Gene Symbol: APOBEC3A
Description: apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3A
Alias: A3A, ARP3, PHRBN, bK150C2.1, DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3A, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3A, phorbolin-1
Species: human
Products:     APOBEC3A

Top Publications

  1. Suspène R, Aynaud M, Vartanian J, Wain Hobson S. Efficient deamination of 5-methylcytidine and 5-substituted cytidine residues in DNA by human APOBEC3A cytidine deaminase. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63461 pubmed publisher
    ..Deamination of C was generally considered to arise spontaneously. It is now clear that human APOBEC3A (A3A), a polynucleotide cytidine deaminase (PCD) with specificity for single stranded DNA, can extensively ..
  2. Madsen P, Anant S, Rasmussen H, Gromov P, Vorum H, Dumanski J, et al. Psoriasis upregulated phorbolin-1 shares structural but not functional similarity to the mRNA-editing protein apobec-1. J Invest Dermatol. 1999;113:162-9 pubmed
  3. Landry S, Narvaiza I, Linfesty D, Weitzman M. APOBEC3A can activate the DNA damage response and cause cell-cycle arrest. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:444-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that expression of APOBEC3A can lead to induction of DNA breaks and activation of damage responses in a deaminase-dependent manner...
  4. Pham P, Landolph A, Mendez C, Li N, Goodman M. A biochemical analysis linking APOBEC3A to disparate HIV-1 restriction and skin cancer. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:29294-304 pubmed publisher
    Human deoxycytidine deaminase APOBEC3A (Apo3A) acts as an HIV-1 restriction factor in cells of myeloid lineage yet functions separately as a potent mutator for genomic DNA...
  5. Thielen B, McNevin J, McElrath M, Hunt B, Klein K, Lingappa J. Innate immune signaling induces high levels of TC-specific deaminase activity in primary monocyte-derived cells through expression of APOBEC3A isoforms. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:27753-66 pubmed publisher
    ..deaminase activity required new transcription and translation and correlated with the appearance of two APOBEC3A (A3A) isoforms...
  6. Desimmie B, Delviks Frankenberrry K, Burdick R, Qi D, Izumi T, Pathak V. Multiple APOBEC3 restriction factors for HIV-1 and one Vif to rule them all. J Mol Biol. 2014;426:1220-45 pubmed publisher
  7. Malim M. APOBEC proteins and intrinsic resistance to HIV-1 infection. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009;364:675-87 pubmed publisher
  8. Jarmuz A, Chester A, Bayliss J, Gisbourne J, Dunham I, Scott J, et al. An anthropoid-specific locus of orphan C to U RNA-editing enzymes on chromosome 22. Genomics. 2002;79:285-96 pubmed
    ..Seven additional genes, or pseudogenes (designated APOBEC3A to 3G), are arrayed in tandem on chromosome 22...
  9. Berger A, Munk C, Schweizer M, Cichutek K, Schüle S, Flory E. Interaction of Vpx and apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 family member A (APOBEC3A) correlates with efficient lentivirus infection of monocytes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:12248-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Vpx binds to apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide 3 family member A (APOBEC3A; A3A), a member of the family of cytidine deaminases, present in monocytes...

More Information


  1. Henry M, Terzian C, Peeters M, Wain Hobson S, Vartanian J. Evolution of the primate APOBEC3A cytidine deaminase gene and identification of related coding regions. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30036 pubmed publisher
    The APOBEC3 gene cluster encodes six cytidine deaminases (A3A-C, A3DE, A3F-H) with single stranded DNA (ssDNA) substrate specificity...
  2. Goila Gaur R, Khan M, Miyagi E, Kao S, Strebel K. Targeting APOBEC3A to the viral nucleoprotein complex confers antiviral activity. Retrovirology. 2007;4:61 pubmed
    ..b>A3A has significant homology to the C-terminus of A3G but has only a single cytidine deaminase active site (CDA), ..
  3. Kidd J, Newman T, Tuzun E, Kaul R, Eichler E. Population stratification of a common APOBEC gene deletion polymorphism. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e63 pubmed
    ..These data emphasize the importance of directly genotyping structural variation in association studies and of accurately resolving variant breakpoints before proceeding with more detailed population-genetic analysis. ..
