Gene Symbol: AP2M1
Description: adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit mu 1
Alias: AP50, CLAPM1, mu2, AP-2 complex subunit mu, AP-2 mu 2 chain, HA2 50 kDA subunit, adaptin-mu2, adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit mu, adaptor related protein complex 2 mu 1 subunit, adaptor-related protein complex 2 subunit mu, clathrin adaptor complex AP2, mu subunit, clathrin assembly protein complex 2 medium chain, clathrin assembly protein complex 2 mu medium chain, clathrin coat adaptor protein AP50, clathrin coat assembly protein AP50, clathrin coat-associated protein AP50, clathrin-associated/assembly/adaptor protein, medium 1, plasma membrane adaptor AP-2 50 kDa protein, plasma membrane adaptor AP-2 50kDA protein
Species: human
Products:     AP2M1

Top Publications

  1. Boll W, Rapoport I, Brunner C, Modis Y, Prehn S, Kirchhausen T. The mu2 subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-2 binds to FDNPVY and YppØ sorting signals at distinct sites. Traffic. 2002;3:590-600 pubmed
    ..with a photoactivated peptide probe to demonstrate the interaction between FDNPVY-containing peptides and the mu2 chain of purified AP-2 clathrin adaptors (the complexes responsible for plasma membrane sorting)...
  2. Boucrot E, Saffarian S, Zhang R, Kirchhausen T. Roles of AP-2 in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10597 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that under certain conditions of stress, cells can upregulate alternative endocytic structures with the potential to provide compensatory trafficking pathways. ..
  3. Page L, Robinson M. Targeting signals and subunit interactions in coated vesicle adaptor complexes. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:619-30 pubmed
    ..The subunit composition of the plasma membrane adaptor complex is alpha-adaptin, beta-adaptin, AP50, and AP17; while that of the TGN adaptor complex is gamma-adaptin, beta'-adaptin, AP47, and AP19...
  4. Zhang Y, Allison J. Interaction of CTLA-4 with AP50, a clathrin-coated pit adaptor protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9273-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that CTLA-4 is associated with AP50, the medium chain of the clathrin-associated coated pit adaptor protein complex AP2...
  5. Wyss S, Berlioz Torrent C, Boge M, Blot G, Honing S, Benarous R, et al. The highly conserved C-terminal dileucine motif in the cytosolic domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein is critical for its association with the AP-1 clathrin adaptor [correction of adapter]. J Virol. 2001;75:2982-92 pubmed
    ..Finally, the C-terminal dileucine was shown to assist the membrane-proximal Y712 motif in restricting the cell surface expression of Env. ..
  6. Noble B, Abada P, Nunez Iglesias J, Cannon P. Recruitment of the adaptor protein 2 complex by the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 envelope protein is necessary for high levels of virus release. J Virol. 2006;80:2924-32 pubmed
  7. Aguet F, Antonescu C, Mettlen M, Schmid S, Danuser G. Advances in analysis of low signal-to-noise images link dynamin and AP2 to the functions of an endocytic checkpoint. Dev Cell. 2013;26:279-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify dynamin and the EAP-binding ?-adaptin appendage domain of the AP2 adaptor as switches in a regulated, multistep maturation process and provide direct evidence for a molecular checkpoint in CME. ..
  8. Garcia J, Miller A. Serine phosphorylation-independent downregulation of cell-surface CD4 by nef. Nature. 1991;350:508-11 pubmed
    ..Also, nef can downregulate a CD4 triple mutant (Ser----Ala) that is neither phosphorylated nor down-regulated by phorbol esters, indicating that nef is acting by a different mechanism. ..
  9. Ohno H, Aguilar R, Fournier M, Hennecke S, Cosson P, Bonifacino J. Interaction of endocytic signals from the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex with members of the adaptor medium chain family. Virology. 1997;238:305-15 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that HIV-1 Env utilizes the protein sorting machinery of the host cells for internalization and sorting at various steps of the endocytic and biosynthetic pathways. ..

