APEX1

Summary

Gene Symbol: APEX1
Description: apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1
Alias: APE, APE1, APEN, APEX, APX, HAP1, REF1, DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase, AP endonuclease class I, AP lyase, APEX nuclease (multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1, apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1, apurinic/apyrimidinic (abasic) endonuclease, deoxyribonuclease (apurinic or apyrimidinic), protein REF-1, redox factor-1
Species: human
Products:     APEX1

Top Publications

  1. Moreno V, Gemignani F, Landi S, Gioia Patricola L, Chabrier A, Blanco I, et al. Polymorphisms in genes of nucleotide and base excision repair: risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:2101-8 pubmed
    ..The candidate genes belong to different DNA repair pathways: base excision repair (OGG1, LIG3, APEX, POLB, XRCC1, PCNA, and MUTYH), nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC4, and ERCC5), double-strand breaks ..
  2. Ueno M, Masutani H, Arai R, Yamauchi A, Hirota K, Sakai T, et al. Thioredoxin-dependent redox regulation of p53-mediated p21 activation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:35809-15 pubmed
    ..TRX also interacts with an intranuclear reducing molecule redox factor 1 (Ref-1), which enhances the activity of Jun/Fos...
  3. Li M, Vascotto C, Xu S, Dai N, Qing Y, Zhong Z, et al. Human AP endonuclease/redox factor APE1/ref-1 modulates mitochondrial function after oxidative stress by regulating the transcriptional activity of NRF1. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012;53:237-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that the human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor (APE1/Ref-1) is involved in mitochondrial function regulation by modulating the DNA-binding activity of NRF1...
  4. Thomson B, Tritt R, Davis M, Kelley M. Histology-specific expression of a DNA repair protein in pediatric rhabdomyosarcomas. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2001;23:234-9 pubmed
    ..The enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor 1 (APE/ref1), a key protein in the base excision repair pathway, displays both repair and redox control...
  5. Okazaki T, Chung U, Nishishita T, Ebisu S, Usuda S, Mishiro S, et al. A redox factor protein, ref1, is involved in negative gene regulation by extracellular calcium. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:27855-62 pubmed
    ..Our Southwestern cloning revealed that a redox factor protein (ref1), which was known to activate several transcription factors via alterations of their redox state, belonged to an ..
  6. Fishel M, He Y, Reed A, Chin Sinex H, Hutchins G, Mendonca M, et al. Knockdown of the DNA repair and redox signaling protein Ape1/Ref-1 blocks ovarian cancer cell and tumor growth. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:177-86 pubmed
    Apurinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1 or Ape1) is an essential protein with two distinct functions...
  7. Meisenberg C, Tait P, Dianova I, Wright K, Edelmann M, Ternette N, et al. Ubiquitin ligase UBR3 regulates cellular levels of the essential DNA repair protein APE1 and is required for genome stability. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:701-11 pubmed publisher
    b>APE1 (Ref-1) is an essential human protein involved in DNA damage repair and regulation of transcription...
  8. Wilson D. Properties of and substrate determinants for the exonuclease activity of human apurinic endonuclease Ape1. J Mol Biol. 2003;330:1027-37 pubmed
    b>Ape1 is the major human abasic endonuclease, initiating repair of this common DNA lesion by incising the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the damage site. This enzyme also functions in specific contexts to excise 3'-blocking termini, e.g...
  9. Huang W, Gao Y, Rashid A, Sakoda L, Deng J, Shen M, et al. Selected base excision repair gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to biliary tract cancer and biliary stones: a population-based case-control study in China. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:100-5 pubmed
    ..group 1 (XRCC1) (R194W, rs1799782; R280H, rs25489 and R399Q, rs25487), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APEX1) (D148E, rs3136820) and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) (S326C, rs1052133), in a population-based study of 411 ..

More Information

Publications206 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wong D, DeMott M, Demple B. Modulation of the 3'-->5'-exonuclease activity of human apurinic endonuclease (Ape1) by its 5'-incised Abasic DNA product. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:36242-9 pubmed
    The major abasic endonuclease of human cells, Ape1 protein, is a multifunctional enzyme with critical roles in base excision repair (BER) of DNA...
  2. Smith T, Levine E, Freimanis R, Akman S, Allen G, Hoang K, et al. Polygenic model of DNA repair genetic polymorphisms in human breast cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:2132-8 pubmed publisher
    ..single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) in four DNA repair pathways-(i) base excision repair: ADPRT V762A, APE1 D148E, XRCC1 R194W/R280H/R399Q and POLD1 R119H; (ii) nucleotide excision repair: ERCC2 D312N/K751Q, ERCC4 R415Q, ..
  3. Li M, Zhong Z, Zhu J, Xiang D, Dai N, Cao X, et al. Identification and characterization of mitochondrial targeting sequence of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:14871-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) plays a central role in the cellular response to oxidative stress...
