apelin

Summary

Gene Symbol: apelin
Description: apelin
Alias: APEL, XNPEP2, apelin, AGTRL1 ligand, APJ endogenous ligand
Species: human
Products:     apelin

Top Publications

  1. Chandra S, Razavi H, Kim J, Agrawal R, Kundu R, de Jesus Perez V, et al. Disruption of the apelin-APJ system worsens hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:814-20 pubmed publisher
    The G-protein-coupled receptor APJ and its ligand apelin are highly expressed in the pulmonary vasculature, but their function in this vascular bed is unclear...
  2. Alastalo T, Li M, Perez V, Pham D, Sawada H, Wang J, et al. Disruption of PPAR?/?-catenin-mediated regulation of apelin impairs BMP-induced mouse and human pulmonary arterial EC survival. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3735-46 pubmed publisher
    ..microarrays, we delineated PPAR?/?-catenin-dependent transcription of target genes including APLN, which encodes apelin. We documented reduced PAEC expression of apelin in PAH patients versus controls...
  3. Sarzani R, Forleo C, Pietrucci F, Capestro A, Soura E, Guida P, et al. The 212A variant of the APJ receptor gene for the endogenous inotrope apelin is associated with slower heart failure progression in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. J Card Fail. 2007;13:521-9 pubmed
    Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) has multiple genetic and acquired causes. Apelin is an endogenous peptide that increases cardiac inotropism through his APJ receptor...
  4. Medhurst A, Jennings C, Robbins M, Davis R, Ellis C, Winborn K, et al. Pharmacological and immunohistochemical characterization of the APJ receptor and its endogenous ligand apelin. J Neurochem. 2003;84:1162-72 pubmed
    b>Apelin peptides have recently been identified to be the endogenous ligands for the G protein-coupled receptor APJ. However, little is known about the physiological roles of this ligand-receptor pairing...
  5. Masri B, Van den Berghe L, Sorli C, Knibiehler B, Audigier Y. [Apelin signalisation and vascular physiopathology]. J Soc Biol. 2009;203:171-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This signalling pathway named apelin comprises a G protein-coupled receptor and a peptide ligand...
  6. Boucher J, Masri B, Daviaud D, Gesta S, Guigne C, Mazzucotelli A, et al. Apelin, a newly identified adipokine up-regulated by insulin and obesity. Endocrinology. 2005;146:1764-71 pubmed
    The results presented herein demonstrate that apelin is expressed and secreted by both human and mouse adipocytes...
  7. Malyszko J, Malyszko J, Pawlak K, Wolczynski S, Mysliwiec M. Apelin, a novel adipocytokine, in relation to endothelial function and inflammation in kidney allograft recipients. Transplant Proc. 2008;40:3466-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin, a newly discovered adipocytokine produced by white adipose tissue, is also expressed in kidney and heart. It has been reported that apelin is related to echocardiographic features in hemodialyzed patients...
  8. Principe A, Melgar Lesmes P, Fernandez Varo G, Del Arbol L, Ros J, Morales Ruiz M, et al. The hepatic apelin system: a new therapeutic target for liver disease. Hepatology. 2008;48:1193-201 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is a peptide that plays an important role in heart physiology and pathophysiology, inflammation, and angiogenesis...
  9. Heo K, Kim Y, Sung H, Li H, Yoo C, Kim J, et al. Hypoxia-induced up-regulation of apelin is associated with a poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Oral Oncol. 2012;48:500-6 pubmed publisher
    Recently, apelin has been shown to be a novel angiogenic factor in various cancers including lung, breast and brain cancer. However, there is limited information regarding the expression and role of apelin in oral cavity cancer...

More Information

Publications77

  1. Melgar Lesmes P, Casals G, Pauta M, Ros J, Reichenbach V, Bataller R, et al. Apelin mediates the induction of profibrogenic genes in human hepatic stellate cells. Endocrinology. 2010;151:5306-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is a peptide with relevant functions in angiogenesis and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that apelin is overexpressed in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of cirrhotic rats...