More Information

Publications103 found, 100 shown here

  1. Owen D, Evans P. A structural explanation for the recognition of tyrosine-based endocytotic signals. Science. 1998;282:1327-32 pubmed
    ..for endocytosis by a cytoplasmic sequence motif, tyrosine-X-X-(hydrophobic residue), that is recognized by the mu2 subunit of AP2 adaptors...
  2. Motley A, Bright N, Seaman M, Robinson M. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis in AP-2-depleted cells. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:909-18 pubmed
    We have used RNA interference to knock down the AP-2 mu2 subunit and clathrin heavy chain to undetectable levels in HeLaM cells...
  3. Batonick M, Favre M, Boge M, Spearman P, Honing S, Thali M. Interaction of HIV-1 Gag with the clathrin-associated adaptor AP-2. Virology. 2005;342:190-200 pubmed
    ..Together these data attribute a role to the AP-2 complex in the regulation of HIV-1 assembly/release. ..
  4. Mitchell R, Chaudhuri R, Lindwasser O, Tanaka K, Lau D, Murillo R, et al. Competition model for upregulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II-associated invariant chain by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef. J Virol. 2008;82:7758-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Nef usurps AP-2 complexes to dysregulate Ii trafficking and potentially interfere with antigen presentation in the context of MHC-II. ..
  5. Berlioz Torrent C, Shacklett B, Erdtmann L, Delamarre L, Bouchaert I, Sonigo P, et al. Interactions of the cytoplasmic domains of human and simian retroviral transmembrane proteins with components of the clathrin adaptor complexes modulate intracellular and cell surface expression of envelope glycoproteins. J Virol. 1999;73:1350-61 pubmed
  6. Morris S, Cooper J. Disabled-2 colocalizes with the LDLR in clathrin-coated pits and interacts with AP-2. Traffic. 2001;2:111-23 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that in addition to previously reported signal-transduction functions, Dab2 could also act as an adaptor protein that may regulate protein trafficking...
  7. Korolchuk V, Banting G. CK2 and GAK/auxilin2 are major protein kinases in clathrin-coated vesicles. Traffic. 2002;3:428-39 pubmed
    ..The medium subunit of the AP2 adaptor complex (mu2) is not a substrate for CK2, but is phosphorylated by a second kinase that we show to be cyclin G-associated kinase ..
  8. Chaudhuri R, Lindwasser O, Smith W, Hurley J, Bonifacino J. Downregulation of CD4 by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef is dependent on clathrin and involves direct interaction of Nef with the AP2 clathrin adaptor. J Virol. 2007;81:3877-90 pubmed
    ..Together, these results support a model in which HIV-1 Nef downregulates CD4 by promoting its accelerated endocytosis by a clathrin/AP2 pathway. ..
  9. Mitchell R, Katsura C, Skasko M, Fitzpatrick K, Lau D, Ruiz A, et al. Vpu antagonizes BST-2-mediated restriction of HIV-1 release via beta-TrCP and endo-lysosomal trafficking. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000450 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the data support a model in which Vpu co-opts the beta-TrCP/SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to induce endosomal trafficking events that remove BST-2 from its site of action as a virion-tethering factor. ..
  10. Checkley M, Luttge B, Freed E. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein biosynthesis, trafficking, and incorporation. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:582-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review our current understanding of HIV-1 Env glycoprotein trafficking and incorporation into virions. ..
  11. Ohno H, Stewart J, Fournier M, Bosshart H, Rhee I, Miyatake S, et al. Interaction of tyrosine-based sorting signals with clathrin-associated proteins. Science. 1995;269:1872-5 pubmed
    ..The interaction was confirmed by in vitro binding assays. Thus, it is likely that the medium chains serve as signal-binding components of the clathrin-dependent sorting machinery. ..
  12. Chuang E, Alegre M, Duckett C, Noel P, Vander Heiden M, Thompson C. Interaction of CTLA-4 with the clathrin-associated protein AP50 results in ligand-independent endocytosis that limits cell surface expression. J Immunol. 1997;159:144-51 pubmed
    ..The cytoplasmic domain of CTLA-4 was found to specifically bind to AP50, the medium chain subunit of AP-2 in both yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays...
  13. Byland R, Vance P, Hoxie J, Marsh M. A conserved dileucine motif mediates clathrin and AP-2-dependent endocytosis of the HIV-1 envelope protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:414-25 pubmed
  14. Kumar K, Barriere H, Carbone C, Liu J, Swaminathan G, Xu P, et al. Site-specific ubiquitination exposes a linear motif to promote interferon-alpha receptor endocytosis. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:935-50 pubmed
  15. Stove V, Van de Walle I, Naessens E, Coene E, Stove C, Plum J, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus Nef induces rapid internalization of the T-cell coreceptor CD8alphabeta. J Virol. 2005;79:11422-33 pubmed
    ..The Nef-mediated internalization of receptors, such as CD4, major histocompatibility complex class I, CD28, and CD8alphabeta, may contribute to the subversion of the host immune system and progression towards AIDS. ..
  16. Ripke S, Wray N, Lewis C, Hamilton S, Weissman M, Breen G, et al. A mega-analysis of genome-wide association studies for major depressive disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18:497-511 pubmed publisher
