Gene Symbol: APOBEC3H
Description: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3H
Alias: A3H, ARP-10, ARP10, DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3H, APOBEC-related protein 10, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3H
Species: human
Products:     APOBEC3H

Top Publications

  1. Vartanian J, Guetard D, Henry M, Wain Hobson S. Evidence for editing of human papillomavirus DNA by APOBEC3 in benign and precancerous lesions. Science. 2008;320:230-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, stochastic or transient overexpression of APOBEC3 genes may expose the genome to a broad spectrum of mutations that could influence the development of tumors. ..
  2. Zhou T, Han Y, Dang Y, Wang X, Zheng Y. A novel HIV-1 restriction factor that is biologically distinct from APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in a human T cell line CEM.NKR. Retrovirology. 2009;6:31 pubmed publisher
    ..expression were determined, all these clones retained similar low levels of APOBEC3DE, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3H expression, and no APOBEC3B expression was detected...
  3. Dang Y, Siew L, Wang X, Han Y, Lampen R, Zheng Y. Human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3H restricts HIV-1 replication. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11606-14 pubmed publisher
    ..seven APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases with potential antiretroviral activity: A3A, A3B, A3C, A3DE, A3F, A3G, and A3H. A3G was the first identified to block replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and many other ..
  4. OhAinle M, Kerns J, Li M, Malik H, Emerman M. Antiretroelement activity of APOBEC3H was lost twice in recent human evolution. Cell Host Microbe. 2008;4:249-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we trace the evolution of APOBEC3H activity in hominoids to identify a human-specific loss of APOBEC3H antiviral activity...
  5. Neil S, Bieniasz P. Human immunodeficiency virus, restriction factors, and interferon. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009;29:569-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Such knowledge could allow for novel forms of therapeutic intervention in pathogenic retroviral infections, as well as the development of animal models of human disease. ..
  6. LaRue R, Lengyel J, Jónsson S, Andresdottir V, Harris R. Lentiviral Vif degrades the APOBEC3Z3/APOBEC3H protein of its mammalian host and is capable of cross-species activity. J Virol. 2010;84:8193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior studies have suggested that the Vif-A3 interaction is species specific. Here, using the APOBEC3H (Z3)-type proteins from five distinct mammals, we report that this is generally not the case: some lentiviral Vif ..
  7. Albin J, Harris R. Interactions of host APOBEC3 restriction factors with HIV-1 in vivo: implications for therapeutics. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2010;12:e4 pubmed publisher
    ..We also summarise, for the first time, current clinical data on the in vivo effects of APOBEC3 proteins, and survey strategies and progress towards developing therapeutics aimed at the APOBEC3-Vif axis. ..
  8. Ooms M, Brayton B, Letko M, Maio S, Pilcher C, Hecht F, et al. HIV-1 Vif adaptation to human APOBEC3H haplotypes. Cell Host Microbe. 2013;14:411-21 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 Vif counteracts this restriction by targeting APOBEC3 for proteasomal degradation. Human APOBEC3H (A3H) is highly polymorphic, with natural variants differing considerably in anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro...
  9. Desimmie B, Delviks Frankenberrry K, Burdick R, Qi D, Izumi T, Pathak V. Multiple APOBEC3 restriction factors for HIV-1 and one Vif to rule them all. J Mol Biol. 2014;426:1220-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, APOBEC3DE, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H haplotypes II, V, and VII provide protection against HIV-1Δvif through hypermutation of the viral genome, ..

More Information


  1. Binka M, Ooms M, Steward M, Simon V. The activity spectrum of Vif from multiple HIV-1 subtypes against APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, and APOBEC3H. J Virol. 2012;86:49-59 pubmed publisher
    The APOBEC3 family comprises seven cytidine deaminases (APOBEC3A [A3A] to A3H), which are expressed to various degrees in HIV-1 susceptible cells...
  2. Wang X, Abudu A, Son S, Dang Y, Venta P, Zheng Y. Analysis of human APOBEC3H haplotypes and anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity. J Virol. 2011;85:3142-52 pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3H (A3H) has one cytidine deaminase domain (CDD) and inhibits the replication of retrotransposons and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a Vif-resistant manner...
