoD during mouse embryogenesis by in situ hybridization using RNA probes...
  5. Ganfornina M, Do Carmo S, Lora J, Torres Schumann S, Vogel M, Allhorn M, et al. Apolipoprotein D is involved in the mechanisms regulating protection from oxidative stress. Aging Cell. 2008;7:506-15 pubmed publisher
    Many nervous system pathologies are associated with increased levels of apolipoprotein D (ApoD), a lipocalin also expressed during normal development and aging...
  6. Ordonez C, Navarro A, Perez C, Astudillo A, Martinez E, Tolivia J. Apolipoprotein D expression in substantia nigra of Parkinson disease. Histol Histopathol. 2006;21:361-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (apo D), a lipocalin transporter of small hydrophobic molecules could play an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases. However, its role in those diseases remains unclear...
  7. Muffat J, Walker D, Benzer S. Human ApoD, an apolipoprotein up-regulated in neurodegenerative diseases, extends lifespan and increases stress resistance in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7088-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) expression increases in several neurological disorders and in spinal cord injury...
  8. Helisalmi S, Hiltunen M, Vepsäläinen S, Iivonen S, Corder E, Lehtovirta M, et al. Genetic variation in apolipoprotein D and Alzheimer's disease. J Neurol. 2004;251:951-7 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is a lipoprotein-associated glycoprotein, structurally unrelated to apoE, that transports small hydrophobic ligands including cholesterol and sterols...
  9. Chen Y, Jia L, Wei C, Wang F, Lv H, Jia J. Association between polymorphisms in the apolipoprotein D gene and sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res. 2008;1233:196-202 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is a lipoprotein-associated glycoprotein that is increased in the hippocampus and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which implies that apoD might be involved in the pathogenesis of AD...

More Information


  1. Do Carmo S, Jacomy H, Talbot P, Rassart E. Neuroprotective effect of apolipoprotein D against human coronavirus OC43-induced encephalitis in mice. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10330-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is a lipocalin upregulated in the nervous system after injury or pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis...
  2. Sarjeant J, Lawrie A, Kinnear C, Yablonsky S, Leung W, Massaeli H, et al. Apolipoprotein D inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferated by preventing translocation of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 to the nucleus. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:2172-7 pubmed
    Elevated apolipoprotein D (apoD) levels are associated with reduced proliferation of cancer cells...
  3. Thomas E, Laws S, Sutcliffe J, Harper C, Dean B, McClean C, et al. Apolipoprotein D levels are elevated in prefrontal cortex of subjects with Alzheimer's disease: no relation to apolipoprotein E expression or genotype. Biol Psychiatry. 2003;54:136-41 pubmed
    ..b>Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is elevated in association with several central nervous system disorders, including Alzheimer's ..
  4. Kang M, Kameta A, Shin K, Baluda M, Kim H, Park N. Senescence-associated genes in normal human oral keratinocytes. Exp Cell Res. 2003;287:272-81 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the onset of senescence in NHOK is associated with altered expression of the SA genes, which represent discrete gene groups, independently of the donor variation or culture conditions. ..
  5. Desai P, Hendrie H, Evans R, Murrell J, DeKosky S, Kamboh M. Genetic variation in apolipoprotein D affects the risk of Alzheimer disease in African-Americans. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2003;116B:98-101 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein D (APOD, gene; apoD, protein) is involved in neuroregenerative and neurodegenerative processes, and is upregulated in late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) patients compared to nondemented controls...
  6. Do Carmo S, Fournier D, Mounier C, Rassart E. Human apolipoprotein D overexpression in transgenic mice induces insulin resistance and alters lipid metabolism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E802-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (apoD), a widely expressed lipocalin, has the capacity to transport small hydrophobic molecules...
  7. Desai P, Bunker C, Ukoli F, Kamboh M. Genetic variation in the apolipoprotein D gene among African blacks and its significance in lipid metabolism. Atherosclerosis. 2002;163:329-38 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein D (APOD, gene; apoD, protein) is a plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated glycoprotein, with a putative role in the cholesterol (CHOL) transport pathway...
  8. Rassart E, Bedirian A, Do Carmo S, Guinard O, Sirois J, Terrisse L, et al. Apolipoprotein D. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1482:185-98 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is a 29-kDa glycoprotein that is primarily associated with high density lipoproteins in human plasma...
