apolipoprotein B


Gene Symbol: apolipoprotein B
Description: apolipoprotein B
Alias: FLDB, LDLCQ4, apoB-100, apoB-48, apolipoprotein B-100, apolipoprotein B (including Ag(x) antigen), apolipoprotein B48
Species: human
Products:     apolipoprotein B

Top Publications

  1. Szabo de Edelenyi F, Goumidi L, Bertrais S, Phillips C, Macmanus R, Roche H, et al. Prediction of the metabolic syndrome status based on dietary and genetic parameters, using Random Forest. Genes Nutr. 2008;3:173-6 pubmed publisher
    ..3(n-6) and C18.2. Three SNPs were selected by Random Forest (APOB rs512535, LTA rs915654 and ACACB rs4766587). These SNPs were also significantly associated to the MS by a univariate Fisher test. ..
  2. Alonso R, Defesche J, Tejedor D, Castillo S, Stef M, Mata N, et al. Genetic diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia using a DNA-array based platform. Clin Biochem. 2009;42:899-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Lipochip provides a reliable, fast and cheap alternative for the genetic testing of patients with clinically diagnosed FH. ..
  3. Padmaja N, Kumar M, Adithan C. Association of polymorphisms in apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B genes with lipid profile in Tamilian population. Indian Heart J. 2009;61:51-4 pubmed
    ..For the first time genotype distribution of ApoAI and ApoB polymorphisms and their effect on lipid profile was established in Tamilians. Only -75G/A polymorphism of ApoAI was significantly associated with HDL7ndash;C levels. ..
  4. Chasman D, Pare G, Zee R, Parker A, Cook N, Buring J, et al. Genetic loci associated with plasma concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, and Apolipoprotein B among 6382 white women in genome-wide analysis with replication. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2008;1:21-30 pubmed publisher
    ..6% for ApoB. Genome-wide associations at the GCKR gene and near the SORT1 gene, as well as confirmatory associations at 5 additional novel loci, suggest emerging biological pathways for lipid metabolism among white women. ..
  5. Fisher E, Lapierre L, Junkins R, McLeod R. The AAA-ATPase p97 facilitates degradation of apolipoprotein B by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:2149-60 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) is an ERAD substrate in liver cells, including the human hepatoma, HepG2...
  6. Humphries S, Cranston T, Allen M, Middleton Price H, Fernandez M, Senior V, et al. Mutational analysis in UK patients with a clinical diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolaemia: relationship with plasma lipid traits, heart disease risk and utility in relative tracing. J Mol Med (Berl). 2006;84:203-14 pubmed
    ..9%) of the patients had the R3500Q mutation in the apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene...
  7. Duman B, Turkoglu C, Akpinar B, Guden M, Vertii A, Cagatay P, et al. Genetic variations of the apolipoprotein B gene in Turkish patients with coronary artery disease. Ann Hum Biol. 2005;32:620-9 pubmed
    The results of studies that clarify the association of genetic markers at the apolipoprotein B (apo B) gene (EcoRI and XbaI polymorphisms) with coronary artery disease (CAD) are not consistent and suggest that the effect is context ..
  8. Domitrovich A, Felmlee D, Siddiqui A. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural proteins inhibit apolipoprotein B100 secretion. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39802-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further evidence is presented for the interaction between the HCV nonstructural protein 5A and apoB100. These results provide further insight into the alteration of lipid metabolism by HCV...
  9. Khoo B, Roca X, Chew S, Krainer A. Antisense oligonucleotide-induced alternative splicing of the APOB mRNA generates a novel isoform of APOB. BMC Mol Biol. 2007;8:3 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein B (APOB) is an integral part of the LDL, VLDL, IDL, Lp(a) and chylomicron lipoprotein particles. The APOB pre-mRNA consists of 29 constitutively-spliced exons...

More Information


  1. Rutledge A, Qiu W, Zhang R, Kohen Avramoglu R, Nemat Gorgani N, Adeli K. Mechanisms targeting apolipoprotein B100 to proteasomal degradation: evidence that degradation is initiated by BiP binding at the N terminus and the formation of a p97 complex at the C terminus. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2009;29:579-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteasomal degradation appears to selectively target apoB molecules with large C-terminal domains. ..