  3. Haché G, Harris R. CEM-T4 cells do not lack an APOBEC3G cofactor. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000528 pubmed publisher
  4. Hultquist J, Harris R. Leveraging APOBEC3 proteins to alter the HIV mutation rate and combat AIDS. Future Virol. 2009;4:605 pubmed
    ..The current state of mechanistic information is reviewed and the possible risks and benefits of increasing (via hypermutation) or decreasing (via hypomutation) the HIV-1 mutation rate through APOBEC3 proteins are discussed. ..
  5. OhAinle M, Kerns J, Malik H, Emerman M. Adaptive evolution and antiviral activity of the conserved mammalian cytidine deaminase APOBEC3H. J Virol. 2006;80:3853-62 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the evolution and function of an uncharacterized antiviral effector, APOBEC3H, which represents the most evolutionarily divergent APOBEC3 gene found in primates...
  6. Zhen A, Wang T, Zhao K, Xiong Y, Yu X. A single amino acid difference in human APOBEC3H variants determines HIV-1 Vif sensitivity. J Virol. 2010;84:1902-11 pubmed publisher
    Several variants of APOBEC3H (A3H) have been identified in different human populations. Certain variants of this protein are particularly potent inhibitors of retrotransposons and retroviruses, including HIV-1...
  7. Li M, Wu L, Emerman M. The range of human APOBEC3H sensitivity to lentiviral Vif proteins. J Virol. 2010;84:88-95 pubmed publisher
    The APOBEC3H gene is polymorphic in humans, with four major population-dependent haplotypes that encode proteins with different levels of antiviral activity...
  8. Harari A, Ooms M, Mulder L, Simon V. Polymorphisms and splice variants influence the antiretroviral activity of human APOBEC3H. J Virol. 2009;83:295-303 pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3H belongs to the APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases that potently inhibit exogenous and endogenous retroviruses...
  9. Tan L, Sarkis P, Wang T, Tian C, Yu X. Sole copy of Z2-type human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3H has inhibitory activity against retrotransposons and HIV-1. FASEB J. 2009;23:279-87 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the potential role of the only human Z2-type cytidine deaminase, APOBEC3H (A3H), in the restriction of retroelements has not yet been fully characterized...
  10. Ooms M, Majdak S, Seibert C, Harari A, Simon V. The localization of APOBEC3H variants in HIV-1 virions determines their antiviral activity. J Virol. 2010;84:7961-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The single-domain APOBEC3H (A3H) is encoded by four haplotypes, of which only A3H haplotype II-RDD (hapII-RDD) restricts HIV-1 efficiently...
  11. Gourraud P, Karaouni A, Woo J, Schmidt T, Oksenberg J, Hecht F, et al. APOBEC3H haplotypes and HIV-1 pro-viral vif DNA sequence diversity in early untreated human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection. Hum Immunol. 2011;72:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We found evidence for the existence of an APOBEC3H linkage disequilibrium (LD) block associated with variation in GA ? AA, or APOBEC3F/H signature, sequence changes ..
  12. Li M, Emerman M. Polymorphism in human APOBEC3H affects a phenotype dominant for subcellular localization and antiviral activity. J Virol. 2011;85:8197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..b>APOBEC3H is the most distantly related member of the family and carries functional polymorphisms in current human ..
  13. Ooms M, Krikoni A, Kress A, Simon V, Munk C. APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, and APOBEC3H haplotype 2 restrict human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. J Virol. 2012;86:6097-108 pubmed publisher
    The human APOBEC3 family consists of seven cytidine deaminases (A3A to A3H), some of which display potent antiretroviral activity against HIV-1 and other retroviruses...
  14. Cagliani R, Riva S, Fumagalli M, Biasin M, Caputo S, Mazzotta F, et al. A positively selected APOBEC3H haplotype is associated with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. Evolution. 2011;65:3311-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, nucleotide diversity was extremely high for APOBEC3H, and most tests rejected the hypothesis of selective neutrality in Eurasian populations...
  15. Duggal N, Fu W, Akey J, Emerman M. Identification and antiviral activity of common polymorphisms in the APOBEC3 locus in human populations. Virology. 2013;443:329-37 pubmed publisher
    There are seven members of the APOBEC3 family in humans (APOBEC3A through APOBEC3H) that have antiviral activity against retroviruses and/or retroelements...
  16. Harris R, Hultquist J, Evans D. The restriction factors of human immunodeficiency virus. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:40875-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These HIV restriction and counter-restriction mechanisms suggest strategies for new therapeutic interventions...