  2. Daviaud D, Boucher J, Gesta S, Dray C, Guigne C, Quilliot D, et al. TNFalpha up-regulates apelin expression in human and mouse adipose tissue. FASEB J. 2006;20:1528-30 pubmed
    We have recently identified apelin as a novel adipokine up-regulated by insulin and obesity...
  3. Tapan S, Tascilar E, Abaci A, Sonmez A, Kilic S, Erbil M, et al. Decreased plasma apelin levels in pubertal obese children. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2010;23:1039-46 pubmed
    b>Apelin is a recently defined peptide relevant to the mechanism of obesity-related disorders. There has been no report so far about the levels of plasma apelin in obese children...
  4. Berta J, Kenessey I, Dobos J, Tovari J, Klepetko W, Jan Ankersmit H, et al. Apelin expression in human non-small cell lung cancer: role in angiogenesis and prognosis. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:1120-9 pubmed publisher
    The recently discovered bioactive peptide, apelin, has been demonstrated to stimulate angiogenesis in various experimental systems...
  5. Kim J, Kang Y, Kojima Y, Lighthouse J, Hu X, Aldred M, et al. An endothelial apelin-FGF link mediated by miR-424 and miR-503 is disrupted in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Nat Med. 2013;19:74-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe a microRNA (miRNA)-dependent association between apelin (APLN) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) signaling in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs)...
  6. Wang W, McKinnie S, Patel V, Haddad G, Wang Z, Zhabyeyev P, et al. Loss of Apelin exacerbates myocardial infarction adverse remodeling and ischemia-reperfusion injury: therapeutic potential of synthetic Apelin analogues. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000249 pubmed publisher
    Coronary artery disease leading to myocardial ischemia is the most common cause of heart failure. Apelin (APLN), the endogenous peptide ligand of the APJ receptor, has emerged as a novel regulator of the cardiovascular system...
  7. Tatemoto K, Hosoya M, Habata Y, Fujii R, Kakegawa T, Zou M, et al. Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human APJ receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;251:471-6 pubmed
    ..By monitoring this activity, we isolated an APJ receptor ligand, designated apelin, from bovine stomach extracts...
  8. Niu W, Wu S, Zhang Y, Li W, Ji K, Gao P, et al. Validation of genetic association in apelin-AGTRL1 system with hypertension in a larger Han Chinese population. J Hypertens. 2010;28:1854-61 pubmed publisher
    We have recently resequenced apelin and AGTRL1 genes to identify candidate polymorphisms in family-based association with hypertension and related phenotypes...
  9. Li W, Niu W, Zhang Y, Wu S, Gao P, Zhu D. Family-based analysis of apelin and AGTRL1 gene polymorphisms with hypertension in Han Chinese. J Hypertens. 2009;27:1194-201 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin and AGTRL1 (angiotensin receptor-like 1), elements of a newly identified pathway with a role in counter regulating the renin-angiotensin system, have been implicated in blood pressure regulation...
  10. Eyries M, Siegfried G, Ciumas M, Montagne K, Agrapart M, Lebrin F, et al. Hypoxia-induced apelin expression regulates endothelial cell proliferation and regenerative angiogenesis. Circ Res. 2008;103:432-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin has been identified as the endogenous ligand of the human orphan G protein-coupled receptor APJ. This peptide exerts a variety of cardiovascular effects and particularly acts as an activator of angiogenesis...
  11. Kälin R, Kretz M, Meyer A, Kispert A, Heppner F, Brändli A. Paracrine and autocrine mechanisms of apelin signaling govern embryonic and tumor angiogenesis. Dev Biol. 2007;305:599-614 pubmed
    b>Apelin and its G protein-coupled receptor APJ play important roles in blood pressure regulation, body fluid homeostasis, and possibly the modulation of immune responses...