  4. Aynaud M, Suspène R, Vidalain P, Mussil B, Guetard D, Tangy F, et al. Human Tribbles 3 protects nuclear DNA from cytidine deamination by APOBEC3A. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39182-92 pubmed publisher
    The human polydeoxynucleotide cytidine deaminases APOBEC3A, APOBEC3C, and APOBEC3H are capable of mutating viral DNA in the nucleus, whereas APOBEC3A alone efficiently edits nuclear DNA...
  5. Byeon I, Ahn J, Mitra M, Byeon C, Hercík K, Hritz J, et al. NMR structure of human restriction factor APOBEC3A reveals substrate binding and enzyme specificity. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1890 pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3A is a single-stranded DNA cytidine deaminase that restricts viral pathogens and endogenous retrotransposons, and has a role in the innate immune response...
  6. Mussil B, Suspène R, Aynaud M, Gauvrit A, Vartanian J, Wain Hobson S. Human APOBEC3A isoforms translocate to the nucleus and induce DNA double strand breaks leading to cell stress and death. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73641 pubmed publisher
    ..However, only one, APOBEC3A, can hypermutate genomic DNA...
  7. Wijesinghe P, Bhagwat A. Efficient deamination of 5-methylcytosines in DNA by human APOBEC3A, but not by AID or APOBEC3G. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:9206-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that while all three genes show strong ability to convert C to U, only APOBEC3A is an efficient deaminator of 5mC...
  8. Land A, Law E, Carpenter M, Lackey L, Brown W, Harris R. Endogenous APOBEC3A DNA cytosine deaminase is cytoplasmic and nongenotoxic. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:17253-60 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3A (A3A) is a myeloid lineage-specific DNA cytosine deaminase with a role in innate immunity to foreign DNA...
  9. Mitra M, Hercík K, Byeon I, Ahn J, Hill S, Hinchee Rodriguez K, et al. Structural determinants of human APOBEC3A enzymatic and nucleic acid binding properties. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:1095-110 pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3A (A3A) is a single-domain cytidine deaminase that converts deoxycytidine residues to deoxyuridine in single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)...
  10. Wedekind J, Dance G, Sowden M, Smith H. Messenger RNA editing in mammals: new members of the APOBEC family seeking roles in the family business. Trends Genet. 2003;19:207-16 pubmed
    ..In light of the hypothesis that these proteins might represent novel mRNA editing systems that could affect proteome diversity, we consider their structure, expression and relevance to biomedically significant processes or pathologies. ..
  11. Narvaiza I, Linfesty D, Greener B, Hakata Y, Pintel D, Logue E, et al. Deaminase-independent inhibition of parvoviruses by the APOBEC3A cytidine deaminase. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000439 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to APOBEC3G (A3G), APOBEC3A (A3A) has no effect on lentiviruses but dramatically inhibits replication of the parvovirus adeno-associated ..
  12. Ooms M, Krikoni A, Kress A, Simon V, Munk C. APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, and APOBEC3H haplotype 2 restrict human T-lymphotropic virus type 1. J Virol. 2012;86:6097-108 pubmed publisher
    The human APOBEC3 family consists of seven cytidine deaminases (A3A to A3H), some of which display potent antiretroviral activity against HIV-1 and other retroviruses...
  13. Love R, Xu H, Chelico L. Biochemical analysis of hypermutation by the deoxycytidine deaminase APOBEC3A. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:30812-22 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3A belongs to a family of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) DNA cytosine deaminases that are known for restriction of HIV through deamination-induced mutational inactivation, e.g...
  14. Chen H, Lilley C, Yu Q, Lee D, Chou J, Narvaiza I, et al. APOBEC3A is a potent inhibitor of adeno-associated virus and retrotransposons. Curr Biol. 2006;16:480-5 pubmed
    ..One family member, APOBEC3A (hA3A), is an orphan, without any known antiviral activity...
  15. Bogerd H, Wiegand H, Doehle B, Lueders K, Cullen B. APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B are potent inhibitors of LTR-retrotransposon function in human cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:89-95 pubmed
    ..we extend this earlier work by showing that two other members of the human APOBEC3 protein family, APOBEC3B and APOBEC3A, can reduce retrotransposition by the intracisternal A-particle (IAP) retrotransposon in human cells by 20-fold ..
