Gene Symbol: APOBEC3B
Description: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B
Alias: A3B, APOBEC1L, ARCD3, ARP4, DJ742C19.2, PHRBNL, bK150C2.2, DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3B, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3B, cytidine deaminase, phorbolin 2, phorbolin 3, phorbolin-1-related protein, phorbolin-2/3
Species: human
Products:     APOBEC3B

Top Publications

  1. Leonard B, Hart S, Burns M, Carpenter M, Temiz N, Rathore A, et al. APOBEC3B upregulation and genomic mutation patterns in serous ovarian carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2013;73:7222-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report wide variation in the expression of the DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B, with elevated expression in the majority of ovarian cancer cell lines (three SDs above the mean of normal ..
  2. Jha P, Sinha S, Kanchan K, Qidwai T, Narang A, Singh P, et al. Deletion of the APOBEC3B gene strongly impacts susceptibility to falciparum malaria. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:142-8 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3B, a gene involved in innate response, exhibits insertion-deletion polymorphism across world populations...
  3. Shinohara M, Io K, Shindo K, Matsui M, Sakamoto T, Tada K, et al. APOBEC3B can impair genomic stability by inducing base substitutions in genomic DNA in human cells. Sci Rep. 2012;2:806 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), another member of the APOBEC family, is capable of editing immunoglobulin (Ig) and non-Ig genes, and ..
  4. Yu Q, Chen D, König R, Mariani R, Unutmaz D, Landau N. APOBEC3B and APOBEC3C are potent inhibitors of simian immunodeficiency virus replication. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:53379-86 pubmed
    ..We report here that two additional APOBEC3 family members, APOBEC3B and APOBEC3C, have potent antiviral activity against simian immuno-deficiency virus (SIV), but not HIV-1...
  5. Burns M, Temiz N, Harris R. Evidence for APOBEC3B mutagenesis in multiple human cancers. Nat Genet. 2013;45:977-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently showed that the DNA cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B accounts for up to half of the mutational load in breast carcinomas expressing this enzyme...
  6. Taylor B, Nik Zainal S, Wu Y, Stebbings L, Raine K, Campbell P, et al. DNA deaminases induce break-associated mutation showers with implication of APOBEC3B and 3A in breast cancer kataegis. elife. 2013;2:e00534 pubmed publisher
    ..Genome-wide patterns of APOBEC3-catalyzed deamination in yeast reveal APOBEC3B and 3A as the deaminases whose mutational signatures are most similar to those of breast cancer kataegic ..
  7. Madsen P, Anant S, Rasmussen H, Gromov P, Vorum H, Dumanski J, et al. Psoriasis upregulated phorbolin-1 shares structural but not functional similarity to the mRNA-editing protein apobec-1. J Invest Dermatol. 1999;113:162-9 pubmed
    ..the mammalian apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme; however, recombinant-expressed phorbolin-1 exhibited no cytidine deaminase activity, using either a monomeric nucleoside or apolipoprotein B cRNA as substrate, and failed to bind an ..
  8. Pak V, Heidecker G, Pathak V, Derse D. The role of amino-terminal sequences in cellular localization and antiviral activity of APOBEC3B. J Virol. 2011;85:8538-47 pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3B (A3B) has been described as a potent inhibitor of retroviral infection and retrotransposition...
  9. Stenglein M, Burns M, Li M, Lengyel J, Harris R. APOBEC3 proteins mediate the clearance of foreign DNA from human cells. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficiency and fidelity of genetic engineering, gene therapy, and DNA vaccination are likely to be influenced by this anti-DNA defense system. ..

More Information


  1. Chiu Y, Greene W. The APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases: an innate defensive network opposing exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements. Annu Rev Immunol. 2008;26:317-53 pubmed publisher
  2. Ooms M, Krikoni A, Kress A, Simon V, Munk C. APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, and APOBEC3H haplotype 2 restrict human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. J Virol. 2012;86:6097-108 pubmed publisher
    ..All seven human A3 proteins were tested in HTLV-1 reporter and HIV-1 infectivity assays. We show that A3A, A3B, and A3H haplotype 2 (A3H hapII) acted as potent inhibitors of HTLV-1...
  3. Burns M, Lackey L, Carpenter M, Rathore A, Land A, Leonard B, et al. APOBEC3B is an enzymatic source of mutation in breast cancer. Nature. 2013;494:366-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B is a probable source of these mutations...