  9. Muffat J, Walker D. Apolipoprotein D: an overview of its role in aging and age-related diseases. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:269-73 pubmed
  10. Drayna D, Fielding C, McLean J, Baer B, Castro G, Chen E, et al. Cloning and expression of human apolipoprotein D cDNA. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:16535-9 pubmed
    The amino acid sequence of human apolipoprotein D, a component of high density lipoprotein, has been obtained from the cloned cDNA sequence...
  11. Balbin M, Freije J, Fueyo A, Sanchez L, Lopez Otin C. Apolipoprotein D is the major protein component in cyst fluid from women with human breast gross cystic disease. Biochem J. 1990;271:803-7 pubmed
    ..from protein GCDFP-24 matched perfectly with regions present in the amino acid sequence determined for human apolipoprotein D. Additional data on N-terminal sequence of the unblocked proteins, carbohydrate-attachment sites, amino acid ..
  12. Kim W, Wong J, Weickert C, Webster M, Bahn S, Garner B. Apolipoprotein-D expression is increased during development and maturation of the human prefrontal cortex. J Neurochem. 2009;109:1053-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is a lipid binding protein expressed in the brain where its function is largely unknown...
  13. Bajo Grañeras R, Crespo Sanjuán J, García Centeno R, Garrote Adrados J, Gutierrez G, García Tejeiro M, et al. Expression and potential role of apolipoprotein D on the death-survival balance of human colorectal cancer cells under oxidative stress conditions. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2013;28:751-66 pubmed publisher
    Inverse correlations of apolipoprotein D (ApoD) expression with tumor growth have been shown, therefore proposing ApoD as a good prognostic marker for diverse cancer types, including colorectal cancer (CRC)...
  14. Schindler P, Settineri C, Collet X, Fielding C, Burlingame A. Site-specific detection and structural characterization of the glycosylation of human plasma proteins lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and apolipoprotein D using HPLC/electrospray mass spectrometry and sequential glycosidase digestion. Protein Sci. 1995;4:791-803 pubmed
    ..The three additional glycopeptides were determined to be from a copurifying protein, apolipoprotein D, which contains potential N-linked glycosylation sites at Asn45 and Asn78...
  15. Ali K, Abo Ali E, Kabir M, Riggins B, Nguy S, Li L, et al. A Western-fed diet increases plasma HDL and LDL-cholesterol levels in apoD-/- mice. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e115744 pubmed publisher
  16. Li H, Ruberu K, Muñoz S, Jenner A, Spiro A, Zhao H, et al. Apolipoprotein D modulates amyloid pathology in APP/PS1 Alzheimer's disease mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2015;36:1820-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is expressed in the brain and levels are increased in affected brain regions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The role that apoD may play in regulating AD pathology has not been addressed...
  17. Drayna D, Scott J, Lawn R. Multiple RFLPs at the human apolipoprotein D (APOD) locus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987;15:9617 pubmed
  18. Desmarais F, Bergeron K, Lacaille M, Lemieux I, Bergeron J, Biron S, et al. High ApoD protein level in the round ligament fat depot of severely obese women is associated with an improved inflammatory profile. Endocrine. 2018;61:248-257 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a lipocalin participating in lipid transport. It binds to a variety of ligands, with a higher affinity for arachidonic acid, and is thought to have a diverse array of functions...
  19. Przybycien Szymanska M, Yang Y, Ashley W. Microparticle derived proteins as potential biomarkers for cerebral vasospasm post subarachnoid hemorrhage. A preliminary study. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2016;141:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results will deepen our understanding of the mechanisms of cerebral vasospasm and potentially facilitate the development of safer and more effective therapies therapies for cerebral vasospasm. ..
  20. Zhang W, Wu Y, Dong H, Yin J, Zhang H, Wu H, et al. Sparks fly between ascorbic acid and iron-based nanozymes: A study on Prussian blue nanoparticles. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2018;163:379-384 pubmed publisher
    ..This newly revealed correlation between iron and AA could provide new insight for the studies of nanozymes and free radical biology. ..
  21. Gao G, Song L, Tong B, Li G. Expression levels of GSTA2 and APOD genes might be associated with carotenoid coloration in golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) plumage. Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2016;37:144-50 pubmed
    ..Further comparison of golden pheasant yellow rump and Lady Amherst's pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae) white nape feathers suggested that GSTA2 and APOD played a potential role in carotenoid-based coloration in golden pheasant. ..