  16. Hultquist J, Lengyel J, Refsland E, LaRue R, Lackey L, Brown W, et al. Human and rhesus APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H demonstrate a conserved capacity to restrict Vif-deficient HIV-1. J Virol. 2011;85:11220-34 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, neither human nor rhesus APOBEC3A, APOBEC3B, nor APOBEC3C had a significant impact on HIV-1 replication...
  17. Koning F, Goujon C, Bauby H, Malim M. Target cell-mediated editing of HIV-1 cDNA by APOBEC3 proteins in human macrophages. J Virol. 2011;85:13448-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the local sequence contexts of these mutations and the established characteristics of APOBEC3 protein expression in myeloid cells, we speculate that APOBEC3A may be responsible for a substantial proportion of this activity.
  18. Bulliard Y, Narvaiza I, Bertero A, Peddi S, R hrig U, Ortiz M, et al. Structure-function analyses point to a polynucleotide-accommodating groove essential for APOBEC3A restriction activities. J Virol. 2011;85:1765-76 pubmed publisher
    Members of the human APOBEC3 family of editing enzymes can inhibit various mobile genetic elements. APOBEC3A (A3A) can block the retrotransposon LINE-1 and the parvovirus adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) but does not inhibit ..
  19. Stenglein M, Burns M, Li M, Lengyel J, Harris R. APOBEC3 proteins mediate the clearance of foreign DNA from human cells. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that human cells possess an analogous mechanism. APOBEC3A is induced by interferon following DNA detection, and it deaminates foreign double-stranded DNA cytidines to ..
  20. Guo J, Su Y, Zhong C, Ming G, Song H. Hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine by TET1 promotes active DNA demethylation in the adult brain. Cell. 2011;145:423-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests a TET1-induced oxidation-deamination mechanism for active DNA demethylation in mammals. ..
  21. Vartanian J, Guetard D, Henry M, Wain Hobson S. Evidence for editing of human papillomavirus DNA by APOBEC3 in benign and precancerous lesions. Science. 2008;320:230-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Three human APOBEC3A (hA3A), hA3B, and hA3H genes are expressed in keratinocytes and skin, leading us to determine whether genetic ..
  22. Taylor B, Nik Zainal S, Wu Y, Stebbings L, Raine K, Campbell P, et al. DNA deaminases induce break-associated mutation showers with implication of APOBEC3B and 3A in breast cancer kataegis. elife. 2013;2:e00534 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with expression and functional assays, the results implicate APOBEC3B/A in breast cancer hypermutation and give insight into the mechanism of kataegis. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00534.001. ..
  23. Mishra M, Kowluru R. DNA Methylation-a Potential Source of Mitochondria DNA Base Mismatch in the Development of Diabetic Retinopathy. Mol Neurobiol. 2019;56:88-101 pubmed publisher
    ..in the cells genetically modulated for mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2) or cytidine-deaminase (APOBEC3A)...
  24. Xia Y, Stadler D, Lucifora J, Reisinger F, Webb D, Hösel M, et al. Interferon-γ and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Produced by T Cells Reduce the HBV Persistence Form, cccDNA, Without Cytolysis. Gastroenterology. 2016;150:194-205 pubmed publisher
    ..specimens from patients with acute hepatitis B, but not chronic hepatitis B or controls, hepatocytes expressed APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B...
  25. Wrasman K, Alioto S, Zhang Y, Hoban K, Khairy M, Goode B, et al. A Flow Cytometry-Based Phenotypic Screen To Identify Novel Endocytic Factors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. G3 (Bethesda). 2018;8:1497-1512 pubmed publisher
    ..known roles in endocytosis: the endocytic coat components SLA2, SLA1, and EDE1, and the ARP3 gene, whose product is involved in nucleating actin filaments to form branched networks...
  26. Nair S, Zlotnick A. Asymmetric Modification of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Genomes by an Endogenous Cytidine Deaminase inside HBV Cores Informs a Model of Reverse Transcription. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Within this half of the genome, the number of mutations peaks in the middle. Overexpressed APOBEC3A and APOBEC3G could be packaged in HBV capsids but did not change the amount or distribution of mutations...