  4. Narter K, Ergen A, Agachan B, Gormus U, Timirci O, Isbir T. Bladder cancer and polymorphisms of DNA repair genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, XPG, APE1, hOGG1). Anticancer Res. 2009;29:1389-93 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate six of these genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, XPG, APE1, hOGG1) each of which has a separate role in these repair mechanisms...
  5. Hadi M, Ginalski K, Nguyen L, Wilson D. Determinants in nuclease specificity of Ape1 and Ape2, human homologues of Escherichia coli exonuclease III. J Mol Biol. 2002;316:853-66 pubmed
    ..b>Ape1, which shares homology with Escherichia coli exonuclease III (ExoIII), is the major abasic endonuclease in mammals ..
  6. Kenny M, Mendez F, Sandigursky M, Kureekattil R, Goldman J, Franklin W, et al. Heat shock protein 70 binds to human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease and stimulates endonuclease activity at abasic sites. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:9532-6 pubmed
    The interaction of human heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) with human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (HAP1) was demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation...
  7. Seemann S, Hainaut P. Roles of thioredoxin reductase 1 and APE/Ref-1 in the control of basal p53 stability and activity. Oncogene. 2005;24:3853-63 pubmed
    ..In mammalian cells, p53 binds to redox factor-1 (APE/Ref-1), an enzyme containing an abasic endonuclease domain involved in base excision repair, and a thiol reductase ..
  8. Frossi B, Tell G, Spessotto P, Colombatti A, Vitale G, Pucillo C. H(2)O(2) induces translocation of APE/Ref-1 to mitochondria in the Raji B-cell line. J Cell Physiol. 2002;193:180-6 pubmed
    ..The base excision repair (BER) enzyme APE/Ref-1 normally repairs small nuclear DNA lesion such as oxidized or alkylated bases...
  9. De Ruyck K, Szaumkessel M, De Rudder I, Dehoorne A, Vral A, Claes K, et al. Polymorphisms in base-excision repair and nucleotide-excision repair genes in relation to lung cancer risk. Mutat Res. 2007;631:101-10 pubmed
    ..base-excision and nucleotide-excision repair gene polymorphisms (XRCC1 -77 T/C, Arg194Trp, Arg280His and Arg399Gln; APE1 Asp148Glu; OGG1 Ser326Cys; XPA -4 G/A; XPC PAT; XPD Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln) with lung cancer risk in Caucasians...
  10. Zhang Y, Wang J, Xiang D, Wang D, Xin X. Alterations in the expression of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) in human ovarian cancer and indentification of the therapeutic potential of APE1/Ref-1 inhibitor. Int J Oncol. 2009;35:1069-79 pubmed
    ..ovarian cancer treatment, we explored the correlation between cisplatin resistance and the human AP endonuclease (APE1 or Ref-1)...
  11. Gangwar R, Ahirwar D, Mandhani A, Mittal R. Influence of XPD and APE1 DNA repair gene polymorphism on bladder cancer susceptibility in north India. Urology. 2009;73:675-80 pubmed publisher
    ..between xerodema pigmentosum group D (XPD) Asp(312)Asn and Lys(751)Gln and apurinic apyrimidic endonuclease 1 (APE1) Asp(148)Glu gene polymorphism and risk of bladder cancer (BC) susceptibility...
  12. Shen J, Loeb L. Mutations in the alpha8 loop of human APE1 alter binding and cleavage of DNA containing an abasic site. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46994-7001 pubmed
    Recent crystallographic studies reveal loops in human AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) that interact with the major and minor grooves of DNA containing apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites...
  13. Pardini B, Naccarati A, Novotny J, Smerhovsky Z, Vodickova L, Polakova V, et al. DNA repair genetic polymorphisms and risk of colorectal cancer in the Czech Republic. Mutat Res. 2008;638:146-53 pubmed
    ..Data analysis showed that the variant allele homozygotes for the Asn148Glu polymorphism in the APE1 gene were at a statistically non-significant increased risk of colorectal cancer...
  14. Zhao Q, Wang W, Zhang Z, Wang S, Wang M, Zhou J, et al. A genetic variation in APE1 is associated with gastric cancer survival in a Chinese population. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:1293-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We genotyped APE1 rs1760944 by the TaqMan method in 925 gastric cancer patients...
  15. Vodicka P, Stetina R, Polakova V, Tulupova E, Naccarati A, Vodickova L, et al. Association of DNA repair polymorphisms with DNA repair functional outcomes in healthy human subjects. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:657-64 pubmed
    ..of genotype combinations showed that the increasing number of variant alleles for both XRCC1 Arg399Gln and APE1 Asn148Glu polymorphisms resulted in a significant decrease of irradiation-specific repair rates (P=0...