  4. Wichroski M, Robb G, Rana T. Human retroviral host restriction factors APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F localize to mRNA processing bodies. PLoS Pathog. 2006;2:e41 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results of this study reveal a novel link between innate immunity against retroviruses and P-bodies suggesting that APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F could function in the context of P-bodies to restrict HIV-1 replication. ..
  5. Stenglein M, Harris R. APOBEC3B and APOBEC3F inhibit L1 retrotransposition by a DNA deamination-independent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:16837-41 pubmed
    ..Little is known about the cellular mechanisms that control their spread. We show that expression of human APOBEC3B or APOBEC3F decreased the rate of L1 retrotransposition by 5-10-fold...
  6. Nowarski R, Kotler M. APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases in double-strand DNA break repair and cancer promotion. Cancer Res. 2013;73:3494-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, APOBEC3B (A3B) was recently identified as the mutational source in breast cancer cells...
  7. Cullen B. Role and mechanism of action of the APOBEC3 family of antiretroviral resistance factors. J Virol. 2006;80:1067-76 pubmed
  8. Bishop K, Holmes R, Sheehy A, Davidson N, Cho S, Malim M. Cytidine deamination of retroviral DNA by diverse APOBEC proteins. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1392-6 pubmed
    The human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G edits both nascent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and murine leukemia virus (MLV) reverse transcripts, resulting in loss of infectivity...
  9. Bonvin M, Greeve J. Effects of point mutations in the cytidine deaminase domains of APOBEC3B on replication and hypermutation of hepatitis B virus in vitro. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:3270-4 pubmed
    ..A series of APOBEC3B (A3B) point mutants was analysed in vitro for hypermutational activity on HBV DNA and for inhibitory effects on ..
  10. An P, Johnson R, Phair J, Kirk G, Yu X, Donfield S, et al. APOBEC3B deletion and risk of HIV-1 acquisition. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:1054-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A naturally occurring 29.5-kb deletion removes the entire APOBEC3B gene...
  11. Sawyer S, Emerman M, Malik H. Ancient adaptive evolution of the primate antiviral DNA-editing enzyme APOBEC3G. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E275 pubmed
    ..Despite being only recently discovered, editing of RNA and DNA may thus represent an ancient form of host defense in primate genomes. ..
  12. Nik Zainal S, Wedge D, Alexandrov L, Petljak M, Butler A, Bolli N, et al. Association of a germline copy number polymorphism of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B with burden of putative APOBEC-dependent mutations in breast cancer. Nat Genet. 2014;46:487-91 pubmed publisher
    ..A germline copy number polymorphism involving APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B, which effectively deletes APOBEC3B, has been associated with modestly increased risk of breast cancer...
  13. Kidd J, Newman T, Tuzun E, Kaul R, Eichler E. Population stratification of a common APOBEC gene deletion polymorphism. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e63 pubmed
    ..5-kb common human deletion polymorphism that removes the APOBEC3B gene...
  14. Malim M. APOBEC proteins and intrinsic resistance to HIV-1 infection. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009;364:675-87 pubmed publisher
  15. Wissing S, Montano M, Garcia Perez J, Moran J, Greene W. Endogenous APOBEC3B restricts LINE-1 retrotransposition in transformed cells and human embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:36427-37 pubmed publisher
    Members of the APOBEC3 (A3) family of cytidine deaminase enzymes act as host defense mechanisms limiting both infections by exogenous retroviruses and mobilization of endogenous retrotransposons...
  16. Hultquist J, Lengyel J, Refsland E, LaRue R, Lackey L, Brown W, et al. Human and rhesus APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H demonstrate a conserved capacity to restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1. J Virol. 2011;85:11220-34 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, neither human nor rhesus APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, nor APOBEC3C had a significant impact on HIV-1 replication...
  17. Jarmuz A, Chester A, Bayliss J, Gisbourne J, Dunham I, Scott J, et al. An anthropoid-specific locus of orphan C to U RNA-editing enzymes on chromosome 22. Genomics. 2002;79:285-96 pubmed
    ..C) to uridine (U) editing of apolipoprotein (apo) B mRNA is mediated by tissue-specific, RNA-binding cytidine deaminase APOBEC1...