  27. Kostrzak A, Caval V, Escande M, Pliquet E, Thalmensi J, Bestetti T, et al. APOBEC3A intratumoral DNA electroporation in mice. Gene Ther. 2017;24:74-83 pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3A (A3A) cytidine deaminase shows pro-apoptotic properties resulting from hypermutation of genomic DNA, induction of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) and G1 cell cycle arrest...
  28. Niu C, Li L, Daffis S, Lucifora J, Bonnin M, Maadadi S, et al. Toll-like receptor 7 agonist GS-9620 induces prolonged inhibition of HBV via a type I interferon-dependent mechanism. J Hepatol. 2018;68:922-931 pubmed publisher
    ..profiling demonstrated that GS-9620-CM strongly induced various HBV restriction factors - although not APOBEC3A or the Smc5/6 complex - and indicated that established HBV infection does not modulate innate immune sensing or ..
  29. Lucifora J, Xia Y, Reisinger F, Zhang K, Stadler D, Cheng X, et al. Specific and nonhepatotoxic degradation of nuclear hepatitis B virus cccDNA. Science. 2014;343:1221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Interferon-α and lymphotoxin-β receptor activation up-regulated APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B cytidine deaminases, respectively, in HBV-infected cells, primary hepatocytes, and human liver ..
  30. Logue E, Bloch N, Dhuey E, Zhang R, Cao P, Hérate C, et al. A DNA sequence recognition loop on APOBEC3A controls substrate specificity. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97062 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3A (A3A), one of the seven-member APOBEC3 family of cytidine deaminases, lacks strong antiviral activity against lentiviruses but is a potent inhibitor of adeno-associated virus and endogenous retroelements...
  31. Radmanesh H, Spethmann T, Enßen J, Schürmann P, Bhuju S, Geffers R, et al. Assessment of an APOBEC3B truncating mutation, c.783delG, in patients with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2017;162:31-37 pubmed publisher
    APOBEC3B belongs to the family of DNA-editing enzymes. A copy number variant targeting the genomic APOBEC3A-APOBEC3B locus has a significant impact on breast cancer risk, but the relative contribution of APOBEC3B is uncertain...
  32. Sharma S, Wang J, Cortes Gomez E, TAGGART R, Baysal B. Mitochondrial complex II regulates a distinct oxygen sensing mechanism in monocytes. Hum Mol Genet. 2017;26:1328-1339 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently showed that SDHB mRNAs in hypoxic monocytes gain a stop codon mutation by APOBEC3A-mediated C-to-U RNA editing...
  33. Warren C, Xu T, Guo K, Griffin L, Westrich J, Lee D, et al. APOBEC3A functions as a restriction factor of human papillomavirus. J Virol. 2015;89:688-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings raise the intriguing possibility that the induction of this host restriction mechanism by HPV may also trigger hA3A- and hA3B-induced cancer mutagenesis. ..
  34. Middlebrooks C, Banday A, Matsuda K, Udquim K, Onabajo O, Paquin A, et al. Association of germline variants in the APOBEC3 region with cancer risk and enrichment with APOBEC-signature mutations in tumors. Nat Genet. 2016;48:1330-1338 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, a 30-kb deletion that eliminates APOBEC3B and creates an APOBEC3A-APOBEC3B chimera was not important in bladder cancer, whereas it was associated with breast cancer risk and ..
  35. Mu J, Zhang Y, Hu Y, Hu X, Zhou Y, Chen X, et al. The role of viral protein Ac34 in nuclear relocation of subunits of the actin-related protein 2/3 complex. Virol Sin. 2016;31:480-489 pubmed publisher
    The actin nucleator actin-related protein complex (Arp2/3) is composed of seven subunits: Arp2, Arp3, p40/ARPC1 (P40), p34/ARPC2 (P34), p21/ARPC3 (P21), p20/ARPC4 (P20), and p16/ARPC5 (P16)...
  36. Sokolova O, Chemeris A, Guo S, Alioto S, Gandhi M, PADRICK S, et al. Structural Basis of Arp2/3 Complex Inhibition by GMF, Coronin, and Arpin. J Mol Biol. 2017;429:237-248 pubmed publisher
    ..the Arp2/3 complex, induced the standard open conformation, and two new masses appeared at positions near Arp2 and Arp3. Furthermore, Arpin showed additive inhibitory effects on Arp2/3 complex with Coronin and GMF...