  16. Wong H, Muftuoglu M, Beck G, Imam S, Bohr V, Wilson D. Cockayne syndrome B protein stimulates apurinic endonuclease 1 activity and protects against agents that introduce base excision repair intermediates. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:4103-13 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate herein that purified recombinant CSB and the major human apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease, APE1, physically and functionally interact. CSB stimulates the AP site incision activity of APE1 on normal (i.e...
  17. Gu D, Wang M, Wang M, Zhang Z, Chen J. The DNA repair gene APE1 T1349G polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 27 case-control studies. Mutagenesis. 2009;24:507-12 pubmed publisher
    Published data regarding the association between the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) T1349G (Asp148Glu) polymorphism and cancer risk show inconclusive results...
  18. Dianova I, Bohr V, Dianov G. Interaction of human AP endonuclease 1 with flap endonuclease 1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen involved in long-patch base excision repair. Biochemistry. 2001;40:12639-44 pubmed
    ..We find that human AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) physically interacts with flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) and with proliferating cell nuclear antigen...
  19. Zou G, Karikari C, Kabe Y, Handa H, Anders R, Maitra A. The Ape-1/Ref-1 redox antagonist E3330 inhibits the growth of tumor endothelium and endothelial progenitor cells: therapeutic implications in tumor angiogenesis. J Cell Physiol. 2009;219:209-18 pubmed publisher
    The apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (Ape-1/Ref-1) is a multi-functional protein, involved in DNA repair and the activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors...
  20. Vascotto C, Fantini D, Romanello M, Cesaratto L, Deganuto M, Leonardi A, et al. APE1/Ref-1 interacts with NPM1 within nucleoli and plays a role in the rRNA quality control process. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1834-54 pubmed publisher
    b>APE1/Ref-1 (hereafter, APE1), a DNA repair enzyme and a transcriptional coactivator, is a vital protein in mammals...
  21. Ramana C, Boldogh I, Izumi T, Mitra S. Activation of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease in human cells by reactive oxygen species and its correlation with their adaptive response to genotoxicity of free radicals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:5061-6 pubmed
    Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE; EC 4.2.99...
  22. Hsieh M, Hegde V, Kelley M, Deutsch W. Activation of APE/Ref-1 redox activity is mediated by reactive oxygen species and PKC phosphorylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:3116-22 pubmed
    ..enzyme in correcting the deleterious effects of AP sites in DNA is through the participation of AP endonuclease (APE), which initiates the removal of baseless sites in DNA through the catalytic scission of the phosphodiester bond 5' ..
  23. Li C, Hu Z, Lu J, Liu Z, Wang L, El Naggar A, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in DNA base-excision repair genes ADPRT, XRCC1, and APE1 and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Cancer. 2007;110:867-75 pubmed
    ..ribosyl transferase (ADPRT), x-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1), and apurinic/apyimidinic endonuclease (APE1) play key roles. Genetic variations in the genes encoding for these DNA repair enzymes may alter their functions...
  24. Guo Y, Chen J, Zhao T, Fan Z. Granzyme K degrades the redox/DNA repair enzyme Ape1 to trigger oxidative stress of target cells leading to cytotoxicity. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:2225-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found the redox factor-1/apurinic apyrimidinic endonuclease Ape1 can antagonize reactive oxygen species generation...
  25. Kim M, Kim H, Acharya S, Sohn H, Jun J, Chang I, et al. Ape1/Ref-1 induces glial cell-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) responsiveness by upregulating GDNF receptor alpha1 expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2264-77 pubmed publisher
    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (Ape1/Ref-1) dysregulation has been identified in several human tumors and in patients with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the function of Ape1/Ref-1 is unclear...
  26. Wang M, Qin C, Zhu J, Yuan L, Fu G, Zhang Z, et al. Genetic variants of XRCC1, APE1, and ADPRT genes and risk of bladder cancer. DNA Cell Biol. 2010;29:303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..and endogenous carcinogens could be removed effectively by the base excision repair pathway, in which the XRCC1, APE1, and ADPRT genes play a key role...
  27. Sengupta S, Mantha A, Mitra S, Bhakat K. Human AP endonuclease (APE1/Ref-1) and its acetylation regulate YB-1-p300 recruitment and RNA polymerase II loading in the drug-induced activation of multidrug resistance gene MDR1. Oncogene. 2011;30:482-93 pubmed publisher
    The overexpression of human apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease 1 (APE1/Ref-1), a key enzyme in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway, is often associated with tumor cell resistance to various anticancer drugs...
  28. Cardoso A, Jiang Y, Luo M, Reed A, Shahda S, He Y, et al. APE1/Ref-1 regulates STAT3 transcriptional activity and APE1/Ref-1-STAT3 dual-targeting effectively inhibits pancreatic cancer cell survival. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47462 pubmed publisher
    ..first time that STAT3 DNA binding and transcriptional activity is directly regulated by the redox function of the APE1/Ref-1 endonuclease, using overexpression and redox-specific mutational strategies, and gene knockdown...