  18. Lackey L, Demorest Z, Land A, Hultquist J, Brown W, Harris R. APOBEC3B and AID have similar nuclear import mechanisms. J Mol Biol. 2012;419:301-14 pubmed publisher
    ..For instance, several family members, including APOBEC3B (A3B), elicit strong retrotransposon and retrovirus restriction activities...
  19. Goila Gaur R, Strebel K. HIV-1 Vif, APOBEC, and intrinsic immunity. Retrovirology. 2008;5:51 pubmed publisher
  20. Vartanian J, Guetard D, Henry M, Wain Hobson S. Evidence for editing of human papillomavirus DNA by APOBEC3 in benign and precancerous lesions. Science. 2008;320:230-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, stochastic or transient overexpression of APOBEC3 genes may expose the genome to a broad spectrum of mutations that could influence the development of tumors. ..
  21. Wedekind J, Dance G, Sowden M, Smith H. Messenger RNA editing in mammals: new members of the APOBEC family seeking roles in the family business. Trends Genet. 2003;19:207-16 pubmed
    ..In light of the hypothesis that these proteins might represent novel mRNA editing systems that could affect proteome diversity, we consider their structure, expression and relevance to biomedically significant processes or pathologies. ..
  22. Holmes R, Malim M, Bishop K. APOBEC-mediated viral restriction: not simply editing?. Trends Biochem Sci. 2007;32:118-28 pubmed
  23. Bogerd H, Wiegand H, Doehle B, Lueders K, Cullen B. APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B are potent inhibitors of LTR-retrotransposon function in human cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:89-95 pubmed
    ..Here, we extend this earlier work by showing that two other members of the human APOBEC3 protein family, APOBEC3B and APOBEC3A, can reduce retrotransposition by the intracisternal A-particle (IAP) retrotransposon in human cells ..
  24. Rose K, Marin M, Kozak S, Kabat D. Regulated production and anti-HIV type 1 activities of cytidine deaminases APOBEC3B, 3F, and 3G. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005;21:611-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, A3A, A3B, and A3C had weak but significant anti-HIV-1 activities and did not dominantly interfere with A3G or A3F antiviral ..
  25. Hakata Y, Landau N. Reversed functional organization of mouse and human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminase domains. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36624-31 pubmed
    ..are of two types, those with a single deaminase domain such as human (h)A3A and hA3C and those with two cytidine deaminase domains (CDD) such as hA3G, hA3F, hA3B and the mouse APOBEC3, mA3...
  26. Chen H, Lilley C, Yu Q, Lee D, Chou J, Narvaiza I, et al. APOBEC3A is a potent inhibitor of adeno-associated virus and retrotransposons. Curr Biol. 2006;16:480-5 pubmed
    ..They also highlight the functional differences between APOBEC3 proteins. The APOBEC3 family members have distinct functions and may have evolved to resist various classes of genetic elements. ..
  27. Fazel A, Kashef S, Aleyasin S, Harsini S, Karamizadeh Z, Zoghi S, et al. Novel AICDA mutation in a case of autosomal recessive hyper-IgM syndrome, growth hormone deficiency and autoimmunity. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2017;45:82-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequencing analysis of the exons from activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) gene revealed that the patient was homozygous for a single T to C transversion at position 455 in ..
  28. Hultquist J, Harris R. Leveraging APOBEC3 proteins to alter the HIV mutation rate and combat AIDS. Future Virol. 2009;4:605 pubmed
    ..The current state of mechanistic information is reviewed and the possible risks and benefits of increasing (via hypermutation) or decreasing (via hypomutation) the HIV-1 mutation rate through APOBEC3 proteins are discussed. ..
  29. Olsen N, Decker D, Higgins P, Becker P, McAloose C, Benko A, et al. Direct effects of HP Acthar Gel on human B lymphocyte activation in vitro. Arthritis Res Ther. 2015;17:300 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) was carried out by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
  30. Park J, Welner R, Chan M, Troppito L, Staber P, Tenen D, et al. The DNA Ligase IV Syndrome R278H Mutation Impairs B Lymphopoiesis via Error-Prone Nonhomologous End-Joining. J Immunol. 2016;196:244-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Activated Lig4(R/R)HL B cells consistently accumulated high frequencies of activation-induced cytidine deaminase-dependent IgH locus chromosomal breaks and translocations and were more prone to apoptosis, effects that ..