  37. Siriwardena S, Guruge T, Bhagwat A. Characterization of the Catalytic Domain of Human APOBEC3B and the Critical Structural Role for a Conserved Methionine. J Mol Biol. 2015;427:3042-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, APOBEC3B was at least 10-fold less efficient at mutating 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to thymine than APOBEC3A in a genetic assay and was at least 10-fold less efficient at deaminating 5mC compared to C in biochemical assays...
  38. Warren C, Westrich J, Doorslaer K, Pyeon D. Roles of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B in Human Papillomavirus Infection and Disease Progression. Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..HPV infection is potently inhibited by one family member, APOBEC3A. Expression of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B is highly elevated by the HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 during persistent virus ..
  39. Gansmo L, Romundstad P, Hveem K, Vatten L, Nik Zainal S, Lønning P, et al. APOBEC3A/B deletion polymorphism and cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Activity of the APOBEC enzymes has been linked to specific mutational processes in human cancer genomes. A germline APOBEC3A/B deletion polymorphism is associated with APOBEC-dependent mutational signatures, and the deletion allele has ..
  40. Yamagishi Y, Oya K, Matsuura A, Abe H. Use of CK-548 and CK-869 as Arp2/3 complex inhibitors directly suppresses microtubule assembly both in vitro and in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;496:834-839 pubmed publisher
    ..In budding yeast, although CK-548 and CK-869 are reported to lack binding abilities in the yeast Arp3, CK-548 treatment decreased cytoplasmic MT at several tens of micromolar concentrations...
  41. Marin M, Golem S, Rose K, Kozak S, Kabat D. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif functionally interacts with diverse APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases and moves with them between cytoplasmic sites of mRNA metabolism. J Virol. 2008;82:987-98 pubmed
    ..Although the APOBEC3 paralogs A3A, A3B, and A3C have weaker anti-HIV-1 activities and are only partially degraded by Vif(IIIB), we found that Vif(..
  42. Sharma S, Patnaik S, TAGGART R, Baysal B. The double-domain cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G is a cellular site-specific RNA editing enzyme. Sci Rep. 2016;6:39100 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently discovered RNA editing by the single-domain enzyme APOBEC3A in innate immune cells...
  43. Kuo Y, Au H, Hsu J, Wang H, Lee C, Peng S, et al. IGF-1R Promotes Symmetric Self-Renewal and Migration of Alkaline Phosphatase+ Germ Stem Cells through HIF-2α-OCT4/CXCR4 Loop under Hypoxia. Stem Cell Reports. 2018;10:524-537 pubmed publisher
    ..IGF-1, and IGF-1R), and activated the cellular expression and translocalization of the CXCR4-downstream proteins ARP3/pFAK...
  44. Popinako A, Antonov M, Dibrova D, Chemeris A, Sokolova O. Analysis of the interactions between GMF and Arp2/3 complex in two binding sites by molecular dynamics simulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;496:529-535 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic and structural analyses of the recently defined GMF binding site on the Arp3 subunit indicate a new mechanism for Arp2/3 complex inactivation that involves interactions between the Arp2/3 ..
  45. Luan Q, Zelter A, MacCoss M, Davis T, Nolen B. Identification of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) binding sites on the branched actin filament nucleator Arp2/3 complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018;115:E1409-E1418 pubmed publisher
    ..and biochemical and structural studies led to models in which the WASP C segment engages the barbed ends of the Arp3 and Arp2 subunits while the WASP A segment binds the back side of the complex on Arp3...
  46. Cheng C, Nowak R, Biswas S, Lo W, FitzGerald P, Fowler V. Tropomodulin 1 Regulation of Actin Is Required for the Formation of Large Paddle Protrusions Between Mature Lens Fiber Cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:4084-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Fimbrin and Arp3 (actin-related protein 3) were located in puncta at the base of small protrusions, while N-cadherin and ezrin ..
  47. Li M, Xiao X, Mruk D, Lam Y, Lee W, Lui W, et al. Actin-binding protein drebrin E is involved in junction dynamics during spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis. 2011;1:123-136 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins Eps8 (epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8, an actin capping and bundling protein) and Arp3 (actin-related protein 3, a component of the Arp2/3 complex known to regulate actin nucleation and branching)...