  12. Kleinz M, Skepper J, Davenport A. Immunocytochemical localisation of the apelin receptor, APJ, to human cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells. Regul Pept. 2005;126:233-40 pubmed
    The novel G protein-coupled receptor APJ, recently paired with the proposed cognate peptide ligand apelin, mediates potent vasodilator and positive inotropic actions in rats...
  13. Reaux A, De Mota N, Skultetyova I, Lenkei Z, El Messari S, Gallatz K, et al. Physiological role of a novel neuropeptide, apelin, and its receptor in the rat brain. J Neurochem. 2001;77:1085-96 pubmed
    b>Apelin, a peptide recently isolated from bovine stomach tissue extracts, has been identified as the endogenous ligand of the human orphan APJ receptor...
  14. Geiger K, Muendlein A, Stark N, Saely C, Wabitsch M, Fraunberger P, et al. Hypoxia induces apelin expression in human adipocytes. Horm Metab Res. 2011;43:380-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of hypoxia on the more recently identified adipokine apelin in human adipocytes is unclear...
  15. Japp A, Cruden N, Amer D, Li V, Goudie E, Johnston N, et al. Vascular effects of apelin in vivo in man. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:908-13 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to establish the direct vascular effects of apelin in vivo in man. Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the previously orphaned G-protein-coupled receptor, APJ...
  16. Li L, Yang G, Li Q, Tang Y, Yang M, Yang H, et al. Changes and relations of circulating visfatin, apelin, and resistin levels in normal, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetic subjects. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2006;114:544-8 pubmed
    Visfatin and apelin are two novel adipocyte- secreted hormone proposed to link obesity with insulin resistance...
  17. Chen M, Ashley E, Deng D, Tsalenko A, Deng A, Tabibiazar R, et al. Novel role for the potent endogenous inotrope apelin in human cardiac dysfunction. Circulation. 2003;108:1432-9 pubmed
    b>Apelin is among the most potent stimulators of cardiac contractility known. However, no physiological or pathological role for apelin-angiotensin receptor-like 1 (APJ) signaling has ever been described...
  18. Foldes G, Horkay F, Szokodi I, Vuolteenaho O, Ilves M, Lindstedt K, et al. Circulating and cardiac levels of apelin, the novel ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, in patients with heart failure. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;308:480-5 pubmed
    The orphan receptor APJ and its recently identified endogenous ligand, apelin, are expressed in the heart. However, their importance in the human cardiovascular system is not known...
  19. Meral C, Tascilar E, Karademir F, Tanju I, Cekmez F, Ipcioglu O, et al. Elevated plasma levels of apelin in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2010;23:497-502 pubmed
    b>Apelin is a novel adipocytokine produced by white adipose tissue that binds the APJ receptor with high affinity. Insulin may have a role in regulation of apelin synthesis and secretion from the adipose tissue...
  20. Henley D, Buchanan F, Gibson R, Douthwaite J, Wood S, Woltersdorf W, et al. Plasma apelin levels in obstructive sleep apnea and the effect of continuous positive airway pressure therapy. J Endocrinol. 2009;203:181-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is a peptide hormone with cardiovascular and glucose homeostasis properties, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is complicated by cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities. Plasma apelin has not been previously assessed in OSA...
  21. Aktas B, Yilmaz Y, Eren F, Yonal O, Kurt R, Alahdab Y, et al. Serum levels of vaspin, obestatin, and apelin-36 in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Metabolism. 2011;60:544-9 pubmed publisher
    The novel adipokines vaspin, obestatin, and apelin-36 are associated with insulin resistance and the components of the metabolic syndrome...
  22. Peltonen T, Näpänkangas J, Vuolteenaho O, Ohtonen P, Soini Y, Juvonen T, et al. Apelin and its receptor APJ in human aortic valve stenosis. J Heart Valve Dis. 2009;18:644-52 pubmed
    ..b>Apelin and its receptor, APJ, are highly expressed in the heart, and the proposed effects of the apelin-APJ system are ..