  31. Dubey R, Saneja A, Gupta P, Gupta P. Recent advances in drug delivery strategies for improved therapeutic efficacy of gemcitabine. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2016;93:147-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, short plasma half-life due to metabolism by cytidine deaminase necessitates administration of high dose, which limits its medical applicability...
  32. Knisbacher B, Gerber D, Levanon E. DNA Editing by APOBECs: A Genomic Preserver and Transformer. Trends Genet. 2016;32:16-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The unique AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase)/APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide) family comprises proteins that alter ..
  33. Sapoznik S, Bahar Shany K, Brand H, Pinto Y, Gabay O, Glick Saar E, et al. Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Links Ovulation-Induced Inflammation and Serous Carcinogenesis. Neoplasia. 2016;18:90-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we propose the mutator protein activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) as a link between ovulation-induced inflammation in FTECs and genotoxic damage leading to ovarian ..
  34. Holleran J, Beumer J, McCormick D, Johnson W, Newman E, Doroshow J, et al. Oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine and THU in cynomolgus monkeys and humans. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2015;76:803-11 pubmed publisher
    ..FdCyd; NSC48006), a fluoropyrimidine nucleoside inhibitor of DNA methylation, is degraded by cytidine deaminase (CD)...
  35. Céspedes M, Guillen M, López Casas P, Sarno F, Gallardo A, Alamo P, et al. Lurbinectedin induces depletion of tumor-associated macrophages, an essential component of its in vivo synergism with gemcitabine, in pancreatic adenocarcinoma mouse models. Dis Model Mech. 2016;9:1461-1471 pubmed
    ..consequence of the interaction of the two drugs with the DNA, lurbinectedin induced TAM depletion leading to cytidine deaminase (CDA) downregulation in PDA tumors...
  36. Shimatani Z, Kashojiya S, Takayama M, Terada R, Arazoe T, Ishii H, et al. Targeted base editing in rice and tomato using a CRISPR-Cas9 cytidine deaminase fusion. Nat Biotechnol. 2017;35:441-443 pubmed publisher
    We applied a fusion of CRISPR-Cas9 and activation-induced cytidine deaminase (Target-AID) for point mutagenesis at genomic regions specified by single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) in two crop plants...
  37. Polevoda B, Joseph R, Friedman A, Bennett R, Greiner R, De Zoysa T, et al. DNA mutagenic activity and capacity for HIV-1 restriction of the cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G depend on whether DNA or RNA binds to tyrosine 315. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:8642-8656 pubmed publisher
  38. Molan A, Hanson H, Chweya C, Anderson B, Starrett G, Richards C, et al. APOBEC3B lysine residues are dispensable for DNA cytosine deamination, HIV-1 restriction, and nuclear localization. Virology. 2017;511:74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Human APOBEC3B (A3B) shows strong virus restriction activities in a variety of experimental systems, and is subjected to tight ..
  39. Shimizu T, Chiba T, Marusawa H. Helicobacter pylori-Mediated Genetic Instability and Gastric Carcinogenesis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2017;400:305-323 pubmed publisher
    ..reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in inflammatory and gastric epithelial cells, as well as the expression of cytidine deaminase in gastric epithelial cells, may link H. pylori-related inflammation and DNA damage...
  40. Grigera F, Wuerffel R, Kenter A. MBD4 Facilitates Immunoglobulin Class Switch Recombination. Mol Cell Biol. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..The introduction of DSBs is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and requires base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR)...
  41. Sieuwerts A, Willis S, Burns M, Look M, Meijer van Gelder M, Schlicker A, et al. Elevated APOBEC3B correlates with poor outcomes for estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancers. Horm Cancer. 2014;5:405-13 pubmed publisher
    Recent observations connected DNA cytosine deaminase APOBEC3B to the genetic evolution of breast cancer. We addressed whether APOBEC3B is associated with breast cancer clinical outcomes...
  42. Xia Y, Stadler D, Lucifora J, Reisinger F, Webb D, Hösel M, et al. Interferon-γ and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Produced by T Cells Reduce the HBV Persistence Form, cccDNA, Without Cytolysis. Gastroenterology. 2016;150:194-205 pubmed publisher
    ..from patients with acute hepatitis B, but not chronic hepatitis B or controls, hepatocytes expressed APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B. IFNγ and TNF-α, produced by T cells, reduce levels of HBV cccDNA in hepatocytes by inducing deamination ..