  22. von Wyschetzki K, Rueppell O, Oettler J, Heinze J. Transcriptomic Signatures Mirror the Lack of the Fecundity/Longevity Trade-Off in Ant Queens. Mol Biol Evol. 2015;32:3173-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides clear evidence that the alternative regulation of conserved molecular pathways that mediate the interplay among mating, egg laying, and aging underlies the lack of the fecundity/longevity trade-off in ant queens. ..
  23. Allina D, Andreeva Y, Zavalishina L, Moskvina L, Frank G. [Estimation of the diagnostic potential of APOD, PTOV1, and EPHA4 for prostatic neoplasms]. Arkh Patol. 2016;78:9-14 pubmed publisher
    ..ptov1 ? ?????????????? ?????????? ????? ?????????????? ??????, ???? ? ???? ??????? ??????????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???????. ..
  24. Levros L, Labrie M, Charfi C, Rassart E. Binding and repressive activities of apolipoprotein E3 and E4 isoforms on the human ApoD promoter. Mol Neurobiol. 2013;48:669-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) gene expression is increased in several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis...
  25. di Masi A, Trezza V, Leboffe L, Ascenzi P. Human plasma lipocalins and serum albumin: Plasma alternative carriers?. J Control Release. 2016;228:191-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the different lipocalins identified in humans, α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), apolipoprotein D (apoD), apolipoprotein M (apoM), α1-microglobulin (α1-m) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) are plasma ..
  26. Brahimaj A, Ligthart S, Ikram M, Hofman A, Franco O, Sijbrands E, et al. Serum Levels of Apolipoproteins and Incident Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study. Diabetes Care. 2017;40:346-351 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum apoCIII levels as well as apoCIII-to-apoA1 ratio are associated with incident T2D. They are associated independent of known risk factors and stronger than HDL-C levels. ..
  27. Zhu Z, Zhang H, Luo G, Xu N, Pan Z. Association between the ABCC11 gene polymorphism and the expression of apolipoprotein D by the apocrine glands in axillary osmidrosis. Mol Med Rep. 2015;11:4463-7 pubmed publisher
    ..triphosphate‑binding cassette sub‑family C member 11 (ABCC11) gene polymorphism and apolipoprotein D (ApoD), an odor precursor carrier, may be important in the formation of axillary odor...
  28. Tan W, Cima I, Choudhury Y, Wei X, Lim J, Thike A, et al. A five-gene reverse transcription-PCR assay for pre-operative classification of breast fibroepithelial lesions. Breast Cancer Res. 2016;18:31 pubmed publisher
    ..7 %. We provide a robust assay for classifying breast fibroepithelial lesions into fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumors, which could be a valuable tool in assisting pathologists in differential diagnosis of breast fibroepithelial lesions. ..
  29. Carnes M, Allingham R, Ashley Koch A, Hauser M. Transcriptome analysis of adult and fetal trabecular meshwork, cornea, and ciliary body tissues by RNA sequencing. Exp Eye Res. 2018;167:91-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These data can be used in the future to better guide ocular research questions. ..
  30. Li H, Ruberu K, Karl T, Garner B. Cerebral Apolipoprotein-D Is Hypoglycosylated Compared to Peripheral Tissues and Is Variably Expressed in Mouse and Human Brain Regions. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0148238 pubmed publisher
  31. Najyb O, Do Carmo S, Alikashani A, Rassart E. Apolipoprotein D Overexpression Protects Against Kainate-Induced Neurotoxicity in Mice. Mol Neurobiol. 2017;54:3948-3963 pubmed publisher
    ..Numerous studies link apolipoprotein D (apoD), a secreted glycoprotein highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), to maintain and protect ..
  32. Pascua Maestro R, Diez Hermano S, Lillo C, Ganfornina M, Sanchez D. Protecting cells by protecting their vulnerable lysosomes: Identification of a new mechanism for preserving lysosomal functional integrity upon oxidative stress. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006603 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the catalog of oxidative stress-responsive genes is the Lipocalin Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), an extracellular lipid binding protein endowed with antioxidant capacity...
  33. Skulas Ray A, Alaupovic P, Kris Etherton P, West S. Dose-response effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids on apolipoproteins, apolipoprotein-defined lipoprotein subclasses, and Lp-PLA2 in individuals with moderate hypertriglyceridemia. J Clin Lipidol. 2015;9:360-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05). There was a trend for a decreased Lp-PLA2 mass with the high dose (P = .1). The effects of 3.4 g/d EPA + DHA on apoB and apoC-III may reduce atherosclerotic plaque progression in individuals with elevated triglycerides. ..