  2. Al Bustan S, Alkhalaf M, Al Rashdan I, Al Otaibi S, Al Baker E, Balding D, et al. Apolipoprotein E, CI and B gene polymorphisms in a sample of patients with coronary heart disease in the Kuwaiti population. Med Princ Pract. 2009;18:294-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results in this study encourages future research into these and other polymorphisms and their potential association with MI and CHD in the Kuwaiti population. ..
  3. Baez S, Tsuchiya Y, Calvo A, Pruyas M, Nakamura K, Kiyohara C, et al. Genetic variants involved in gallstone formation and capsaicin metabolism, and the risk of gallbladder cancer in Chilean women. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:372-8 pubmed
    ..To determine the effects of genetic variants associated with gallstone formation and capsaicin (a pungent component of chili pepper) metabolism on the risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC)...
  4. Ma L, Yang J, Runesha H, Tanaka T, Ferrucci L, Bandinelli S, et al. Genome-wide association analysis of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels using the Framingham heart study data. BMC Med Genet. 2010;11:55 pubmed publisher
  5. Sánchez Cuén J, Aguilar Medina M, Arámbula Meraz E, Romero Navarro J, Granados J, Sicairos Medina L, et al. ApoB-100, ApoE and CYP7A1 gene polymorphisms in Mexican patients with cholesterol gallstone disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:4685-90 pubmed
    ..05). These results demonstrated that no association exists between the studied polymorphisms and cholelithiasis in this high prevalent population. ..
  6. Phillips C, Goumidi L, Bertrais S, Field M, McManus R, Hercberg S, et al. Gene-nutrient interactions and gender may modulate the association between ApoA1 and ApoB gene polymorphisms and metabolic syndrome risk. Atherosclerosis. 2011;214:408-14 pubmed publisher
    ..ApoB rs512535 and ApoA1 rs670 may influence MetS risk. Apparent modulation of these associations by gender and dietary fat composition suggests novel gene-gender-diet interactions. ..
  7. Haas B, Weissglas Volkov D, Aguilar Salinas C, Nikkola E, Vergnes L, Cruz Bautista I, et al. Evidence of how rs7575840 influences apolipoprotein B-containing lipid particles. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:1201-7 pubmed publisher
    Recent genome-wide association studies identified a variant rs7575840 in the apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene region as associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol...
  8. Chen Z, Strack A, Stefanni A, Chen Y, Wu W, Pan Y, et al. Validation of human ApoB and ApoAI immunoturbidity assays for non-human primate dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis research. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2011;4:373-83 pubmed publisher
    Emerging evidence suggests apolipoprotein B (apoB) and apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) are strong risk predictors for atherosclerosis...
  9. Kathiresan S, Melander O, Anevski D, Guiducci C, Burtt N, Roos C, et al. Polymorphisms associated with cholesterol and risk of cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The score did not improve risk discrimination but did modestly improve clinical risk reclassification for individual subjects beyond standard clinical factors. ..
  10. Sandhu M, Waterworth D, Debenham S, Wheeler E, Papadakis K, Zhao J, et al. LDL-cholesterol concentrations: a genome-wide association study. Lancet. 2008;371:483-91 pubmed publisher
    ..3. These results potentially provide insight into the biological mechanisms that underlie the regulation of LDL cholesterol and might help in the discovery of novel therapeutic targets for cardiovascular disease. ..
  11. Hirata T, Fujioka M, Takahashi K, Arai Y, Asano T, Ishida M, et al. ApoB C7623T polymorphism predicts risk for steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head after renal transplantation. J Orthop Sci. 2007;12:199-206 pubmed
    ..In this study, we examined the differences of gene polymorphism frequencies of apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), which are important proteins for lipid transport, as well as of lipid ..
  12. Wang X, Niu X, Chen W, Lin N, Song J, Chen B, et al. [Effects of apolipoprotein A1 and B gene polymorphism on avascular necrosis of the femoral head in Chinese population]. Zhongguo Gu Shang. 2008;21:99-102 pubmed
    ..But no evident relationship was found between gene polymorphism of +75 bp loci of Apo A1 gene, Eco RI loci of Apo B gene, Xba I loci of Apo B gene or 3'-VNTR of Apo B gene and ANFH. ..