  29. Shaikh A, Martin L. DNA base-excision repair enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 is increased and competent in the brain and spinal cord of individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuromolecular Med. 2002;2:47-60 pubmed
    ..with changes in the levels and function of the multifunctional protein apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1)...
  30. Kim K, Han W, Noh D, Kang D, Kwack K. Impact of genetic polymorphisms in base excision repair genes on the risk of breast cancer in a Korean population. Gene. 2013;532:192-6 pubmed publisher
    ..the risk of breast cancer (BC) was evaluated by focusing on two key genes: apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APEX1) and 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1)...
  31. Gorman M, Morera S, Rothwell D, de La Fortelle E, Mol C, Tainer J, et al. The crystal structure of the human DNA repair endonuclease HAP1 suggests the recognition of extra-helical deoxyribose at DNA abasic sites. EMBO J. 1997;16:6548-58 pubmed
    The structure of the major human apurinic/ apyrimidinic endonuclease (HAP1) has been solved at 2.2 A resolution...
  32. Gros L, Ishchenko A, Ide H, Elder R, Saparbaev M. The major human AP endonuclease (Ape1) is involved in the nucleotide incision repair pathway. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:73-81 pubmed
    ..This mechanistic feature is distinct from DNA glycosylase-mediated base excision repair. Here we report that Ape1, the major apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease in human cells, is the damage- specific endonuclease involved in NIR...
  33. Popanda O, Schattenberg T, Phong C, Butkiewicz D, Risch A, Edler L, et al. Specific combinations of DNA repair gene variants and increased risk for non-small cell lung cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:2433-41 pubmed
    ..to be associated with lung cancer risk including XPA (-4G/A), XPD (Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn), XRCC1 (Arg399Gln), APE1 (Asp148Glu) and XRCC3 (Thr241Met)...
  34. Di Maso V, Avellini C, Crocè L, Rosso N, Quadrifoglio F, Cesaratto L, et al. Subcellular localization of APE1/Ref-1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma: possible prognostic significance. Mol Med. 2007;13:89-96 pubmed
    b>APE1/Ref-1, normally localized in the nucleus, is a regulator of the cellular response to oxidative stress. Cytoplasmic localization has been observed in several tumors and correlates with a poor prognosis...
  35. Fritz G, Grosch S, Tomicic M, Kaina B. APE/Ref-1 and the mammalian response to genotoxic stress. Toxicology. 2003;193:67-78 pubmed
    ..With respect to transcriptional regulation, both redox dependent and independent mechanisms have been described. APE/Ref-1 also acts as a transcriptional repressor...
  36. Chang J, Wrensch M, Hansen H, Sison J, Aldrich M, Quesenberry C, et al. Base excision repair genes and risk of lung cancer among San Francisco Bay Area Latinos and African-Americans. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:78-87 pubmed publisher
    ..examines the association between 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) belonging to five BER genes (XRCC1, APEX1, PARP1, MUTYH and OGG1) and lung cancer among Latinos (113 cases and 299 controls) and African-Americans (255 ..
  37. Hirota K, Matsui M, Iwata S, Nishiyama A, Mori K, Yodoi J. AP-1 transcriptional activity is regulated by a direct association between thioredoxin and Ref-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3633-8 pubmed
    ..Similarly, the DNA-binding activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1) is modified by a DNA repair enzyme, redox factor 1 (Ref-1), which is identical to a DNA repair enzyme, AP endonuclease...
  38. Zaky A, Busso C, Izumi T, Chattopadhyay R, Bassiouny A, Mitra S, et al. Regulation of the human AP-endonuclease (APE1/Ref-1) expression by the tumor suppressor p53 in response to DNA damage. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:1555-66 pubmed publisher
    The human AP-endonuclease (APE1/Ref-1), an essential multifunctional protein, plays a central role in the repair of oxidative base damage via the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway...
  39. Jackson E, Theriot C, Chattopadhyay R, Mitra S, Izumi T. Analysis of nuclear transport signals in the human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1/Ref1). Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:3303-12 pubmed
    The mammalian abasic-endonuclease1/redox-factor1 (APE1/Ref1) is an essential protein whose subcellular distribution depends on the cellular physiological status. However, its nuclear localization signals have not been studied in detail...
  40. Agalliu I, Kwon E, Salinas C, Koopmeiners J, Ostrander E, Stanford J. Genetic variation in DNA repair genes and prostate cancer risk: results from a population-based study. Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21:289-300 pubmed publisher
    ..were analyzed to examine associations between 28 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nine DNA repair genes (APEX1, BRCA2, ERCC2, ERCC4, MGMT, MUTYH, OGG1, XPC, and XRCC1) and prostate cancer risk...
  41. Izumi T, Henner W, Mitra S. Negative regulation of the major human AP-endonuclease, a multifunctional protein. Biochemistry. 1996;35:14679-83 pubmed
    ..The major human AP-endonuclease (named APE-1) has two unrelated activities...