  34. Namdar Aligoodarzi P, Mohammadparast S, Zaker Kandjani B, Talebi Kakroodi S, Jafari Vesiehsari M, Ohadi M. Exceptionally long 5' UTR short tandem repeats specifically linked to primates. Gene. 2015;569:88-94 pubmed publisher
    ..g. FILIP1L). A number of the identified STRs of ≥5-repeats may be human-specific (e.g. ZMYM3 and DAZAP1). Future work is warranted to examine the importance of the listed genes in primate/human evolution, development, and disease. ..
  35. Wei Y, Huang Y, Zhang X, Li J, Huang J, Zhang H, et al. Apolipoprotein D as a novel marker in human end-stage heart failure: a preliminary study. Biomarkers. 2008;13:535-48 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein D (Apo D) is reported to be in close association with developing and mature blood vessels, and involved in enhanced smooth muscle cell migration after injury...
  36. Pamir N, Hutchins P, Ronsein G, Vaisar T, Reardon C, Getz G, et al. Proteomic analysis of HDL from inbred mouse strains implicates APOE associated with HDL in reduced cholesterol efflux capacity via the ABCA1 pathway. J Lipid Res. 2016;57:246-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may be clinically relevant because HDL's APOE content associates with CVD risk and ABCA1 deficiency promotes unregulated cholesterol accumulation in human macrophages. ..
  37. Mahadik S, Khan M, Evans D, Parikh V. Elevated plasma level of apolipoprotein D in schizophrenia and its treatment and outcome. Schizophr Res. 2002;58:55-62 pubmed
    Recently, apolipoprotein D (apoD), a protein that is involved in the essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (EPUFA) transport and metabolism, and neuronal growth and regeneration was reported to have increased in the postmortem brain and ..
  38. Chen H, Li Y, Du J, Cao Y, Li X. Increased JNK1 activity contributes to the upregulation of ApoD in the apocrine secretory gland cells from axillary osmidrosis. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;354:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study here revealed that increased JNK1 activation in the apocrine cells from axillary osmidrosis contributes to the increased ApoD expression, which in turn involved in the process of axillary osmidrosis. ..
  39. Pleva L, Kusnierova P, Plevova P, Zapletalova J, Karpisek M, Faldynova L, et al. Increased levels of MMP-3, MMP-9 and MPO represent predictors of in-stent restenosis, while increased levels of ADMA, LCAT, ApoE and ApoD predict bare metal stent patency. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2015;159:586-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased levels of MMP-3, MMP-9, and MPO represent predictors of ISR after bare-metal stent implantation. In contrast, increased ADMA, LCAT, and Apo E and D indicate a decreased in-stent restenosis occurrence. ..
  40. Hansen T, Hemmingsen R, Wang A, Olsen L, Timm S, Søeby K, et al. Apolipoprotein D is associated with long-term outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Pharmacogenomics J. 2006;6:120-5 pubmed
    Accumulating evidence implicates deficiencies in apolipoprotein D (ApoD) function and arachidonic acid signaling in schizophrenic disorders...
  41. Germeyer A, Capp E, Schlicksupp F, Jauckus J, von Rango U, von Wolff M, et al. Cell-type specific expression and regulation of apolipoprotein D and E in human endometrium. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013;170:487-91 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the expression and regulation of antilipoprotein D (ApoD) and antilipoprotein E (ApoE) in human endometrium...
  42. Shibata N, Nagata T, Shinagawa S, Ohnuma T, Shimazaki H, Komatsu M, et al. Genetic association between APOA1 and APOD polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease in a Japanese population. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2013;120:1599-603 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Apolipoprotein D (APOD) expression is upregulating in AD brain and evidences showed APOD polymorphisms affect the risk for AD...
  43. Braesch Andersen S, Beckman L, Paulie S, Kumagai Braesch M. ApoD mediates binding of HDL to LDL and to growing T24 carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e115180 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current paper, we conclude that apoD mediates binding of HDL to LDL and to growing T24 carcinomas, thereby highlighting the importance of apoD in lipid metabolism. ..