  48. Rao J, Ashraf S, Tan W, van der Ven A, Gee H, Braun D, et al. Advillin acts upstream of phospholipase C ϵ1 in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:4257-4269 pubmed publisher
    ..of AVIL in human podocytes reduced actin stress fibers at the cell periphery, prevented recruitment of PLCE1 to the ARP3-rich lamellipodia, blocked EGF-induced generation of diacylglycerol (DAG) by PLCE1, and attenuated the podocyte ..
  49. Tang Y, Zhao J, Shen L, Jin Y, Zhang Z, Xu G, et al. ox-LDL induces endothelial dysfunction by promoting Arp2/3 complex expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;475:182-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that Arp2 and Arp3 expression was increased under atherosclerotic conditions both in ApoE-/- mice and in ox-LDL-stimulated human ..
  50. Cadima Couto I, Saraiva N, Santos A, Goncalves J. HIV-1 Vif interaction with APOBEC3 deaminases and its characterization by a new sensitive assay. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2011;6:296-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, with our results, we conclude that PCA could be used to quantitatively study specific domains that may be involved in the interaction between Vif and APOBEC proteins. ..
  51. Wu D, Huang C, Jiao X, Ding Z, Zhang J, Chen F, et al. Olaquindox disrupts tight junction integrity and cytoskeleton architecture in mouse Sertoli cells. Oncotarget. 2017;8:88630-88644 pubmed publisher
    ..F-actin architecture through interfering with the expression of actin branching protein complex (CDC42-N-WASP-Arp3) and actin bunding protein palladin...
  52. Selinski S, Blaszkewicz M, Ickstadt K, Gerullis H, Otto T, Roth E, et al. Identification and replication of the interplay of four genetic high risk variants for urinary bladder cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..The strongest four-variant combination was obtained in never smokers. The combination of rs1014971[AA] near APOBEC3A and CBX6, SLC14A1 exon SNP rs1058396[AG,GG], UGT1A intron SNP rs11892031[AA], and rs8102137[CC,CT] near CCNE ..
  53. Hoopes J, Cortez L, Mertz T, Malc E, Mieczkowski P, Roberts S. APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B Preferentially Deaminate the Lagging Strand Template during DNA Replication. Cell Rep. 2016;14:1273-1282 pubmed publisher
    ..To ascertain the chromosomal ssDNA substrates of the APOBECs, we expressed APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B, the two most probable APOBECs mediating cancer mutagenesis, in a yeast model system...
  54. Feng Y, Goubran M, Follack T, Chelico L. Deamination-independent restriction of LINE-1 retrotransposition by APOBEC3H. Sci Rep. 2017;7:10881 pubmed publisher
    ..However, recently it was shown that APOBEC3A can deaminate cytosine, to form uracil, on transiently exposed single-stranded LINE-1 cDNA and this leads to LINE-..
  55. Fountzilas G, Psyrri A, Giannoulatou E, Tikas I, Manousou K, Rontogianni D, et al. Prevalent somatic BRCA1 mutations shape clinically relevant genomic patterns of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Southeast Europe. Int J Cancer. 2018;142:66-80 pubmed publisher
    ..001). No pathogenic germline mutations were identified. NPC exhibited APOBEC3A/B and nucleotide-excision-repair-related mutational signatures...
  56. Qian X, Mruk D, Wong E, Cheng C. Breast cancer resistance protein regulates apical ectoplasmic specialization dynamics stage specifically in the rat testis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;304:E757-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Eps8 (epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8, an actin barbed end capping and bundling protein), and Arp3 (actin-related protein 3, a component of the Arp2/3 complex known to induce branched actin polymerization) at the ..
  57. Revathidevi S, Manikandan M, Rao A, Vinothkumar V, Arunkumar G, Rajkumar K, et al. Analysis of APOBEC3A/3B germline deletion polymorphism in breast, cervical and oral cancers from South India and its impact on miRNA regulation. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:11983-11990 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the APOBEC3A/3B deletion polymorphism is not significantly associated with cancer risk in our study population (OR 0...