  42. Ranalli T, Tom S, Bambara R. AP endonuclease 1 coordinates flap endonuclease 1 and DNA ligase I activity in long patch base excision repair. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:41715-24 pubmed
    ..Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases recognize and cleave abasic (AP) sites during base excision repair (BER). APE1 (REF1, HAP1) is the predominant AP endonuclease in mammalian cells...
  43. Agachan B, Kucukhuseyin O, Aksoy P, Turna A, Yaylim I, Gormus U, et al. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) gene polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in relation to tobacco smoking. Anticancer Res. 2009;29:2417-20 pubmed
    ..Based on this hypothesis, the relationship between APE1 polymorphism, smoking and the risk of lung cancer was explored...
  44. Lin C, Chen P, Cheng Y, Chen C, Yuan C, Lee H. The APE1 Asp/Asp genotype and the combination of APE1 Asp/Asp and hOGG1-Cys variants are associated with increased p53 mutation in non-small cell lung cancer. J Epidemiol. 2012;22:537-42 pubmed publisher
    ..polymorphism is associated with lung cancer risk, but there are limited data regarding an association between the APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphism and lung cancer...
  45. Kakolyris S, Kaklamanis L, Giatromanolaki A, Koukourakis M, Hickson I, Barzilay G, et al. Expression and subcellular localization of human AP endonuclease 1 (HAP1/Ref-1) protein: a basis for its role in human disease. Histopathology. 1998;33:561-9 pubmed
    Human AP endonuclease 1 (HAP1) plays a major role in the repair of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in cellular DNA by catalysing hydrolytic cleavage of the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the site...
  46. Fan J, Matsumoto Y, Wilson D. Nucleotide sequence and DNA secondary structure, as well as replication protein A, modulate the single-stranded abasic endonuclease activity of APE1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:3889-98 pubmed
    A major role of the multifunctional human Ape1 protein is to incise at apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites in DNA via site-specific endonuclease activity...
  47. Li W, Zhang L, Ma J, Zhang Y, Li J, Pan K, et al. Association between genetic polymorphisms of DNA base excision repair genes and evolution of precancerous gastric lesions in a Chinese population. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:500-5 pubmed publisher
    ..ADPRT, Val762Ala), 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1, Ser326Cys) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1, Asp148Glu) and evolution of H...
  48. Yu E, Hadi M. Bioinformatic processing to identify single nucleotide polymorphism that potentially affect Ape1 function. Mutat Res. 2011;722:140-6 pubmed publisher
    ..in DNA repair genes, we used the expressed sequence tag (EST) database to identify amino acid variation in Ape1, an essential gene in the BER repair pathway...
  49. Yang Z, Chen X, Wang D. Experimental study enhancing the chemosensitivity of multiple myeloma to melphalan by using a tissue-specific APE1-silencing RNA expression vector. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma. 2007;7:296-304 pubmed
    ..to chemotherapeutic treatments currently used, we examined the role of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) in resistance and prognosis in patients with MM...
  50. Poletto M, Di Loreto C, Marasco D, Poletto E, Puglisi F, Damante G, et al. Acetylation on critical lysine residues of Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) in triple negative breast cancers. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;424:34-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 is a vital protein that exerts many functions in mammalian cells, acting as a pivotal enzyme in the base excision ..
  51. Deng Q, Sheng L, Su D, Zhang L, Liu P, Lu K, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in ATM, ERCC1, APE1 and iASPP genes and lung cancer risk in a population of southeast China. Med Oncol. 2011;28:667-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the relationship between polymorphisms in ATM (A60G), ERCC1 (Asn118Asn), APE1 (Asn148Glu) and iASPP (A67T) and the risk of developing lung cancer...
  52. Chen L, Ambrosone C, Lee J, Sellers T, Pow Sang J, Park J. Association between polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes XRCC1 and APE1, and the risk of prostate cancer in white and black Americans. J Urol. 2006;175:108-12; discussion 112 pubmed
    XRCC1 and APE1 are enzymes involved in the repair of DNA strand breaks and base damage that arise from various endogenous and exogenous oxidants. We determined whether polymorphisms in XRCC1 and APE1 increase the risk of prostate cancer...
  53. Andrew A, Karagas M, Nelson H, Guarrera S, Polidoro S, Gamberini S, et al. DNA repair polymorphisms modify bladder cancer risk: a multi-factor analytic strategy. Hum Hered. 2008;65:105-18 pubmed
    ..These include: APE1-Asn148Gln, XRCC1-Arg399Gln and XRCC1-Arg194Trp in the BER pathway, XPD-Gln751Lys in the NER pathway and XRCC3-..
  54. Chattopadhyay R, Das S, Maiti A, Boldogh I, Xie J, Hazra T, et al. Regulatory role of human AP-endonuclease (APE1/Ref-1) in YB-1-mediated activation of the multidrug resistance gene MDR1. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:7066-80 pubmed publisher
    Human AP-endonuclease (APE1/Ref-1), a central enzyme involved in the repair of oxidative base damage and DNA strand breaks, has a second activity as a transcriptional regulator that binds to several trans-acting factors...