  43. Prabhu P, Shandilya S, Britan Rosich E, Nagler A, Schiffer C, Kotler M. Inhibition of APOBEC3G activity impedes double-stranded DNA repair. FEBS J. 2016;283:112-29 pubmed publisher
    The cellular cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) was first described as an anti-HIV-1 restriction factor, acting by directly deaminating reverse transcripts of the viral genome...
  44. Land A, Wang J, Law E, Aberle R, Kirmaier A, Krupp A, et al. Degradation of the cancer genomic DNA deaminase APOBEC3B by SIV Vif. Oncotarget. 2015;6:39969-79 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3B is a newly identified source of mutation in many cancers, including breast, head/neck, lung, bladder, cervical, and ovarian...
  45. Chen Y, Hu F, Dong X, Zhao M, Wang J, Sun X, et al. SHIP-1 Deficiency in AID+ B Cells Leads to the Impaired Function of B10 Cells with Spontaneous Autoimmunity. J Immunol. 2017;199:3063-3073 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report the finding that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is highly upregulated in the IL-10-competent B cell (B10) cell from Innp5dfl/flAicda..
  46. Ooms M, Letko M, Simon V. The Structural Interface between HIV-1 Vif and Human APOBEC3H. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3H (A3H) is a cytidine deaminase that inhibits HIV-1 replication. To evade this restriction, the HIV-1 Vif protein binds A3H and mediates its proteasomal degradation...
  47. Li X, Wang Y, Liu Y, Yang B, Wang X, Wei J, et al. Base editing with a Cpf1-cytidine deaminase fusion. Nat Biotechnol. 2018;36:324-327 pubmed publisher
    ..The base editor recognizes a T-rich PAM sequence and catalyzes C-to-T conversion in human cells, while inducing low levels of indels, non-C-to-T substitutions and off-target editing. ..
  48. Carouge D, Blanc V, Knoblaugh S, Hunter R, Davidson N, Nadeau J. Parent-of-origin effects of A1CF and AGO2 on testicular germ-cell tumors, testicular abnormalities, and fertilization bias. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E5425-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme complex 1 (APOBEC1) cytidine deaminase and Deadend-1, which are involved in C-to-U RNA editing and microRNA-dependent mRNA silencing, respectively, ..
  49. Yen W, Chaudhry A, Vaidyanathan B, Yewdell W, Pucella J, Sharma R, et al. BRCT-domain protein BRIT1 influences class switch recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..with phosphorylated H2AX and that BRIT1 is recruited to the Igh locus in an activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and H2AX-dependent fashion...
  50. Freed E, Mouland A. The cell biology of HIV-1 and other retroviruses. Retrovirology. 2006;3:77 pubmed
    ..MEETING REPORT: The conference began with a keynote address from W. Sundquist on the biochemistry of HIV-1 budding. This presentation will be described in the section on Assembly and Release of Retroviruses. ..
  51. Al Ismail A, Husain A, Kobayashi M, Honjo T, Begum N. Depletion of recombination specific co-factors by the C-terminal mutant of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase causes the dominant negative effect on class switch recombination. Int Immunol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes...
  52. Chen Y, Hu J, Cai X, Huang Y, Zhou X, Tu Z, et al. APOBEC3B edits HBV DNA and inhibits HBV replication during reverse transcription. Antiviral Res. 2018;149:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B is a cellular restriction factor for HBV...
  53. Gemble S, Buhagiar Labarchède G, Onclercq Delic R, Biard D, Lambert S, Amor Gueret M. A balanced pyrimidine pool is required for optimal Chk1 activation to prevent ultrafine anaphase bridge formation. J Cell Sci. 2016;129:3167-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Cytidine deaminase (CDA) deficiency induces an excess of cellular dCTP, which reduces basal PARP-1 activity, thereby compromising complete DNA replication, leading to ultrafine anaphase bridge (UFB) formation...
  54. Zhang J, Wei W, Jin H, Ying R, Zhu A, Zhang F. The roles of APOBEC3B in gastric cancer. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:5089-96 pubmed
    ..polypeptide-like 3) expression was higher in gastric cancer tissues than that in normal tissues and confirmed APOBEC3B expression was correlated with the unfavorable prognosis of the patients with gastric cancer...