  17. Kock J, Blum H. Hypermutation of hepatitis B virus genomes by APOBEC3G, APOBEC3C and APOBEC3H. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1184-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This study assessed APOBEC3G, APOBEC3C and APOBEC3H, three members of this protein family present in human liver, for their ability to edit HBV genomes...
  18. Refsland E, Stenglein M, Shindo K, Albin J, Brown W, Harris R. Quantitative profiling of the full APOBEC3 mRNA repertoire in lymphocytes and tissues: implications for HIV-1 restriction. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:4274-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The genes that encode APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, APOBEC3C, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3H were generated through relatively recent recombination events...
  19. Stenglein M, Burns M, Li M, Lengyel J, Harris R. APOBEC3 proteins mediate the clearance of foreign DNA from human cells. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficiency and fidelity of genetic engineering, gene therapy, and DNA vaccination are likely to be influenced by this anti-DNA defense system. ..
  20. Hultquist J, Lengyel J, Refsland E, LaRue R, Lackey L, Brown W, et al. Human and rhesus APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H demonstrate a conserved capacity to restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1. J Virol. 2011;85:11220-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to APOBEC3G, we find that three other human APOBEC3 proteins, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, and APOBEC3H, are all potent HIV-1 restriction factors...
  21. Wedekind J, Dance G, Sowden M, Smith H. Messenger RNA editing in mammals: new members of the APOBEC family seeking roles in the family business. Trends Genet. 2003;19:207-16 pubmed
    ..In light of the hypothesis that these proteins might represent novel mRNA editing systems that could affect proteome diversity, we consider their structure, expression and relevance to biomedically significant processes or pathologies. ..
  22. Ooms M, Letko M, Binka M, Simon V. The resistance of human APOBEC3H to HIV-1 NL4-3 molecular clone is determined by a single amino acid in Vif. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57744 pubmed publisher
    ..The single deaminase domain APOBEC3H (A3H) enzyme is highly polymorphic and multiple A3H haplotypes have been identified...
  23. Wang J, Shaban N, Land A, Brown W, Harris R. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Vif and Human APOBEC3B Interactions Resemble Those between HIV-1 Vif and Human APOBEC3G. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-1 Vif surface residues that interact with human APOBEC3G and are distinct from those that engage APOBEC3F or APOBEC3H. Overall, these studies indicate that the molecular determinants of the functional interaction between human ..
  24. Kim E, Lorenzo Redondo R, Little S, Chung Y, Phalora P, Maljkovic Berry I, et al. Human APOBEC3 induced mutation of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 contributes to adaptation and evolution in natural infection. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004281 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA sequencing, we defined trinucleotide contexts of the edited sites for APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H. We then compared these APOBEC3 editing contexts with the patterns of G-to-A mutations in HIV-1 DNA in cells ..
  25. Garcia E, Emerman M. Recurrent Loss of APOBEC3H Activity during Primate Evolution. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Of all the APOBEC3 genes in humans, APOBEC3H (A3H) is the most polymorphic: some genes encode stable and active A3H proteins, while others are ..
  26. Ooms M, Letko M, Simon V. The Structural Interface between HIV-1 Vif and Human APOBEC3H. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3H (A3H) is a cytidine deaminase that inhibits HIV-1 replication. To evade this restriction, the HIV-1 Vif protein binds A3H and mediates its proteasomal degradation...
  27. Salamango D, Becker J, McCann J, CHENG A, Demir O, Amaro R, et al. APOBEC3H Subcellular Localization Determinants Define Zipcode for Targeting HIV-1 for Restriction. Mol Cell Biol. 2018;38: pubmed publisher
    ..are DNA cytosine deaminases that normally serve as virus restriction factors, but several members, including APOBEC3H, also contribute to cancer mutagenesis...
  28. Bohn J, Thummar K, York A, Raymond A, Brown W, Bieniasz P, et al. APOBEC3H structure reveals an unusual mechanism of interaction with duplex RNA. Nat Commun. 2017;8:1021 pubmed publisher
    ..By screening naturally occurring, polymorphic, non-human primate APOBEC3H variants for biological and crystallization properties, we obtained a 2...
  29. Land A, Wang J, Law E, Aberle R, Kirmaier A, Krupp A, et al. Degradation of the cancer genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B by SIV Vif. Oncotarget. 2015;6:39969-79 pubmed publisher
    ..For instance, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H combine to restrict HIV-1 in human lymphocytes...