  44. Labrie M, Lalonde S, Najyb O, Thiery M, Daneault C, Des Rosiers C, et al. Apolipoprotein D Transgenic Mice Develop Hepatic Steatosis through Activation of PPARγ and Fatty Acid Uptake. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0130230 pubmed publisher
    Transgenic mice (Tg) overexpressing human apolipoprotein D (H-apoD) in the brain are resistant to neurodegeneration...
  45. Zhang X, Li D, Duan S, Duan Y, Chen Q, Li X, et al. Analysis of the association between Apolipoprotein D and schizophrenia. Neuropsychobiology. 2006;54:40-4 pubmed
    ..Evidence to date suggests that apolipoprotein D protein may be closely related to schizophrenia...
  46. Starodubtseva N, Kononikhin A, Bugrova A, Chagovets V, Indeykina M, Krokhina K, et al. Investigation of urine proteome of preterm newborns with respiratory pathologies. J Proteomics. 2016;149:31-37 pubmed publisher
  47. Najyb O, Brissette L, Rassart E. Apolipoprotein D Internalization Is a Basigin-dependent Mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:16077-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (apoD), a member of the lipocalin family, is a 29-kDa secreted glycoprotein that binds and transports small lipophilic molecules...
  48. Kosarussavadi S, Pennington Z, Covell J, Blaisdell A, Schlinger B. Across sex and age: Learning and memory and patterns of avian hippocampal gene expression. Behav Neurosci. 2017;131:483-491 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied spatial cognition and hippocampal expression of the age-related gene, Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), and the immediate early gene Egr-1 in zebra finches at various developmental time ..
  49. Pajaniappan M, Glober N, Kennard S, Liu H, Zhao N, Lilly B. Endothelial cells downregulate apolipoprotein D expression in mural cells through paracrine secretion and Notch signaling. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H784-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In studying genes regulated by this interaction, we identified apolipoprotein D (APOD) as one gene that is downregulated in mural cells by coculture with endothelial cells...
  50. Do Carmo S, Forest J, Giguère Y, Masse A, Lafond J, Rassart E. Modulation of Apolipoprotein D levels in human pregnancy and association with gestational weight gain. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2009;7:92 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a lipocalin involved in several processes including lipid transport, but its modulation during human pregnancy was never examined...
  51. Lim W, Bae H, Song G. Differential expression of apolipoprotein D in male reproductive system of rats by high-fat diet. Andrology. 2016;4:1115-1122 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D, a 29-kDa secreted glycoprotein that belongs to the lipocalin superfamily, is widely expressed in various tissues and associated with lipid metabolism as a component of high-density lipoproteins...
  52. Holzfeind P, Merschak P, Dieplinger H, Redl B. The human lacrimal gland synthesizes apolipoprotein D mRNA in addition to tear prealbumin mRNA, both species encoding members of the lipocalin superfamily. Exp Eye Res. 1995;61:495-500 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein D (apoD), a glycoprotein originally characterized as a component of the high density lipoprotein fraction of human plasma and known to be a member of the lipocalin protein superfamily, has been found in human tear fluid by ..
  53. Yang Y, Fu Q, Zhou T, Li Y, Liu S, Zeng Q, et al. Analysis of apolipoprotein genes and their involvement in disease response of channel catfish after bacterial infection. Dev Comp Immunol. 2017;67:464-470 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggested that apolipoprotein genes may play significant roles in innate immune responses to bacterial pathogens in channel catfish. ..
  54. Zeng C, Spielman A, Vowels B, Leyden J, Biemann K, Preti G. A human axillary odorant is carried by apolipoprotein D. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:6626-30 pubmed
    ..The ASOB2 protein was identified as apolipoprotein D (apoD), a known member of the alpha2mu-microglobulin superfamily of carrier proteins also known as lipocalins...
  55. Levros L, Do Carmo S, Edouard E, Legault P, Charfi C, Rassart E. Characterization of nuclear factors modulating the apolipoprotein D promoter during growth arrest: implication of PARP-1, APEX-1 and ERK1/2 catalytic activities. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:1062-71 pubmed publisher
    Human Apolipoprotein D (apoD) is upregulated under several stress conditions and pathological situations such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancers...
  56. Preti G, Leyden J. Genetic influences on human body odor: from genes to the axillae. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:344-6 pubmed publisher
    ..ABCC11 is expressed and localized in apocrine sweat glands. These findings are remarkably similar to the ethnic distribution and expression patterns for apocrine apoD, a previously identified carrier of a characteristic axillary odorant...