  23. Habata Y, Fujii R, Hosoya M, Fukusumi S, Kawamata Y, Hinuma S, et al. Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, is abundantly secreted in the colostrum. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1452:25-35 pubmed
    ..Hinuma et al., Nature 393 (1998) 272-276], we have recently identified a natural ligand, apelin, for the orphan 7TMR, APJ [K. Tatemoto et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 251 (1998) 471-476]...
  24. Cui R, Mao D, Yi L, Wang C, Zhang X, Xie H, et al. Apelin suppresses apoptosis of human vascular smooth muscle cells via APJ/PI3-K/Akt signaling pathways. Amino Acids. 2010;39:1193-200 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Apelin is the endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor APJ and plays an important role in the cardiovascular ..
  25. Sonmez A, Celebi G, Erdem G, Tapan S, Genc H, Tasci I, et al. Plasma apelin and ADMA Levels in patients with essential hypertension. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2010;32:179-83 pubmed publisher
    Both apelin and asymetric dymethyl arginine (ADMA) regulate blood pressures. Low apelin and high ADMA levels have been reported in several cardiometabolic disorders...
  26. Kidoya H, Kunii N, Naito H, Muramatsu F, Okamoto Y, Nakayama T, et al. The apelin/APJ system induces maturation of the tumor vasculature and improves the efficiency of immune therapy. Oncogene. 2012;31:3254-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that the novel peptide apelin and its receptor APJ can induce the morphological and functional maturation of blood vessels in tumors...
  27. Xu S, Tsao P, Yue P. Apelin and insulin resistance: another arrow for the quiver?. J Diabetes. 2011;3:225-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is a newly discovered peptide hormone that has recently been linked to insulin resistance and obesity...
  28. Li Z, Bai Y, Hu J. Reduced apelin levels in stable angina. Intern Med. 2008;47:1951-5 pubmed
    To investigate the change in the plasma apelin level in patients with stable angina. The study enrolled 96 patients with stable angina as the Stable Angina Group and another 78 outpatients with no angina as the Control Group...
  29. Erdem G, Dogru T, Tasci I, Sonmez A, Tapan S. Low plasma apelin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2008;116:289-92 pubmed publisher
    To investigate blood apelin concentrations in patients with newly diagnosed and untreated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had no additional disorder and to investigate the association of apelin with adiponectin, body mass indexes (BMI)..
  30. De Mota N, Reaux Le Goazigo A, El Messari S, Chartrel N, Roesch D, Dujardin C, et al. Apelin, a potent diuretic neuropeptide counteracting vasopressin actions through inhibition of vasopressin neuron activity and vasopressin release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:10464-9 pubmed
    b>Apelin, a recently isolated neuropeptide that is expressed in the supraoptic and the paraventricular nuclei, acts on specific receptors located on vasopressinergic neurons...
  31. Telejko B, Kuzmicki M, Wawrusiewicz Kurylonek N, Szamatowicz J, Nikolajuk A, Zonenberg A, et al. Plasma apelin levels and apelin/APJ mRNA expression in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;87:176-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is a novel adipokine identified as an endogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor APJ...
  32. Maguire J, Kleinz M, Pitkin S, Davenport A. [Pyr1]apelin-13 identified as the predominant apelin isoform in the human heart: vasoactive mechanisms and inotropic action in disease. Hypertension. 2009;54:598-604 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin receptors, present on vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelium, and cardiomyocytes, are activated by the family of apelin peptides to elicit cardiovascular effects in experimental animals, but functional activity in humans has not ..
  33. Lee D, Cheng R, Nguyen T, Fan T, Kariyawasam A, Liu Y, et al. Characterization of apelin, the ligand for the APJ receptor. J Neurochem. 2000;74:34-41 pubmed
    The apelin peptide was recently discovered and demonstrated to be the endogenous ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor, APJ...