  30. Yoshikawa R, Izumi T, Yamada E, Nakano Y, Misawa N, Ren F, et al. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. J Virol. 2016;90:474-85 pubmed publisher
    ..It is known that domestic cat (Felis catus) APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), the ortholog of human APOBEC3H, potently suppresses the infectivity of vif-defective feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)...
  31. Nakano Y, Misawa N, Juarez Fernandez G, Moriwaki M, Nakaoka S, Funo T, et al. HIV-1 competition experiments in humanized mice show that APOBEC3H imposes selective pressure and promotes virus adaptation. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006348 pubmed publisher
    ..Human A3H is polymorphic and can be categorized into three phenotypes: stable, intermediate, and unstable...
  32. Siriwardena S, Chen K, Bhagwat A. Functions and Malfunctions of Mammalian DNA-Cytosine Deaminases. Chem Rev. 2016;116:12688-12710 pubmed publisher
    ..Members of the APOBEC3 subfamily in humans (APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, APOBEC3C, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H) inhibit infections of viruses such as HIV-1, HBV, and HCV, and retrotransposition of endogenous retroelements ..
  33. Gu J, Chen Q, Xiao X, Ito F, Wolfe A, Chen X. Biochemical Characterization of APOBEC3H Variants: Implications for Their HIV-1 Restriction Activity and mC Modification. J Mol Biol. 2016;428:4626-4638 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3H (A3H) is the most polymorphic member of the APOBEC3 family. Seven haplotypes (hap I-VII) and four mRNA splicing variants (SV) of A3H have been identified...
  34. Anderson B, Harris R. Transcriptional regulation of APOBEC3 antiviral immunity through the CBF-β/RUNX axis. Sci Adv. 2015;1:e1500296 pubmed publisher
    ..For instance, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H would have the potential to destroy HIV-1 complementary DNA replication intermediates if not for neutralization ..
  35. Tebaldi T, Zaccara S, Alessandrini F, Bisio A, Ciribilli Y, Inga A. Whole-genome cartography of p53 response elements ranked on transactivation potential. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:464 pubmed publisher
    ..genes as a function of different p53-inducing conditions, providing further evidence for PDE2A, GAS6, E2F7, APOBEC3H, KCTD1, TRIM32, DICER, HRAS, KITLG and TGFA p53-dependent regulation, while MAP2K3, DNAJA1 and potentially YAP1 ..
  36. Refsland E, Hultquist J, Luengas E, Ikeda T, Shaban N, Law E, et al. Natural polymorphisms in human APOBEC3H and HIV-1 Vif combine in primary T lymphocytes to affect viral G-to-A mutation levels and infectivity. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004761 pubmed publisher
    ..The most genetically diverse of the seven human APOBEC3 genes is APOBEC3H with seven known haplotypes...
  37. Ito F, Fu Y, Kao S, Yang H, Chen X. Family-Wide Comparative Analysis of Cytidine and Methylcytidine Deamination by Eleven Human APOBEC Proteins. J Mol Biol. 2017;429:1787-1799 pubmed publisher
    ..The mC deamination activity is later demonstrated for APOBEC3A (A3A) and more recently for APOBEC3B and APOBEC3H (A3H)...
  38. Shandilya S, Bohn M, Schiffer C. A computational analysis of the structural determinants of APOBEC3's catalytic activity and vulnerability to HIV-1 Vif. Virology. 2014;471-473:105-16 pubmed publisher
  39. Kim D. The assembly of Vif ubiquitin E3 ligase for APOBEC3 degradation. Arch Pharm Res. 2015;38:435-45 pubmed publisher
  40. Shaban N, Shi K, Lauer K, Carpenter M, Richards C, Salamango D, et al. The Antiviral and Cancer Genomic DNA Deaminase APOBEC3H Is Regulated by an RNA-Mediated Dimerization Mechanism. Mol Cell. 2018;69:75-86.e9 pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3H and homologous single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminases are unique to mammals. These DNA-editing enzymes function in innate immunity by restricting the replication of viruses and transposons...