  55. Demple B, Herman T, Chen D. Cloning and expression of APE, the cDNA encoding the major human apurinic endonuclease: definition of a family of DNA repair enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:11450-4 pubmed
    ..The biological roles of these enzymes in metazoans have not been tested. We have cloned the human cDNA (APE) that encodes the main nuclear AP endonuclease...
  56. Bobola M, Blank A, Berger M, Stevens B, Silber J. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activity is elevated in human adult gliomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2001;7:3510-8 pubmed
    ..The major Ap endo in human cells is Ape1, an abundant multi-functional protein also known as Ref-1, Hap-1, and Apex...
  57. Qu J, Liu G, Huang B, Chen C. Nitric oxide controls nuclear export of APE1/Ref-1 through S-nitrosation of cysteines 93 and 310. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:2522-32 pubmed
    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1, abbreviated as APE1) is a molecule with dual functions in DNA repair and redox regulation of transcription factors...
  58. Li Y, Li S, Wu Z, Hu F, Zhu L, Zhao X, et al. Polymorphisms in genes of APE1, PARP1, and XRCC1: risk and prognosis of colorectal cancer in a northeast Chinese population. Med Oncol. 2013;30:505 pubmed publisher
    ..Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1 (APE1), ADP-ribosyltransferase (ADPRT, also known as PARP1), and X-ray repair cross-complementing groups 1 (XRCC1) were ..
  59. Zienolddiny S, Campa D, Lind H, Ryberg D, Skaug V, Stangeland L, et al. Polymorphisms of DNA repair genes and risk of non-small cell lung cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:560-7 pubmed
    ..excision repair (NER) genes XPA, ERCC1, ERCC2/XPD, ERCC4/XPF and ERCC5/XPG; base excision repair (BER) genes APE1/APEX, OGG1, MPG, XRCC1, PCNA, POLB, POLiota, LIG3 and EXO1; double-strand break repair (DSB-R) genes XRCC2, XRCC3, ..
  60. Yu E, Gaucher S, Hadi M. Probing conformational changes in Ape1 during the progression of base excision repair. Biochemistry. 2010;49:3786-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These residues are part of the Ref1 domain which functions to regulate the activity of several transcription factors but to date has not been ascribed ..
  61. Ji Y, Zhan P, Wang J, Qiu L, Yu L. APE1 Asp148Glu gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:4537-43 pubmed publisher
    Many studies have examined the association between the APE1 T1349G (Asp148Glu) gene polymorphisms and lung cancer risk in various populations, but their results have been inconsistent...
  62. Jeon B, Gupta G, Park Y, Qi B, Haile A, Khanday F, et al. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 regulates endothelial NO production and vascular tone. Circ Res. 2004;95:902-10 pubmed
    The dual-function protein apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1/ref-1) is essential for DNA repair and also governs the reductive activation of many redox-sensitive transcription factors...
  63. Stetler R, Gao Y, Zukin R, Vosler P, Zhang L, Zhang F, et al. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease APE1 is required for PACAP-induced neuroprotection against global cerebral ischemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3204-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated levels of the essential base-excision repair enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1)/redox effector factor-1 correlate closely with neuronal survival against ischemic insults, depending on the CNS ..
  64. Zhang Z, Yang X, Wang D, Wang G, Yang Z, Qing Y, et al. Nm23-H1 protein binds to APE1 at AP sites and stimulates AP endonuclease activity following ionizing radiation of the human lung cancer A549 cells. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2011;61:561-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Human apurinic endonuclease-1 (APE1) is the AP endonuclease DNA base excision repair (BER) enzyme involved in several important cellular functions...
  65. Tell G, Damante G, Caldwell D, Kelley M. The intracellular localization of APE1/Ref-1: more than a passive phenomenon?. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2005;7:367-84 pubmed
    Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox effector factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a perfect paradigm of the functional complexity of a biological macromolecule...
  66. Chou K, Cheng Y. The exonuclease activity of human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1). Biochemical properties and inhibition by the natural dinucleotide Gp4G. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18289-96 pubmed
    Human DNA apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) plays a key role in the DNA base excision repair process. In this study, we further characterized the exonuclease activity of APE1...
  67. Fan Z, Beresford P, Oh D, Zhang D, Lieberman J. Tumor suppressor NM23-H1 is a granzyme A-activated DNase during CTL-mediated apoptosis, and the nucleosome assembly protein SET is its inhibitor. Cell. 2003;112:659-72 pubmed
    ..GzmA-activated DNase (GAAD) is in an ER associated complex containing pp32 and the GzmA substrates SET, HMG-2, and Ape1. We show that GAAD is NM23-H1, a nucleoside diphosphate kinase implicated in suppression of tumor metastasis, and ..