  13. Ruixing Y, Guangqin C, Yong W, Weixiong L, Dezhai Y, Shangling P. Effect of the 3'APOB-VNTR polymorphism on the lipid profiles in the Guangxi Hei Yi Zhuang and Han populations. BMC Med Genet. 2007;8:45 pubmed
    ..An association between the 3'APOB-VNTR polymorphism and serum lipid levels was observed in the Hei Yi Zhuang but not in the Han populations. ..
  14. Saxena R, Voight B, Lyssenko V, Burtt N, de Bakker P, Chen H, et al. Genome-wide association analysis identifies loci for type 2 diabetes and triglyceride levels. Science. 2007;316:1331-6 pubmed
    ..The discovery of associated variants in unsuspected genes and outside coding regions illustrates the ability of genome-wide association studies to provide potentially important clues to the pathogenesis of common diseases. ..
  15. Kurzawski M, Juzyszyn Z, Modrzejewski A, Pawlik A, Wiatr M, Czerny B, et al. Apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene polymorphism in patients with gallbladder disease. Arch Med Res. 2007;38:360-3 pubmed
    ..An association between plasma lipoprotein levels and gallstone disease (GSD) was presented. Apolipoprotein B is an essential structural component of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles and plays an important role ..
  16. Frossard P, Lestringant G. Analysis of the apolipoprotein B gene 3' hypervariable region among nationals of the Abu Dhabi Emirate and comparisons with other populations. Ann Saudi Med. 1999;19:490-4 pubmed
    Among all the polymorphic markers available to date, a hypervariable region located in the 3' of the human apolipoprotein B gene has been extensively studied in global populations throughout the world...
  17. Pandey S, Srivastava A, Dixit M, Choudhuri G, Mittal B. Haplotype analysis of signal peptide (insertion/deletion) and XbaI polymorphisms of the APOB gene in gallbladder cancer. Liver Int. 2007;27:1008-15 pubmed
    ..The XbaI and insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism of Apolipoprotein B (APOB) appears to influence cholesterol homoeostasis and possibly risk for gallstone disease...
  18. Hu P, Qin Y, Jing C, Lei F, Chen P, Li M. Association of polymorphisms at restriction enzyme recognition sites of apolipoprotein B and E gene with dyslipidemia in children undergoing primary nephrotic syndrome. Mol Biol Rep. 2009;36:1015-21 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the association of apolipoprotein B (apoB) and E (apoE) genetic polymorphisms (Xba I, EcoR I, Msp I, and Hha I) with parameters describing the ..
  19. Skogsberg J, Dicker A, Ryden M, Aström G, Nilsson R, Bhuiyan H, et al. ApoB100-LDL acts as a metabolic signal from liver to peripheral fat causing inhibition of lipolysis in adipocytes. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3771 pubmed publisher
    Free fatty acids released from adipose tissue affect the synthesis of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and glucose metabolism in the liver...
  20. Damgaard D, Larsen M, Nissen P, Jensen J, Jensen H, Soerensen V, et al. The relationship of molecular genetic to clinical diagnosis of familial hypercholesterolemia in a Danish population. Atherosclerosis. 2005;180:155-60 pubmed
  21. Zhu C, Zhang R, Liu D, Mukhtar M, Liu W, Peng G, et al. Association of functional polymorphism of ApoB promoter with hepatitis C virus infection. Clin Chim Acta. 2009;401:124-7 pubmed publisher
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) binds to apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) before entering into hepatocytes. ApoB promoter polymorphisms influence the levels of ApoB and LDL in blood...
  22. Deo R, Reich D, Tandon A, Akylbekova E, Patterson N, Waliszewska A, et al. Genetic differences between the determinants of lipid profile phenotypes in African and European Americans: the Jackson Heart Study. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000342 pubmed publisher
  23. Taylor A, Wang D, Patel K, Whittall R, Wood G, Farrer M, et al. Mutation detection rate and spectrum in familial hypercholesterolaemia patients in the UK pilot cascade project. Clin Genet. 2010;77:572-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Even in subjects with a low clinical suspicion of FH, and in those of Indian origin, mutation testing has an acceptable detection rate. ..
  24. Hermans M, Sacks F, Ahn S, Rousseau M. Non-HDL-cholesterol as valid surrogate to apolipoprotein B100 measurement in diabetes: Discriminant Ratio and unbiased equivalence. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011;10:20 pubmed publisher
    ..Since true correlation between variables reached unity, non-HDL-C may provide not only a metabolic surrogate but also a candidate biometrical equivalent to apoB, as non-HDL-C calculation is readily available. ..