  34. Azizi M, Iturrioz X, Blanchard A, Peyrard S, De Mota N, Chartrel N, et al. Reciprocal regulation of plasma apelin and vasopressin by osmotic stimuli. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:1015-24 pubmed publisher
  35. Sheikh A, Chun H, Glassford A, Kundu R, Kutschka I, Ardigo D, et al. In vivo genetic profiling and cellular localization of apelin reveals a hypoxia-sensitive, endothelial-centered pathway activated in ischemic heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H88-98 pubmed
    Signaling by the peptide ligand apelin and its cognate G protein-coupled receptor APJ has a potent inotropic effect on cardiac contractility and modulates systemic vascular resistance through nitric oxide-dependent signaling...
  36. El Mesallamy H, Hamdy N, Rizk H, El Zayadi A. Apelin serum level in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C. Mediators Inflamm. 2011;2011:703031 pubmed publisher
    Highlighting the apelin system would present a new therapeutic target for liver disease...
  37. Xie H, Tang S, Cui R, Huang J, Ren X, Yuan L, et al. Apelin and its receptor are expressed in human osteoblasts. Regul Pept. 2006;134:118-25 pubmed
    b>Apelin is a recently discovered peptide that is the endogenous ligand for the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor APJ. Adipocytes can express and secrete apelin...
  38. Gombodorj N, Yokobori T, Yoshiyama S, Kawabata Iwakawa R, Rokudai S, Horikoshi I, et al. Inhibition of Ubiquitin-conjugating Enzyme E2 May Activate the Degradation of Hypoxia-inducible Factors and, thus, Overcome Cellular Resistance to Radiation in Colorectal Cancer. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:2425-2436 pubmed
    ..that NSC697923 regulated the expression of cell migration-inducing protein, hyaluronan binding (CEMIP) and apelin (APLN) genes, that are related to HIF pathways...
  39. Simsek Y, Celik O, Yilmaz E, Karaer A, Dogan C, Aydin S, et al. Serum levels of apelin, salusin-alpha and salusin-beta in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25:1705-8 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the serum apelin, salusin-alpha and salusin-beta levels and preeclampsia...
  40. Ba H, Chen H, Su Z, Du M, Chen Q, Li Y, et al. Associations between serum apelin-12 levels and obesity-related markers in Chinese children. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86577 pubmed publisher
    To investigate possible correlations between apelin-12 levels and obesity in children in China and associations between apelin-12 and obesity-related markers, including lipids, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR)...
  41. Cayabyab M, Hinuma S, Farzan M, Choe H, Fukusumi S, Kitada C, et al. Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan seven-transmembrane receptor APJ, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry. J Virol. 2000;74:11972-6 pubmed
    ..A previously identified ligand of APJ, apelin, specifically inhibited the entry of primary T-tropic and dualtropic HIV-1 isolates from different clades into ..
  42. Rai R, Ghosh A, Eren M, Mackie A, Levine D, Kim S, et al. Downregulation of the Apelinergic Axis Accelerates Aging, whereas Its Systemic Restoration Improves the Mammalian Healthspan. Cell Rep. 2017;21:1471-1480 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we characterize the role of the apelinergic axis in mammalian aging and identify apelin as an anti-aging factor...
  43. Blanchard A, Steichen O, De Mota N, Curis E, Gauci C, Frank M, et al. An abnormal apelin/vasopressin balance may contribute to water retention in patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) and heart failure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:2084-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin and vasopressin levels are regulated in opposite directions to maintain body fluid homeostasis...
  44. Ma W, Yu T, Wei J, Hung C, Lin M, Liao Y, et al. Plasma apelin: A novel biomarker for predicting diabetes. Clin Chim Acta. 2014;435:18-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin regulates insulin sensitivity and secretion in animals. However, whether plasma apelin predicts incident diabetes in humans remains unknown...