  55. Buisson R, Lawrence M, Benes C, Zou L. APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B Activities Render Cancer Cells Susceptible to ATR Inhibition. Cancer Res. 2017;77:4567-4578 pubmed publisher
    The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B have emerged as key mutation drivers in cancer...
  56. Tsume Y, Drelich A, Smith D, Amidon G. Potential Development of Tumor-Targeted Oral Anti-Cancer Prodrugs: Amino Acid and Dipeptide Monoester Prodrugs of Gemcitabine. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..were synthesized and their chemical stability in buffers, resistance to thymidine phosphorylase and cytidine deaminase, antiproliferative activity, and uptake/permeability in HFF cells as a surrogate to stroma cells were ..
  57. Xiao X, Yang H, Arutiunian V, Fang Y, Besse G, Morimoto C, et al. Structural determinants of APOBEC3B non-catalytic domain for molecular assembly and catalytic regulation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:7494-7506 pubmed publisher
    The catalytic activity of human cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B (A3B) has been correlated with kataegic mutational patterns within multiple cancer types...
  58. Amin A, Peters T, Li L, Rajan S, Choudhari R, Puvvada S, et al. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: can genomics improve treatment options for a curable cancer?. Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud. 2017;3:a001719 pubmed publisher
    ..when differentiating drivers from passengers, which is influenced by the promiscuity of activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Furthermore, we discuss why, despite having so much genomic data available, it has been difficult to move ..
  59. Wang Z, Wakae K, Kitamura K, Aoyama S, Liu G, Koura M, et al. APOBEC3 deaminases induce hypermutation in human papillomavirus 16 DNA upon beta interferon stimulation. J Virol. 2014;88:1308-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that endogenous A3s upregulated by IFN-? induce E2 hypermutation of HPV16 in cervical keratinocytes, and a pathogenic consequence of E2 hypermutation is discussed. ..
  60. Lindley R, Humbert P, Larner C, Akmeemana E, Pendlebury C. Association between targeted somatic mutation (TSM) signatures and HGS-OvCa progression. Cancer Med. 2016;5:2629-40 pubmed publisher
    Evidence already exists that the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID/APOBEC) and the adenosine deaminase (ADAR) families of enzymes are implicated as powerful mutagens in oncogenic processes in many somatic tissues...
  61. Göhler S, da Silva Filho M, Johansson R, Enquist Olsson K, Henriksson R, Hemminki K, et al. Impact of functional germline variants and a deletion polymorphism in APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B on breast cancer risk and survival in a Swedish study population. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016;142:273-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Also overexpression of APOBEC3B and a ~29.5-kb deletion polymorphism between APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B have been associated with increased BC risk...
  62. Chen T, Lee C, Liu H, Wu C, Pickering C, Huang P, et al. APOBEC3A is an oral cancer prognostic biomarker in Taiwanese carriers of an APOBEC deletion polymorphism. Nat Commun. 2017;8:465 pubmed publisher
    ..in 50 matched samples, we uncover in Taiwanese patients a predominant mutation signature associated with cytidine deaminase APOBEC, which correlates with the upregulation of APOBEC3A expression in the APOBEC3 gene cluster at 22q13...
  63. Luo X, Huang Y, Chen Y, Tu Z, Hu J, Tavis J, et al. Association of Hepatitis B Virus Covalently Closed Circular DNA and Human APOBEC3B in Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0157708 pubmed publisher
    ..Among 7 APOBEC3 genes, APOBEC3B was the only one up-regulated in cancerous tissues both at the transcriptional and protein levels (p < 0.05)...
  64. Meng X, Yang B, Suen W. Prospects for modulating the CD40/CD40L pathway in the therapy of the hyper-IgM syndrome. Innate Immun. 2017;:1753425917739681 pubmed publisher
    ..Defects in CD40 and CD40L interactions or in downstream signaling molecules, including activation-induced cytidine deaminase, uracyl-DNA-glycosylase, NF-?B and DNA repair enzymes, result in an increased level of serum IgM and a ..
  65. Liu J, Sieuwerts A, Look M, van der Vlugt Daane M, Meijer van Gelder M, Foekens J, et al. The 29.5 kb APOBEC3B Deletion Polymorphism Is Not Associated with Clinical Outcome of Breast Cancer. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0161731 pubmed publisher
    Increased APOBEC3B mRNA levels are associated with a hypermutator phenotype and poor prognosis in ER-positive breast cancer patients. In addition, a 29...