  25. Tsunoda K, Harihara S, Tanabe Y, Dashnyam B. Polymorphism of the apolipoprotein B gene and association with plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels in the Mongolian Buryat. Biochem Genet. 2012;50:249-68 pubmed publisher
    Allele frequencies at six RFLP sites (Ins/Del, ApaLI, AluI, XbaI, MspI, and EcoRI) of the apolipoprotein B gene (APOB) and the relationship of genotypes with plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels in the Mongolian Buryat were investigated...
  26. Matsumoto K, Fujita N, Nakamura K, Senoo T, Tominaga T, Ueki Y. Apolipoprotein B and insulin resistance are good markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;82:93-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, recent studies reported that serum levels of apolipoprotein B (Apo B) and Apo B to apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-1) ratio were better predictors of atherosclerotic vascular ..
  27. Nikolajević Starčević J, Santl Letonja M, Praznikar Z, Makuc J, Vujkovac A, Petrovic D. Polymorphisms XbaI (rs693) and EcoRI (rs1042031) of the ApoB gene are associated with carotid plaques but not with carotid intima-media thickness in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Vasa. 2014;43:171-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Apolipoprotein B is a key structural component of all the atherogenic lipoproteins (LDL, VLDL and IDL). Genetic variations of the ApoB gene may affect plasma ApoB and lipid levels, thus influencing atherogenesis...
  28. Andreotti G, Menashe I, Chen J, Chang S, Rashid A, Gao Y, et al. Genetic determinants of serum lipid levels in Chinese subjects: a population-based study in Shanghai, China. Eur J Epidemiol. 2009;24:763-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide insight into the role of lipid metabolism genes, as well as the mechanisms by which these genes may be linked with disease. ..
  29. Cho D, Woo S, Kim S, Byrne C, Kong J, Sung K. Estimation of plasma apolipoprotein B concentration using routinely measured lipid biochemical tests in apparently healthy Asian adults. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:55 pubmed
    ..b>Apolipoprotein B (apo B) is the major apolipoprotein contained within atherogenic lipoproteins such as LDL, and apo B is a ..
  30. Kulminski A, Culminskaya I, Arbeev K, Ukraintseva S, Stallard E, Arbeeva L, et al. The role of lipid-related genes, aging-related processes, and environment in healthspan. Aging Cell. 2013;12:237-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that aging-related processes in changing environments may play key roles in the genetics of healthspan. Detailed systemic integrative analyses may substantially advance the progress. ..
  31. Hrizo S, Gusarova V, Habiel D, Goeckeler J, Fisher E, Brodsky J. The Hsp110 molecular chaperone stabilizes apolipoprotein B from endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). J Biol Chem. 2007;282:32665-75 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is the most abundant protein in low density lipoproteins and plays key roles in cholesterol homeostasis...
  32. Humphries S, Whittall R, Hubbart C, Maplebeck S, Cooper J, Soutar A, et al. Genetic causes of familial hypercholesterolaemia in patients in the UK: relation to plasma lipid levels and coronary heart disease risk. J Med Genet. 2006;43:943-9 pubmed
    ..Mutations in PCSK9 appear uncommon in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia in UK. ..
  33. Yan S, Song Y, Zhu W, Yan X, Xue H, Du H, et al. Apolipoprotein B gene 3'VNTR polymorphism: association with plasma lipids and coronary heart disease in Han Chinese. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44:1199-205 pubmed
    Studies that considered polymorphisms within the apolipoprotein B (APOB) gene as risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) have reported conflicting results...
  34. Diaz O, Delers F, Maynard M, Demignot S, Zoulim F, Chambaz J, et al. Preferential association of Hepatitis C virus with apolipoprotein B48-containing lipoproteins. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2983-91 pubmed
    ..These data raise the question of the contribution of the intestine to the viral load and suggest that the virus could take advantage of TRL assembly and secretion for its own production and of TRL fate to be delivered to the liver. ..
  35. Bruno G, Merletti F, Biggeri A, Bargero G, Prina Cerai S, Pagano G, et al. Effect of age on the association of non-high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B with cardiovascular mortality in a Mediterranean population with type 2 diabetes: the Casale Monferrato study. Diabetologia. 2006;49:937-44 pubmed
    ..Our findings support the recommendation that ApoB and ApoA-I should be measured routinely in all people with diabetes, particularly in the elderly. ..