  41. Ito F, Yang H, Xiao X, Li S, Wolfe A, Zirkle B, et al. Understanding the Structure, Multimerization, Subcellular Localization and mC Selectivity of a Genomic Mutator and Anti-HIV Factor APOBEC3H. Sci Rep. 2018;8:3763 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3H (A3H) is a member of the APOBEC3 subfamily of DNA cytosine deaminases that are important for innate immune defense and have been implicated in cancer biogenesis...
  42. Hultquist J, Binka M, LaRue R, Simon V, Harris R. Vif proteins of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses require cellular CBF? to degrade APOBEC3 restriction factors. J Virol. 2012;86:2874-7 pubmed publisher
  43. Leonard B, Starrett G, Maurer M, Oberg A, Van Bockstal M, Van Dorpe J, et al. APOBEC3G Expression Correlates with T-Cell Infiltration and Improved Clinical Outcomes in High-grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2016;22:4746-55 pubmed publisher
    ..TCGA data analyses revealed that expression of APOBEC3D and APOBEC3H also correlates with CD3D across multiple cancer types...
  44. Starrett G, Luengas E, McCann J, Ebrahimi D, Temiz N, Love R, et al. The DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3H haplotype I likely contributes to breast and lung cancer mutagenesis. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12918 pubmed publisher
    ..However, A3B-null breast tumours still have this mutational bias. Here we show that APOBEC3H haplotype I (A3H-I) provides a likely solution to this paradox...
  45. Zhen A, Du J, Zhou X, Xiong Y, Yu X. Reduced APOBEC3H variant anti-viral activities are associated with altered RNA binding activities. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38771 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3H (A3H) is a member of the APOBEC3 family of proteins with varying activities against retroviruses and retrotransposons...
  46. Takaori Kondo A, Shindo K. HIV-1 Vif: a guardian of the virus that opens up a new era in the research field of restriction factors. Front Microbiol. 2013;4:34 pubmed publisher
    ..We still have many questions on Vif and APOBEC3 and should continue to work on these proteins in the future in order to better regulate HIV-1. We will discuss not only the history but also recent advances in Vif research. ..
  47. Samuel C. Introduction to thematic minireview series: Understanding human immunodeficiency virus-host interactions at the biochemical level. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:40838-40 pubmed publisher
  48. Li J, Chen Y, Li M, Carpenter M, McDougle R, Luengas E, et al. APOBEC3 multimerization correlates with HIV-1 packaging and restriction activity in living cells. J Mol Biol. 2014;426:1296-307 pubmed publisher
    ..members of the APOBEC3 family, we show that the multimerization propensities of APOBEC3B, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F and APOBEC3H (haplotype II) bear more resemblance to APOBEC3G than to APOBEC3A/3C/2...
  49. Aydin H, Taylor M, Lee J. Structure-guided analysis of the human APOBEC3-HIV restrictome. Structure. 2014;22:668-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we summarize data from recent A3 structural and functional studies to provide perspectives into the interactions between cellular A3 proteins and HIV-1 macromolecules throughout the viral replication cycle. ..
  50. Mitra M, Singer D, Mano Y, Hritz J, Nam G, Gorelick R, et al. Sequence and structural determinants of human APOBEC3H deaminase and anti-HIV-1 activities. Retrovirology. 2015;12:3 pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3H (A3H) belongs to the A3 family of host restriction factors, which are cytidine deaminases that catalyze conversion of deoxycytidine to deoxyuridine in single-stranded DNA...
  51. Sakurai D, Iwatani Y, Ohtani H, Naruse T, Terunuma H, Sugiura W, et al. APOBEC3H polymorphisms associated with the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and AIDS progression in Japanese. Immunogenetics. 2015;67:253-7 pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3H (A3H) is a member of APOBEC3 cytidine deaminase family that potently restricts HIV-1 replication...
  52. Feng Y, Goubran M, Follack T, Chelico L. Deamination-independent restriction of LINE-1 retrotransposition by APOBEC3H. Sci Rep. 2017;7:10881 pubmed publisher
    ..that APOBEC3A is a potent deamination-dependent inhibitor of LINE-1 retrotransposition, but show that in contrast, A3H haplotype II and haplotype V restrict LINE-1 activity using a deamination-independent mechanism...
  53. Munk C, Jensen B, Zielonka J, Haussinger D, Kamp C. Running loose or getting lost: how HIV-1 counters and capitalizes on APOBEC3-induced mutagenesis through its Vif protein. Viruses. 2012;4:3132-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Both experimental evidence and the substantiation of the underlying dynamics through coevolutionary models are presented as complementary views of a coevolutionary arms race. ..