  66. Tsukamoto T, Nakano M, Sato R, Adachi H, Kiyota M, Kawata E, et al. High-risk follicular lymphomas harbour more somatic mutations including those in the AID-motif. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14039 pubmed publisher
    ..deamination of 5-methylcytosine at CpG, but mutations in WA and WRC(Y) motifs (so-called activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) motifs) were also enriched throughout the whole exome...
  67. Marin M, Golem S, Rose K, Kozak S, Kabat D. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif functionally interacts with diverse APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases and moves with them between cytoplasmic sites of mRNA metabolism. J Virol. 2008;82:987-98 pubmed
    ..a standard model for the viral infectivity factor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), binds the cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) and induces its degradation, thereby precluding its lethal incorporation into assembling ..
  68. Mayer C, Gazumyan A, Kara E, Gitlin A, Golijanin J, Viant C, et al. The microanatomic segregation of selection by apoptosis in the germinal center. Science. 2017;358: pubmed publisher
    ..regulated in the light zone and the dark zone: Light-zone B cells die by default if they are not positively selected, whereas dark-zone cells die when their antigen receptors are damaged by activation-induced cytidine deaminase.
  69. Frasca D, Diaz A, Romero M, Blomberg B. The generation of memory B cells is maintained, but the antibody response is not, in the elderly after repeated influenza immunizations. Vaccine. 2016;34:2834-40 pubmed publisher
    ..vaccine, the ex vivo plasmablast response, the in vitro B cell function, measured by AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase), and the transcription factor E47, are significantly associated and decreased in elderly individuals...
  70. Andrés Colás N, Zhu Q, Takenaka M, De Rybel B, Weijers D, Van Der Straeten D. Multiple PPR protein interactions are involved in the RNA editing system in Arabidopsis mitochondria and plastids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:8883-8888 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that the E+-type pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein SLO2, which lacks a C-terminal cytidine deaminase-like DYW domain, interacts in vivo with the DYW-type PPR protein DYW2 and the P-type PPR protein NUWA in ..
  71. Prochnow C, Bransteitter R, Chen X. APOBEC deaminases-mutases with defensive roles for immunity. Sci China C Life Sci. 2009;52:893-902 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) plays a central role in the biochemical steps of somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination ..
  72. Jin Z, Han Y, Han X. The role of APOBEC3B in chondrosarcoma. Oncol Rep. 2014;32:1867-72 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrated that expression of the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3B (APOBEC3B) was higher in cancer tissues when compared to that in normal tissues...
  73. Chen H, Zhang R, Luo R, Yang L, Wang R, Hao X, et al. Anti-HIV Activities and Mechanism of 12-O-Tricosanoylphorbol-20-acetate, a Novel Phorbol Ester from Ostodes katharinae. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    APOBEC3G is a member of the human cytidine deaminase family that restricts Vif-deficient viruses by being packaged with progeny virions and inducing the G to A mutation during the synthesis of HIV-1 viral DNA when the progeny virus ..
  74. Chiu Y, Greene W. APOBEC3G: an intracellular centurion. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009;364:689-703 pubmed publisher
    ..LMM A3G opposes the external threat posed by exogenous retroviruses, while HMM A3G complexes oppose the internal threat posed by the retrotransposition of select types of retroelements. ..
  75. Prasetyo A, Sariyatun R, Reviono -, Sari Y, Hudiyono -, Haryati S, et al. The APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism is associated with prevalence of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Torque Teno virus, and Toxoplasma gondii co-infection among HIV-infected individuals. J Clin Virol. 2015;70:67-71 pubmed publisher
    Data regarding the influence of the APOBEC3B deletion on infectious diseases remain limited and shown discrepancies...
  76. Cescon D, Haibe Kains B, Mak T. APOBEC3B expression in breast cancer reflects cellular proliferation, while a deletion polymorphism is associated with immune activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:2841-6 pubmed publisher
    ..cancers have identified patterns of mutations that have been attributed to the endogenous mutator activity of APOBEC3B (A3B), a member of the AID/APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases...
  77. Waters C, Saldivar J, Amin Z, Schrock M, Huebner K. FHIT loss-induced DNA damage creates optimal APOBEC substrates: Insights into APOBEC-mediated mutagenesis. Oncotarget. 2015;6:3409-19 pubmed
    APOBEC cytidine deaminase activity is a major source of hypermutation in cancer...