  58. Niavarani A, Currie E, Reyal Y, Anjos Afonso F, Horswell S, Griessinger E, et al. APOBEC3A is implicated in a novel class of G-to-A mRNA editing in WT1 transcripts. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0120089 pubmed publisher
    ..1303G>A alteration upon APOBEC3A (A3A) knockdown...
  59. Dong E, Gavin D, Chen Y, Davis J. Upregulation of TET1 and downregulation of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3C in the parietal cortex of psychotic patients. Transl Psychiatry. 2012;2:e159 pubmed publisher
    ..This increase was inversely related to the decrease of GAD67 mRNA expression. Of 11 DNA deaminases measured, APOBEC3A mRNA was significantly decreased in the PSY and DEP patients, while APOBEC3C was decreased only in PSY patients...
  60. Wang Y, Wang Z, Pramanik A, Santiago M, Qiu J, Stephens E. A chimeric human APOBEC3A protein with a three amino acid insertion confers differential HIV-1 and adeno-associated virus restriction. Virology. 2016;498:149-163 pubmed publisher
    ..Human APOBEC3A(hA3A)has weak restriction activity against HIV-1?vifbut is efficiently restricted by an artificially generated ..
  61. Liu J, Calhoun V, Chen J, Claus E, Hutchison K. Effect of homozygous deletions at 22q13.1 on alcohol dependence severity and cue-elicited BOLD response in the precuneus. Addict Biol. 2013;18:548-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, the 22k base-pair homozygous deletion at 22q13.1 affects genes APOBEC3a and APOBEC3b...
  62. Adolph M, Love R, Feng Y, Chelico L. Enzyme cycling contributes to efficient induction of genome mutagenesis by the cytidine deaminase APOBEC3B. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:11925-11940 pubmed publisher
    The single-stranded DNA cytidine deaminases APOBEC3B, APOBEC3H haplotype I, and APOBEC3A can contribute to cancer through deamination of cytosine to form promutagenic uracil in genomic DNA...
  63. Li Y, Xia Y, Han M, Chen G, Zhang D, Thasler W, et al. IFN-?-mediated Base Excision Repair Pathway Correlates with Antiviral Response Against Hepatitis B Virus Infection. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12715 pubmed publisher
    ..BER gene expression levels and IFN treatment responses were correlated in patient liver biopsies. APOBEC3A, -B, -C, -D/E, and-G mRNA levels were up-regulated in IFN-treated patients...
  64. Green A, Budagyan K, Hayer K, Reed M, Savani M, Wertheim G, et al. Cytosine Deaminase APOBEC3A Sensitizes Leukemia Cells to Inhibition of the DNA Replication Checkpoint. Cancer Res. 2017;77:4579-4588 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated APOBEC3B expression has been detected in solid tumors, but expression of APOBEC3A (A3A) in cancer has not been described to date...
  65. Ahasan M, Wakae K, Wang Z, Kitamura K, Liu G, Koura M, et al. APOBEC3A and 3C decrease human papillomavirus 16 pseudovirion infectivity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;457:295-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that co-expression of A3A or A3C in 293FT cells greatly reduced the infectivity of PsV...
  66. Bohn M, Shandilya S, Silvas T, Nalivaika E, Kouno T, Kelch B, et al. The ssDNA Mutator APOBEC3A Is Regulated by Cooperative Dimerization. Structure. 2015;23:903-911 pubmed publisher
    Deaminase activity mediated by the human APOBEC3 family of proteins contributes to genomic instability and cancer. APOBEC3A is by far the most active in this family and can cause rapid cell death when overexpressed, but in general how the ..
  67. Guo S, Li Y, Wang Y, Chu H, Chen Y, Liu Q, et al. Copy Number Variation of HLA-DQA1 and APOBEC3A/3B Contribute to the Susceptibility of Systemic Sclerosis in the Chinese Han Population. J Rheumatol. 2016;43:880-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of the copy number variations (CNV) in the pathogenesis of SSc is unclear. We tried to identify some CNV that are involved with the susceptibility to SSc...