  36. Benn M, Stene M, Nordestgaard B, Jensen G, Steffensen R, Tybjaerg Hansen A. Common and rare alleles in apolipoprotein B contribute to plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the general population. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93:1038-45 pubmed
    We have previously shown that rare mutations in the apolipoprotein B gene (APOB) may result in not only severe hypercholesterolemia and ischemic heart disease but also hypocholesterolemia...
  37. Scartezini M, Zago M, Chautard Freire Maia E, Pazin Filho A, Marin Neto J, Hotta J, et al. The X-X-/E+E+ genotype of the XbaI/EcoRI polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein B gene as a marker of coronary artery disease in a Brazilian sample. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2003;36:369-75 pubmed
    Studies that consider polymorphisms within the apolipoprotein B (apo B) gene as risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) have reported conflicting results...
  38. Cladaras C, Hadzopoulou Cladaras M, Nolte R, Atkinson D, Zannis V. The complete sequence and structural analysis of human apolipoprotein B-100: relationship between apoB-100 and apoB-48 forms. EMBO J. 1986;5:3495-507 pubmed
    We have isolated and sequenced overlapping cDNA clones covering the entire sequence of human apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100)...
  39. Fisher E, Zhou M, Mitchell D, Wu X, Omura S, Wang H, et al. The degradation of apolipoprotein B100 is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and involves heat shock protein 70. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:20427-34 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is the major protein component of atherogenic lipoproteins of hepatic origin...
  40. Li S, Lei Z, Chen Z, Lin D, Ke X, Zhong Y, et al. [Relationship between apolipoprotein E and apolipoprotein B polymorphisms in youths with coronary heart disease]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2003;20:241-3 pubmed
    ..05), and were significantly correlated with the increase in TC, LDL-C, apoB100 levels (P<0.05). The alleles for apo e4, XbaI x(+), 3'VNTR-B may be the important genetic markers of Han CHD. ..
  41. Harazono A, Kawasaki N, Kawanishi T, Hayakawa T. Site-specific glycosylation analysis of human apolipoprotein B100 using LC/ESI MS/MS. Glycobiology. 2005;15:447-62 pubmed
    ..These results are useful for understanding the structure of LDL particles and oligosaccharide function in LDL-receptor ligand binding. ..
  42. Horvath A, Chorbov V, Zaharova B, Ganev V. Five polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein B gene in healthy Bulgarians. Hum Biol. 2003;75:69-80 pubmed
    ..The major differences in the allele-size distributions are in the frequencies of alleles *31, *39, and *47. ..
  43. Linnik K, Herscovitz H. Multiple molecular chaperones interact with apolipoprotein B during its maturation. The network of endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperones (ERp72, GRP94, calreticulin, and BiP) interacts with apolipoprotein b regardless of its lipidation state. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:21368-73 pubmed
    ..ERp72 and GRP94 may also mediate the folding of more advanced folding intermediates and/or target the misfolded underlipidated pool of apoB for degradation. ..
  44. Bentzen J, Jørgensen T, Fenger M. The effect of six polymorphisms in the Apolipoprotein B gene on parameters of lipid metabolism in a Danish population. Clin Genet. 2002;61:126-34 pubmed
    ..the effect of six single nucleotide polymorphisms in codons 71, 591, 2488, 2712, 3611, and 4154 of the apolipoprotein B gene on fasting levels of triglyceride, VLDL-, LDL-, HDL- and total cholesterol and on body mass index (BMI) ..
  45. Tan Y, Yang S, Yu R, Shen C, Ding W, Zhou W, et al. [Relationship among the XhaI and EcoRI locus polymorphisms of apolipoprotein B gene, serum lipid metabolism and gallstone disease]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2003;83:844-7 pubmed
    To explore the relationship between the XbaI and EcoRI locus polymorphisms of apolipoprotein B gene and gallstone disease...
  46. Jaramillo Correa J, Keyeux G, Ruiz Garcia M, Rodas C, Bernal J. Population genetic analysis of the genes APOE, APOB(3'VNTR) and ACE in some black and Amerindian communities from Colombia. Hum Hered. 2001;52:14-33 pubmed
    ..This fact was not observed among the Afrocolombian populations. Nevertheless, an isolation-by-distance Slatkin analysis test did not show a significant clear structure of this special pattern among the Indian tribes studied. ..