  57. Klebaner D, Hamilton Dutoit S, Ahern T, Crawford A, Jakobsen T, Cronin Fenton D, et al. Apolipoprotein D expression does not predict breast cancer recurrence among tamoxifen-treated patients. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0171453 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) has been proposed as a predictor of breast cancer recurrence among estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), tamoxifen-treated patients...
  58. Cheung M, Wolf A, Lum K, Tollefson J, Albers J. Distribution and localization of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesteryl ester transfer activity in A-I-containing lipoproteins. J Lipid Res. 1986;27:1135-44 pubmed
    ..Our conclusions pertain to fasting normolipidemic subjects and may not be applicable to hyperlipidemic or nonfasting subjects. ..
  59. Armanmehr S, Kalhor H, Tabarraei A. Production of a soluble and functional recombinant apolipoproteinD in the Pichia pastoris expression system. Protein Expr Purif. 2016;121:157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a viable solution to the production of recombinant ApoD protein in lieu of previous obstacles in generating soluble and functional ApoD protein. ..
  60. Jansen P, Lutjohann D, Thelen K, von Bergmann K, Van Leuven F, Ramaekers F, et al. Absence of ApoE upregulates murine brain ApoD and ABCA1 levels, but does not affect brain sterol levels, while human ApoE3 and human ApoE4 upregulate brain cholesterol precursor levels. J Alzheimers Dis. 2009;18:319-29 pubmed publisher
    ..This increase is independent of the apoE-isoform, suggesting that the detrimental effect of apoE4 on the pathogenesis of AD is unlikely to be due to an apoE-isoform effect on brain cholesterol homeostasis...
  61. Zhang P, Gao J, Pu C, Zhang Y. Apolipoprotein status in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications (Review). Mol Med Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
  62. Appari M, Werner R, Wünsch L, Cario G, Demeter J, Hiort O, et al. Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a putative biomarker of androgen receptor function in androgen insensitivity syndrome. J Mol Med (Berl). 2009;87:623-32 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Apolipoprotein D (APOD) and two further transcripts were significantly upregulated by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in scrotum ..
  63. García Mateo N, Pascua Maestro R, Pérez Castellanos A, Lillo C, Sanchez D, Ganfornina M. Myelin extracellular leaflet compaction requires apolipoprotein D membrane management to optimize lysosomal-dependent recycling and glycocalyx removal. Glia. 2018;66:670-687 pubmed publisher
    ..What is required to initiate this membrane-zipping process? Knocking-out the Lipocalin Apolipoprotein D (ApoD), essential for lysosomal functional integrity in glial cells, results in a specific defect in myelin ..
  64. Søiland H, Janssen E, Kørner H, Varhaug J, Skaland I, Gudlaugsson E, et al. Apolipoprotein D predicts adverse outcome in women >or=70 years with operable breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;113:519-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is a lipocalin involved in various cellular processes, including cytoprotection...
  65. Del Valle E, Navarro A, Martínez Pinilla E, Torices S, Tolivia J. Apo J and Apo D: Complementary or Antagonistic Roles in Alzheimer's Disease?. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016;53:639-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (Apo D) and Apolipoprotein J (Apo J) are among the only nine apolipoproteins synthesized in the nervous system...
  66. Martínez Pinilla E, Navarro A, Ordóñez C, Del Valle E, Tolivia J. Apolipoprotein D subcellular distribution pattern in neuronal cells during oxidative stress. Acta Histochem. 2015;117:536-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (Apo D) is a secreted glycoprotein, member of the lipocalin superfamily, with a related beneficial role in metabolism and lipid transport due to the presence of a binding pocket that allows its interaction with several ..
  67. Navarro A, Mendez E, Díaz C, Del Valle E, Martínez Pinilla E, Ordóñez C, et al. Lifelong expression of apolipoprotein D in the human brainstem: correlation with reduced age-related neurodegeneration. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77852 pubmed publisher
    The lipocalin apolipoprotein D (Apo D) is upregulated in peripheral nerves following injury and in regions of the central nervous system, such as the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, during aging and progression of certain ..
  68. Ruiz M, Sanchez D, Correnti C, Strong R, Ganfornina M. Lipid-binding properties of human ApoD and Lazarillo-related lipocalins: functional implications for cell differentiation. FEBS J. 2013;280:3928-43 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) and its insect homologues, Lazarillo (Laz) and neural Lazarillo (NLaz), share common ancestral ..