  54. Naruse T, Sakurai D, Ohtani H, Sharma G, Sharma S, Vajpayee M, et al. APOBEC3H polymorphisms and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in an Indian population. J Hum Genet. 2016;61:263-5 pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3H (A3H) is a member of APOBEC cytidine deaminase family intensively constraining the HIV-1 replication. A3H is known to be polymorphic with different protein stability and anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro...
  55. Chaipan C, Smith J, HU W, Pathak V. APOBEC3G restricts HIV-1 to a greater extent than APOBEC3F and APOBEC3DE in human primary CD4+ T cells and macrophages. J Virol. 2013;87:444-53 pubmed publisher
    ..of HIV-1?vif produced in 293T cells in the presence of APOBEC3DE (A3DE), APOBEC3F (A3F), APOBEC3G (A3G), and APOBEC3H haplotype II (A3H HapII) but not APOBEC3B (A3B), APOBEC3C (A3C), or APOBEC3H haplotype I (A3H HapI)...
  56. Adolph M, Love R, Feng Y, Chelico L. Enzyme cycling contributes to efficient induction of genome mutagenesis by the cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:11925-11940 pubmed publisher
    The single-stranded DNA cytidine deaminases APOBEC3B, APOBEC3H haplotype I, and APOBEC3A can contribute to cancer through deamination of cytosine to form promutagenic uracil in genomic DNA...
  57. Moris A, Murray S, Cardinaud S. AID and APOBECs span the gap between innate and adaptive immunity. Front Microbiol. 2014;5:534 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein this review we discuss AID and APOBEC cytodine deaminases as a link between innate and adaptive immunity uncovered by recent studies. ..
  58. Zhao K, Ishida Y, Oleksyk T, Winkler C, Roca A. Evidence for selection at HIV host susceptibility genes in a West Central African human population. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:237 pubmed publisher
    ..Alleles protective against HIV-1 for APOBEC3H, CXCR6 and HLA-C were at higher frequencies in the Biaka than in the Mbuti...
  59. Wang Z, Wakae K, Kitamura K, Aoyama S, Liu G, Koura M, et al. APOBEC3 deaminases induce hypermutation in human papillomavirus 16 DNA upon beta interferon stimulation. J Virol. 2014;88:1308-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that endogenous A3s upregulated by IFN-? induce E2 hypermutation of HPV16 in cervical keratinocytes, and a pathogenic consequence of E2 hypermutation is discussed. ..
  60. Zhang Z, Gu Q, de Manuel Montero M, Bravo I, Marques Bonet T, Haussinger D, et al. Stably expressed APOBEC3H forms a barrier for cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzee to humans. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006746 pubmed publisher
    ..By using novel SIVcpz reporter viruses, we identified that human APOBEC3B (A3B) and APOBEC3H (A3H) haplotype II strongly reduced the infectivity of SIVcpz, because both of them are resistant to SIVcpz Vifs...
  61. Phalora P, Sherer N, Wolinsky S, Swanson C, Malim M. HIV-1 replication and APOBEC3 antiviral activity are not regulated by P bodies. J Virol. 2012;86:11712-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Localization to P bodies may therefore provide a means of sequestering APOBEC3 enzymatic activity away from cellular DNA or may be linked to as yet unidentified cellular functions. ..
  62. Nakashima M, Tsuzuki S, Awazu H, Hamano A, Okada A, Ode H, et al. Mapping Region of Human Restriction Factor APOBEC3H Critical for Interaction with HIV-1 Vif. J Mol Biol. 2017;429:1262-1276 pubmed publisher
    ..A3 Vif-interaction sites are presumed to fall into three distinct types: A3C/D/F, A3G, and A3H. To date, two types of A3G and A3C/D/F sites have been well characterized, whereas the A3H Vif-binding site remains ..
  63. Arias J, Koyama T, Kinomoto M, Tokunaga K. Retroelements versus APOBEC3 family members: No great escape from the magnificent seven. Front Microbiol. 2012;3:275 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of the interplay between the retroelements currently active in the human genome and the anti-retroelement A3 proteins...
  64. Olson M, Harris R, Harki D. APOBEC Enzymes as Targets for Virus and Cancer Therapy. Cell Chem Biol. 2018;25:36-49 pubmed publisher
    ..APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H restrict human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in cells deficient in the viral infectivity factor (Vif)..