  68. Figueroa J, Ye Y, Siddiq A, Garcia Closas M, Chatterjee N, Prokunina Olsson L, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with bladder cancer risk. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:1387-98 pubmed publisher
  69. Niewiadomska A, Yu X. Host restriction of HIV-1 by APOBEC3 and viral evasion through Vif. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;339:1-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the research that led up to the identification of A3G, the mechanisms by which APOBEC3 proteins can inhibit retroelements, and the counter-mechanisms that HIV-1 Vif has developed to evade its antiviral activities. ..
  70. Sharma S, Patnaik S, Kemer Z, Baysal B. Transient overexpression of exogenous APOBEC3A causes C-to-U RNA editing of thousands of genes. RNA Biol. 2017;14:603-610 pubmed publisher
    b>APOBEC3A cytidine deaminase induces site-specific C-to-U RNA editing of hundreds of genes in monocytes exposed to hypoxia and/or interferons and in pro-inflammatory macrophages...
  71. McLaughlin R, Gable J, Wittkopp C, Emerman M, Malik H. Conservation and Innovation of APOBEC3A Restriction Functions during Primate Evolution. Mol Biol Evol. 2016;33:1889-901 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigate the evolution and function of the LINE-1 restriction factor APOBEC3A, a member of the APOBEC3 cytidine deaminase gene family...
  72. Wang Z, Wakae K, Kitamura K, Aoyama S, Liu G, Koura M, et al. APOBEC3 deaminases induce hypermutation in human papillomavirus 16 DNA upon beta interferon stimulation. J Virol. 2014;88:1308-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of W12 cells with beta interferon (IFN-?) increased expression levels of A3s such as A3A, A3F, and A3G and induced C-to-U conversions in the E2 gene in a manner depending on inhibition of uracil DNA ..
  73. Wang Y, Li X, Song S, Sun Y, Zhang J, Yu C, et al. HPV11 E6 mutation by overexpression of APOBEC3A and effects of interferon-? on APOBEC3s and HPV11 E6 expression in HPV11.HaCaT cells. Virol J. 2017;14:211 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated whether enhanced APOBEC3A (A3A) resulted in the E6 gene mutations and explore the effects of recombinant human interferon-? (rhIFN-?) on ..
  74. Shi K, Carpenter M, Banerjee S, Shaban N, Kurahashi K, Salamango D, et al. Structural basis for targeted DNA cytosine deamination and mutagenesis by APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2017;24:131-139 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report crystal structures of human APOBEC3A and a chimera of human APOBEC3B and APOBEC3A bound to ssDNA at 3.1-Å and 1.7-Å resolution, respectively...
  75. Chen T, Lee C, Liu H, Wu C, Pickering C, Huang P, et al. APOBEC3A is an oral cancer prognostic biomarker in Taiwanese carriers of an APOBEC deletion polymorphism. Nat Commun. 2017;8:465 pubmed publisher
    ..mutation signature associated with cytidine deaminase APOBEC, which correlates with the upregulation of APOBEC3A expression in the APOBEC3 gene cluster at 22q13...
  76. Schutsky E, Nabel C, Davis A, Denizio J, Kohli R. APOBEC3A efficiently deaminates methylated, but not TET-oxidized, cytosine bases in DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:7655-7665 pubmed publisher
    ..One specific family member, APOBEC3A (A3A), has been shown to readily deaminate mC, raising the prospect of broader activity on ox-mCs...
  77. Piguet V. Heat-Induced Editing of HPV Genes to Clear Mucocutaneous Warts?. J Invest Dermatol. 2017;137:796-797 pubmed publisher
    Hyperthermia increases expression of the antiviral cellular factors APOBEC3A and APOBEC3G and induces G-to-A or C-to-T mutations in human papilloma virus cervical cell lines and genital warts...
  78. Richardson S, Narvaiza I, Planegger R, Weitzman M, Moran J. APOBEC3A deaminates transiently exposed single-strand DNA during LINE-1 retrotransposition. elife. 2014;3:e02008 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these enzymes, APOBEC3A (A3A) is the most potent inhibitor of L1 retrotransposition in cultured cell assays...
  79. Green A, Landry S, Budagyan K, Avgousti D, Shalhout S, Bhagwat A, et al. APOBEC3A damages the cellular genome during DNA replication. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:998-1008 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated ssDNA at replication forks as a substrate for APOBEC3 deamination. We found that APOBEC3A (A3A) expression leads to DNA damage in replicating cells but this is reduced in quiescent cells...