  45. Pakizeh E, Çoşkunpınar E, Oltulu Y, Çakmak H, İkitimur B, Işık Sağlam Z, et al. The assessment of the relationship between variations in the apelin gene and coronary artery disease in Turkish population. Anatol J Cardiol. 2015;15:716-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is a novel endogenous peptide with inotropic and vasodilatory properties and is the ligand for the angiotensin receptor-like 1 (APJ) receptor...
  46. Jia J, Men C, Tang K, Zhan Y. Apelin polymorphism predicts blood pressure response to losartan in older Chinese women with essential hypertension. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:6561-8 pubmed publisher
    ..blood pressure response to losartan in an older Chinese population with essential hypertension was associated with apelin gene polymorphisms...
  47. Bortoff K, Qiu C, RUNYON S, Williams M, Maitra R. Decreased maternal plasma apelin concentrations in preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2012;31:398-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, an epidemiological evaluation of apelin protein concentration in plasma was conducted in case-control study of pregnant women...
  48. Corvol P. [Effect of apelin in cardiovascular system and water metabolism]. Therapie. 2009;64:233-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin is a recently identified peptide which plays an important role in cardiovascular function and in water metabolism. Apelin and its receptor APJ (apelin system) are involved in zebra fish and xenopus cardiovascular development...
  49. Hwangbo C, Wu J, Papangeli I, Adachi T, Sharma B, Park S, et al. Endothelial APLNR regulates tissue fatty acid uptake and is essential for apelin's glucose-lowering effects. Sci Transl Med. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..The atheroprotective peptide apelin (APLN) enhances glucose utilization and improves insulin sensitivity...
  50. Mishra A, Kohli S, Dua S, Thinlas T, Mohammad G, Pasha M. Genetic differences and aberrant methylation in the apelin system predict the risk of high-altitude pulmonary edema. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:6134-9 pubmed publisher
    Hypoxia-inducible factor stimulates the expression of apelin, a potent vasodilator, in response to reduced blood arterial oxygen saturation...
  51. Jin W, Su X, Xu M, Liu Y, Shi J, Lu L, et al. Interactive association of five candidate polymorphisms in Apelin/APJ pathway with coronary artery disease among Chinese hypertensive patients. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51123 pubmed publisher
    Via sequencing the genes of apelin/angiotensin receptor-like 1 (apelin/APJ) pathway, we have recently identified and validated four common polymorphisms (rs3761581, rs56204867, rs7119375, and rs10501367) implicated in the development of ..
  52. Zhu P, Huang F, Lin F, Yuan Y, Chen F, Li Q. Plasma apelin levels, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors in a coastal Chinese population. Ann Med. 2013;45:494-8 pubmed publisher
    To describe the relationship of plasma apelin levels with blood pressure in a coastal Chinese population. This cross-sectional study included a total of 1031 subjects from the coastal areas of China...
  53. Pi J, Cheng Y, Sun H, Chen X, Zhuang T, Liu J, et al. Apln-CreERT:mT/mG reporter mice as a tool for sprouting angiogenesis study. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:163 pubmed publisher
    ..FACS analysis was used to sort eGFP and tdTomato endothelial cells (ECs) for measuring Apelin and Cdh5 expression...
  54. Tasci I, Erdem G, Tapan S. The relation of ADMA and apelin to endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009;86:e37-8 pubmed publisher
  55. Lu Q, Ma Y, Xu Y, Jiang Y. Apelin in epiretinal membranes of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Mol Vis. 2014;20:1122-31 pubmed
    ..b>Apelin has been identified as a novel angiogenesis contributor...
  56. Soualmia H, Midani F, Hadj Fradj S, Saadi N, Lassoued M, Messoud T, et al. The A445C Variant in Apelin Receptor and Diabetic Retinopathy in Tunisian Patients. Clin Lab. 2017;63:379-383 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin and apelin receptor (APLN/APLNR) are involved in the retinal neovascularization of diabetic retinopathy (DR)...