  65. Ortiz M, Guex N, Patin E, Martin O, Xenarios I, Ciuffi A, et al. Evolutionary trajectories of primate genes involved in HIV pathogenesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:2865-75 pubmed publisher
    ..assessment allowed the identification of residues under positive selection in 13 proteins: AKT1, APOBEC3G, APOBEC3H, CD4, DEFB1, GML, IL4, IL8RA, L-SIGN/CLEC4M, PTPRC/CD45, Tetherin/BST2, TLR7, and TRIM5alpha...
  66. Desimmie B, Burdick R, Izumi T, Doi H, Shao W, Alvord W, et al. APOBEC3 proteins can copackage and comutate HIV-1 genomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:7848-65 pubmed publisher
    Although APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases A3G, A3F, A3D and A3H are packaged into virions and inhibit viral replication by inducing G-to-A hypermutation, it is not known whether they are copackaged and whether they can act additively or ..
  67. Zhu M, Wang Y, Wang C, Shen W, Liu J, Geng L, et al. The eQTL-missense polymorphisms of APOBEC3H are associated with lung cancer risk in a Han Chinese population. Sci Rep. 2015;5:14969 pubmed publisher
    ..regions of 10 APOBEC core genes (APOBEC1, APOBEC2, APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, APOBEC3C, APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, APOBEC3H, and APOBEC4) and evaluated them with a case-control study including 1200 cases and 1253 controls...
  68. Feng Y, Baig T, Love R, Chelico L. Suppression of APOBEC3-mediated restriction of HIV-1 by Vif. Front Microbiol. 2014;5:450 pubmed publisher
    ..of APOBEC3-D, -F, and -G, there appears to be differential sensitivity to Vif-mediated degradation for APOBEC3H. This review examines APOBEC3-mediated HIV restriction mechanisms, how Vif acts as a substrate receptor for a ..
  69. Mastrogiannis D, Wang X, Dai M, Li J, Wang Y, Zhou Y, et al. Alcohol enhances HIV infection of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Curr HIV Res. 2014;12:301-8 pubmed
    ..alcohol inhibited the expression of several HIV restriction factors, including anti-HIV microRNAs, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3H. Additionally, alcohol also suppressed the expression of IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) and retinoic acid-..
  70. Smith J, Izumi T, Borbet T, Hagedorn A, Pathak V. HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vif interact with human APOBEC3 proteins using completely different determinants. J Virol. 2014;88:9893-908 pubmed publisher
    ..A3D, A3F, A3G, and A3H haplotype II (A3H-hapII) can be packaged into virion infectivity factor (Vif)-deficient HIVs to inhibit viral ..
  71. Sheehy A, Erthal J. APOBEC3 versus Retroviruses, Immunity versus Invasion: Clash of the Titans. Mol Biol Int. 2012;2012:974924 pubmed publisher
    ..The emerging story implicates the A3 family as not only defense proteins, but also as participants in the broader innate immune response. ..
  72. Baig T, Feng Y, Chelico L. Determinants of efficient degradation of APOBEC3 restriction factors by HIV-1 Vif. J Virol. 2014;88:14380-95 pubmed publisher
    ..NL4-3 (IIIB) and HXB2 to characterize their induced degradation of and interaction with APOBEC3G, APOBEC3G D128K, APOBEC3H, and APOBEC3B in 293T cells...
  73. Misra A, Thippeshappa R, Kimata J. Macaques as model hosts for studies of HIV-1 infection. Front Microbiol. 2013;4:176 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies of these macaque models of infection with HIV-1 derivatives could provide valuable insights into the interaction of lentiviruses and the innate immune response and how lentiviruses adapt and cause disease. ..
  74. Kitamura S, Ode H, Iwatani Y. Structural Features of Antiviral APOBEC3 Proteins are Linked to Their Functional Activities. Front Microbiol. 2011;2:258 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the biological functions of A3 family members with special focus on A3G and base our analysis on the available structural information. ..
  75. Vasudevan A, Smits S, Höppner A, Haussinger D, Koenig B, Munk C. Structural features of antiviral DNA cytidine deaminases. Biol Chem. 2013;394:1357-70 pubmed publisher
    ..There are seven A3 proteins, A3A-A3H, found in humans...