  68. Broberg K, Bjork J, Paulsson K, Hoglund M, Albin M. Constitutional short telomeres are strong genetic susceptibility markers for bladder cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:1263-71 pubmed
    ..in the metabolism of genotoxic carcinogens (EPHX1, GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, NAT1, NAT2 and NQO1) or DNA repair (APE1, NBS1, XPC, XPD, XRCC1, XRCC3 and XRCC4), could modify the association between telomere length and cancer risk...
  69. Tell G, Crivellato E, Pines A, Paron I, Pucillo C, Manzini G, et al. Mitochondrial localization of APE/Ref-1 in thyroid cells. Mutat Res. 2001;485:143-52 pubmed
    ..b>APE/Ref-1 is a nuclear protein possessing both redox activity (by which activates, "in vitro", the DNA-..
  70. Freitas S, Moore D, Michael H, Kelley M. Studies of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/ref-1 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer: correlations with tumor progression and platinum resistance. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9:4689-94 pubmed
    ..repair pathway involves the cleavage of an apurinic/apyrimidinic site by an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE)...
  71. Jelonek K, Gdowicz Klosok A, Pietrowska M, Borkowska M, Korfanty J, Rzeszowska Wolny J, et al. Association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms of selected genes involved in the response to DNA damage and risk of colon, head and neck, and breast cancers in a Polish population. J Appl Genet. 2010;51:343-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we analysed polymorphisms in 5 genes involved in DNA repair (XPD Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, APE1 Asp148Glu, NBS1 Glu185Gln, and XPA G-4A) and in a gene involved in regulation of the cell-cycle (CCND1 A870G)...
  72. Shekari M, Sobti R, Tamandani D, Malekzadeh K, Kaur P, Suri V. Association of genetic polymorphism of the DNA base excision repair gene (APE-1 Asp/148 Glu) and HPV type (16/18) with the risk of cervix cancer in north Indian population. Cancer Biomark. 2008;4:63-71 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was, therefore to investigate APE-1 genotypes (Asp/Asp, Asp/Glu, Glu/Glu) with different histological subtypes in cases compared with controls...
  73. Gencer M, Dasdemir S, Cakmakoglu B, Cetinkaya Y, Varlibas F, Tireli H, et al. DNA repair genes in Parkinson's disease. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2012;16:504-7 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated whether DNA repair gene polymorphisms (XRCC1 Arg399Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Met XPD Lys751Gln, XPG Asp1104His, APE1 Asp148Glu, and HOGG1 Ser326Cys) account for an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
  74. Mitra A, Singh N, Singh A, Garg V, Agarwal A, Sharma M, et al. Association of polymorphisms in base excision repair genes with the risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in North Indian women. Oncol Res. 2008;17:127-35 pubmed
    ..rs1130409/t1865g (apex1), rs1799782/t22142c (xrcc1), rs25487/g23990a (xrcc1), rs4989588/t3337a (fen1), rs4989586/ g3259a (fen1), rs4989587/..
  75. Wang D, Xiang D, Yang X, Chen L, Li M, Zhong Z, et al. APE1 overexpression is associated with cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer and targeted inhibition of APE1 enhances the activity of cisplatin in A549 cells. Lung Cancer. 2009;66:298-304 pubmed publisher
    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1), a bifunctional AP endonuclease/redox factor, is important in DNA repair and redox signaling, may be associated with chemoresistance...
  76. Zhou K, Hu D, Lu J, Fan W, Liu H, Chen H, et al. A genetic variant in the APE1/Ref-1 gene promoter -141T/G may modulate risk of glioblastoma in a Chinese Han population. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:104 pubmed publisher
    The human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/Redox effector factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is implicated in tumor development and progression...
  77. Lee S, Chung J, Park M, Joo H, Lee E, Cho E, et al. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 inhibits protein kinase C-mediated p66shc phosphorylation and vasoconstriction. Cardiovasc Res. 2011;91:502-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the role of the reducing protein/DNA repair enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1) in modulating protein kinase C?II (PKC?II)-mediated p66shc phosphorylation in cultured endothelial cells and PKC-..
  78. Xie J, Li M, Xiang D, Mou J, Qing Y, Zeng L, et al. Elevated expression of APE1/Ref-1 and its regulation on IL-6 and IL-8 in bone marrow stromal cells of multiple myeloma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2010;10:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Human dual functional protein apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is essential for cell survival and proliferation...
  79. Busso C, Wedgeworth C, Izumi T. Ubiquitination of human AP-endonuclease 1 (APE1) enhanced by T233E substitution and by CDK5. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:8017-28 pubmed publisher
    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease-1 (APE1) is a multifunctional DNA repair/gene regulatory protein in mammalian cells, and was recently reported to be phosphorylated at Thr233 by CDK5...