  47. Knott T, Wallis S, Powell L, Pease R, Lusis A, Blackhart B, et al. Complete cDNA and derived protein sequence of human apolipoprotein B-100. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:7501-3 pubmed
  48. Pullinger C, Hennessy L, Chatterton J, Liu W, Love J, Mendel C, et al. Familial ligand-defective apolipoprotein B. Identification of a new mutation that decreases LDL receptor binding affinity. J Clin Invest. 1995;95:1225-34 pubmed
    Detection of new ligand-defective mutations of apolipoprotein B (apoB) will enable identification of sequences involved in binding to the LDL receptor...
  49. Masana L, Febrer G, Cavanna J, Baroni M, Marz W, Hoffmann M, et al. Common genetic variants that relate to disorders of lipid transport in Spanish subjects with premature coronary artery disease. Clin Sci (Lond). 2001;100:183-90 pubmed
    ..05) and the triacylglycerol/HDL ratio (P<0.01). Only the three-codon insertion/deletion variants of the apolipoprotein B signal peptide region discriminated between the two groups with or without arterial disease (P=0.02)...
  50. Vukmirica J, Nishimaki Mogami T, Tran K, Shan J, McLeod R, Yuan J, et al. The N-linked oligosaccharides at the amino terminus of human apoB are important for the assembly and secretion of VLDL. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:1496-507 pubmed
    We determined the role of N-linked glycosylation of apolipoprotein B (apoB) in the assembly and secretion of lipoproteins using transfected rat hepatoma McA-RH7777 cells expressing human apoB-17, apoB-37, and apoB-50, three apoB variants ..
  51. Jemaa R, El Asmi M, Mebazaa A. [VNTR3' polymorphism of apoliproprotein B gene in obese people]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2002;60:559-64 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein B (apo B) is the major component of LDL, VLDL and chylomicrons. Variations of lipid concentrations in obese people result from obesity, nutritional and genetic factors...
  52. Liang J, Kim T, Fang S, Yamaguchi J, Weissman A, Fisher E, et al. Overexpression of the tumor autocrine motility factor receptor Gp78, a ubiquitin protein ligase, results in increased ubiquitinylation and decreased secretion of apolipoprotein B100 in HepG2 cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:23984-8 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate that an ER-associated protein, gp78, is a bona fide E3 ligase in the apoB ER-associated degradation pathway. ..
  53. Liao W, Yeung S, Chan L. Proteasome-mediated degradation of apolipoprotein B targets both nascent peptides cotranslationally before translocation and full-length apolipoprotein B after translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:27225-30 pubmed
    A major portion of newly synthesized apolipoprotein B (apoB) is degraded intracellularly. This degradation has been demonstrated to be mediated largely by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway...
  54. Jiang Z, Han T, Suo G, Feng D, Chen S, Cai X, et al. Polymorphisms at cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, apolipoproteins B and E and low density lipoprotein receptor genes in patients with gallbladder stone disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:1508-12 pubmed
    ..Multiple-variable logistic regression model analysis showed that besides BMI, GSD was affected by polygenetic factors. But the mechanism for these two alleles responsible for GSD requires further investigations. ..
  55. Verbenko D, Pogoda T, Spitsyn V, Mikulich A, Bets L, Bebyakova N, et al. Apolipoprotein B 3'-VNTR polymorphism in Eastern European populations. Eur J Hum Genet. 2003;11:444-51 pubmed
    b>Apolipoprotein B 3' (3' ApoB) minisatellite polymorphism was studied in healthy unrelated individuals from the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus, in 10 populations from five ethnic groups: Russians, Byelorussians, Adygeis, ..
  56. Yang C, Kim T, Weng S, Lee B, Yang M, Gotto A. Isolation and characterization of sulfhydryl and disulfide peptides of human apolipoprotein B-100. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:5523-7 pubmed
    Twenty-three of the 25 cysteine residues in apolipoprotein B-100 have been isolated directly from tryptic or peptic peptide mixtures...
  57. Sehayek E, Eisenberg S. Mechanisms of inhibition by apolipoprotein C of apolipoprotein E-dependent cellular metabolism of human triglyceride-rich lipoproteins through the low density lipoprotein receptor pathway. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:18259-67 pubmed