  69. Leung W, Lawrie A, Demaries S, Massaeli H, Burry A, Yablonsky S, et al. Apolipoprotein D and platelet-derived growth factor-BB synergism mediates vascular smooth muscle cell migration. Circ Res. 2004;95:179-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that apoD can be expressed or taken up by SMCs and can regulate their motility in response to growth factors...
  70. Lisovsky M, Hoang M, Dresser K, Kapur P, Bhawan J, Mahalingam M. Apolipoprotein D in CD34-positive and CD34-negative cutaneous neoplasms: a useful marker in differentiating superficial acral fibromyxoma from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:31-8 pubmed
    ..Using this technique, Apolipoprotein D (Apo D), a 33-kDa glycoprotein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been found to be highly expressed ..
  71. Yang C, Gu Z, Blanco Vaca F, Gaskell S, Yang M, Massey J, et al. Structure of human apolipoprotein D: locations of the intermolecular and intramolecular disulfide links. Biochemistry. 1994;33:12451-5 pubmed
    We have determined the primary structure of human apolipoprotein D (apoD) by aligning peptides derived from digestions by cyanogen bromide, trypsin, and chymotrypsin...
  72. Lövkvist H, Jönsson A, Luthman H, Jood K, Jern C, Wieloch T, et al. Variations in apolipoprotein D and sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1 genes with relation to risk, severity and outcome of ischemic stroke. BMC Neurol. 2014;14:191 pubmed publisher
    In experimental studies, the apolipoprotein D (APOD) and the sigma receptor type 1 (SIGMAR1) have been related to processes of brain damage, repair and plasticity...
  73. Ordóñez C, Navarro A, Perez C, Martinez E, Del Valle E, Tolivia J. Gender differences in apolipoprotein D expression during aging and in Alzheimer disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:433.e11-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein D (Apo D) is a lipocalin expressed in a wide variety of mammalian tissues...
  74. Marques Vidal P, Bochud M, Paccaud F, Waterworth D, Bergmann S, Preisig M, et al. No interaction between alcohol consumption and HDL-related genes on HDL cholesterol levels. Atherosclerosis. 2010;211:551-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the relationships and possible interactions between polymorphisms related to HDL levels and alcohol consumption...
  75. Patel R, Lange D, McConathy W, Patel Y, Patel S. Probing the structure of the ligand binding cavity of lipocalins by fluorescence spectroscopy. Protein Eng. 1997;10:621-5 pubmed
    ..odorants (odorant binding proteins), chromophores (insecticyanin, INS), pheromones (aphrodisin) and sterols (apolipoprotein D, apoD)...
  76. Lai C, Cheng H, Lin C, Huang S, Chen T, Chung C, et al. Activation of liver X receptor suppresses angiogenesis via induction of ApoD. FASEB J. 2017;31:5568-5576 pubmed publisher
    ..T0901317 stimulated gene and protein expression of LXR target gene apolipoprotein D (ApoD). Overexpression of ApoD suppressed the tube formation of HUVECs...
  77. Zhou Y, Wang L, Li R, Liu M, Li X, Su H, et al. Secreted glycoprotein BmApoD1 plays a critical role in anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis in Bombyx mori. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:839-845 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies highlighted that apolipoprotein D (ApoD) and its homologs exert neuroprotective and antioxidant functions in mammals and Drosophila. Unlike mammals and Drosophila, lepidopteran insects possess three distinct ApoD homologs...
  78. Liu Z, Chang G, Leibowitz S. Apolipoprotein D interacts with the long-form leptin receptor: a hypothalamic function in the control of energy homeostasis. FASEB J. 2001;15:1329-31 pubmed
  79. Glockner F, Ohm T. Hippocampal apolipoprotein D level depends on Braak stage and APOE genotype. Neuroscience. 2003;122:103-10 pubmed
    ..This increase, however, was restricted to the APOE epsilon3/3 group, whereas the APOE epsilon4 group did not show significant variations in hippocampal apoD. ..
  80. Drayna D, McLean J, Wion K, Trent J, Drabkin H, Lawn R. Human apolipoprotein D gene: gene sequence, chromosome localization, and homology to the alpha 2u-globulin superfamily. DNA. 1987;6:199-204 pubmed
    The exons and bordering intron nucleotides of the human apolipoprotein D (apo D) gene have been sequenced. The protein-coding portion of the gene is divided into five exons which span approximately 12,000 bp...