  80. Fritz G, Kaina B. Phosphorylation of the DNA repair protein APE/REF-1 by CKII affects redox regulation of AP-1. Oncogene. 1999;18:1033-40 pubmed
    The DNA repair protein apurinic endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) exerts several physiological functions such as cleavage of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites and redox regulation of the transcription factor AP-1, whose activation is part of the ..
  81. Fritz G. Human APE/Ref-1 protein. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2000;32:925-9 pubmed
    Human apurinic (apyrimidinic) endonuclease/redox-factor 1 (APE/Ref-1) is an ubiquitously expressed multifunctional protein of 36.5 kDa which is encoded by a approximately 3 kb gene localized on chromosome 14...
  82. Kasahara M, Osawa K, Yoshida K, Miyaishi A, Osawa Y, Inoue N, et al. Association of MUTYH Gln324His and APEX1 Asp148Glu with colorectal cancer and smoking in a Japanese population. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2008;27:49 pubmed publisher
    ..The genetic polymorphisms of DNA repair enzymes,OGG1 Ser326Cys, MUTYH Gln324His, APEX1 Asp148Glu and XRCC1 Arg399Gln, were examined using PCR-RFLP...
  83. Fitzgerald M, Drohat A. Coordinating the initial steps of base excision repair. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 actively stimulates thymine DNA glycosylase by disrupting the product complex. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:32680-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The follow-on base excision repair enzyme, AP endonuclease 1 (APE1), stimulates the turnover of TDG and other glycosylases, involving a mechanism that remains largely unknown...
  84. Ray S, Lee C, Hou T, Bhakat K, Brasier A. Regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 enhanceosome formation by apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 in hepatic acute phase response. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:391-401 pubmed publisher
    ..we make the novel observation that STAT3 forms an inducible complex with the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1)/redox effector factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1), an essential multifunctional protein in DNA base excision repair, and ..
  85. Podlutsky A, Dianova I, Podust V, Bohr V, Dianov G. Human DNA polymerase beta initiates DNA synthesis during long-patch repair of reduced AP sites in DNA. EMBO J. 2001;20:1477-82 pubmed
    ..Using this approach we find that in human cell extracts Pol beta is the major DNA polymerase incorporating the first nucleotide during repair of reduced AP sites, thus initiating long-patch base excision repair synthesis. ..
  86. Marenstein D, Wilson D, Teebor G. Human AP endonuclease (APE1) demonstrates endonucleolytic activity against AP sites in single-stranded DNA. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:527-33 pubmed
    Human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1) is an enzyme of DNA base excision repair (BER) which catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage immediately 5' to abasic (AP) sites...
  87. Daviet S, Couve Privat S, Gros L, Shinozuka K, Ide H, Saparbaev M, et al. Major oxidative products of cytosine are substrates for the nucleotide incision repair pathway. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007;6:8-18 pubmed
    ..Here, we characterized the substrate specificity of human major AP endonuclease, Ape1, towards 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxycytidine (5ohC) and alpha-anomeric 2'-deoxycytidine (alphadC) residues...
  88. Palli D, Polidoro S, D Errico M, Saieva C, Guarrera S, Calcagnile A, et al. Polymorphic DNA repair and metabolic genes: a multigenic study on gastric cancer. Mutagenesis. 2010;25:569-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Polymorphic variants of base excision repair (APE1-D148E, XRCC1-R194W, XRCC1-R399Q and OGG1-S326C), nucleotide excision repair (XPC-PAT, XPA-23G>A, ERCC1-19007T>..
  89. Terry P, Umbach D, Taylor J. APE1 genotype and risk of bladder cancer: evidence for effect modification by smoking. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:3170-3 pubmed
    ..b>APE1, the major AP endonuclease of human cells, plays a central role in the repair of AP sites through both its ..
  90. Merluzzi S, D Orlando O, Leonardi A, Vitale G, Pucillo C. TRAF2 and p38 are involved in B cells CD40-mediated APE/Ref-1 nuclear translocation: a novel pathway in B cell activation. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:76-86 pubmed
    ..b>APE/Ref-1 plays a key role in transcriptional responses during CD40-mediated B cell activation...
  91. Vural P, Degirmencioglu S, Dogru Abbasoglu S, Saral N, Akgul C, Uysal M. Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair gene APE1, XRCC1 and XPD and the risk of pre-eclampsia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009;146:160-4 pubmed publisher
    ..association between DNA repair genes and PE susceptibility, we analyzed genotype and allele distributions of APE1-148, XRCC1-194, XRCC1-399 and XPD-751 genes in 101 patients with PE and 107 healthy women...
  92. Cun Y, Dai N, Xiong C, Li M, Sui J, Qian C, et al. Silencing of APE1 enhances sensitivity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to radiotherapy in vitro and in a xenograft model. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55313 pubmed publisher
    ..problem, we investigated the correlation between radioresistance and the human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE1), a bifunctional protein, which plays an important role in DNA repair and redox regulation activity of ..