  57. Johnson N, Vilardi F, Lang S, Leznicki P, Zimmermann R, High S. TRC40 can deliver short secretory proteins to the Sec61 translocon. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3612-20 pubmed
    ..Here we identify two human secretory protein precursors, apelin and statherin, as bona fide substrates for post-translational translocation across the ER membrane...
  58. Gunter S, Solomon A, Tsang L, Woodiwiss A, Robinson C, Millen A, et al. Apelin concentrations are associated with altered atherosclerotic plaque stability mediator levels and atherosclerosis in rheumatoid arthritis. Atherosclerosis. 2017;256:75-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin-APJ signaling reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the atherosclerosis burden and plaque vulnerability to rupture are increased...
  59. Chen X, Bai B, Tian Y, Du H, Chen J. Identification of serine 348 on the apelin receptor as a novel regulatory phosphorylation site in apelin-13-induced G protein-independent biased signaling. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:31173-87 pubmed publisher
    Phosphorylation plays vital roles in the regulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) functions. The apelin and apelin receptor (APJ) system is involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function and central control of body ..
  60. Kiskaç M, Zorlu M, Cakirca M, Karatoprak C, Kesgin S, Büyükaydın B, et al. Evaluation of the relationship between serum apelin levels and vitamin D and mean platelet volume in diabetic patients. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2014;75:200-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Apelin is an adipocytokine suspected to have a role in skeletal muscle glucose utilization and glycemic regulation which ..
  61. Liao Y, Chou W, Li Y, Chuang S, Lin W, Lakkakula B, et al. Apelin gene polymorphism influences apelin expression and obesity phenotypes in Chinese women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:921-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin, which is a newly identified adipokine, is related to obesity and insulin resistance. A positive correlation between plasma apelin concentrations and obesity traits was reported...
  62. Tasci I, Erdem G, Ozgur G, Tapan S, Dogru T, Genc H, et al. LDL-cholesterol lowering increases plasma apelin in isolated hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis. 2009;204:222-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Apelin, a relatively newer adipokine with various actions in cardiovascular system, was recently reported to decrease in dyslipidemia...
  63. Knauf C, Drougard A, Fournel A, Duparc T, Valet P. Hypothalamic actions of apelin on energy metabolism: new insight on glucose homeostasis and metabolic disorders. Horm Metab Res. 2013;45:928-34 pubmed publisher
    ..During the past ten years, we have identified a new adipokine named apelin which has emerging role in the control of metabolism...
  64. Yu Q, Hirst C, Costa M, Ng E, Schiesser J, Gertow K, et al. APELIN promotes hematopoiesis from human embryonic stem cells. Blood. 2012;119:6243-54 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed that MIXL1-positive mesodermal precursors were enriched for transcripts encoding the G-protein-coupled APELIN receptor (APLNR)...
  65. Zheng H, Fan X, Li X, Zhang Y, Fan Y, Zhang N, et al. The association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Apelin gene and diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2016;29:1397-1402 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the study was to analyze the association of apelin gene (APLN) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
  66. Bai B, Tang J, Liu H, Chen J, Li Y, Song W. Apelin-13 induces ERK1/2 but not p38 MAPK activation through coupling of the human apelin receptor to the Gi2 pathway. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2008;40:311-8 pubmed
    b>Apelin signaling to the family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as extracellular-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK, through the coupling of apelin receptor (APJ) to G-protein, mediates important ..
  67. Cui J, Ren Z, Zou W, Jiang Y. miR-497 accelerates oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages by repressing the expression of apelin. Cell Biol Int. 2017;41:1012-1019 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, downregulation of miR-497 suppressed oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages. Apelin was identified to be a downstream target of miR-497...