    ..The 3p21.1 MDD-BIP finding should be interpreted with caution as the most significant SNP did not replicate in MDD samples, and genotyping in independent samples will be needed to resolve its status. ..
  17. Neveu G, Ziv Av A, Barouch Bentov R, Berkerman E, Mulholland J, Einav S. AP-2-associated protein kinase 1 and cyclin G-associated kinase regulate hepatitis C virus entry and are potential drug targets. J Virol. 2015;89:4387-404 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that AAK1 and GAK regulate HCV assembly by stimulating binding of the μ subunit of AP-2, AP2M1, to HCV core protein...
  18. Boll W, Ohno H, Songyang Z, Rapoport I, Cantley L, Bonifacino J, et al. Sequence requirements for the recognition of tyrosine-based endocytic signals by clathrin AP-2 complexes. EMBO J. 1996;15:5789-95 pubmed
    ..We conclude that sorting into the endocytic pathway is governed by a surprisingly simple interaction between the mu 2 chain and a tyrosine-containing tetrapeptide sequence. ..
  19. Kamiguchi H, Long K, Pendergast M, Schaefer A, Rapoport I, Kirchhausen T, et al. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 interacts with the AP-2 adaptor and is endocytosed via the clathrin-mediated pathway. J Neurosci. 1998;18:5311-21 pubmed
    ..These results establish a mechanism by which L1 can be internalized from the cell surface and suggest that an active region of L1 endocytosis at the rear of growth cones is important in L1-dependent axon growth. ..
  20. Walther K, Krauss M, Diril M, Lemke S, Ricotta D, Honing S, et al. Human stoned B interacts with AP-2 and synaptotagmin and facilitates clathrin-coated vesicle uncoating. EMBO Rep. 2001;2:634-40 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that hStnB regulates synaptic vesicle recycling by facilitating vesicle uncoating. ..
  21. Meisel Sharon S, Pozniak Y, Geiger T, Werner H. TMPRSS2-ERG fusion protein regulates insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) gene expression in prostate cancer: involvement of transcription factor Sp1. Oncotarget. 2016;7:51375-51392 pubmed publisher
    ..Among other interactors, we identified AP-2 complex subunit mu (AP2M1) and caveolin-1 (CAV1) in association with ERG in cell nuclei...
  22. Abraham S, Kirkwood R, Laird T, Saputra S, Mitchell T, Singh M, et al. Dissemination and persistence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistance encoding IncI1-blaCTXM-1 plasmid among Escherichia coli in pigs. ISME J. 2018;12:2352-2362 pubmed publisher
    ..ESC resistance identified among E. coli isolates was attributed to the carriage of an IncI1 ST-3 plasmid (pCTXM1-MU2) encoding blaCTXM-1. Genomic characterisation of selected E...
  23. Teuchert M, Berghöfer S, Klenk H, Garten W. Recycling of furin from the plasma membrane. Functional importance of the cytoplasmic tail sorting signals and interaction with the AP-2 adaptor medium chain subunit. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:36781-9 pubmed
  24. Levecque C, Velayos Baeza A, Holloway Z, Monaco A. The dyslexia-associated protein KIAA0319 interacts with adaptor protein 2 and follows the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;297:C160-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study has identified the medium subunit (mu2) of adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) as a binding partner of KIAA0319 in a yeast two-hybrid screen...
  25. Le Duff M, Gouju J, Jonchère B, Guillon J, Toutain B, Boissard A, et al. Regulation of senescence escape by the cdk4-EZH2-AP2M1 pathway in response to chemotherapy. Cell Death Dis. 2018;9:199 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified proteins involved in receptor endocytosis and described new functions for the AP2M1 protein in the control of chemotherapy-mediated senescence...
  26. Craig H, Reddy T, Riggs N, Dao P, Guatelli J. Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting motif. Virology. 2000;271:9-17 pubmed
    ..The interactions with mu1 and mu3 were markedly stronger than the interaction with mu2. Leucine residues of the sorting motif were required for the interactions with mu3 and mu2 and contributed to the ..
  27. Geyer M, Yu H, Mandic R, Linnemann T, Zheng Y, Fackler O, et al. Subunit H of the V-ATPase binds to the medium chain of adaptor protein complex 2 and connects Nef to the endocytic machinery. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28521-9 pubmed
    ..study, we demonstrate that V1H binds to the C-terminal flexible loop in Nef from HIV-1 and to the medium chain (mu2) of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) in vitro and in vivo...
  28. Jackson L, Kelly B, McCoy A, Gaffry T, James L, Collins B, et al. A large-scale conformational change couples membrane recruitment to cargo binding in the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex. Cell. 2010;141:1220-9 pubmed publisher
    The AP2 adaptor complex (alpha, beta2, sigma2, and mu2 subunits) crosslinks the endocytic clathrin scaffold to PtdIns4,5P(2)-containing membranes and transmembrane protein cargo...
  29. Popovic D, Dikic I. TBC1D5 and the AP2 complex regulate ATG9 trafficking and initiation of autophagy. EMBO Rep. 2014;15:392-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data show that TBC1D5 and the AP2 complex are important novel regulators of the rerouting of ATG9-containing vesicular carriers toward sites of autophagosome formation. ..
  30. de Marcellus C, Taha M, Gaudelus J, Fremeaux Bacchi V, De Pontual L, Guiddir T. [Complement terminal fraction deficiency revealed at first invasive meningococcal infection]. Arch Pediatr. 2015;22:296-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is an easy, rapid, and cost-effective screening system by dosage of CH50, C3, C4, and AP50. The arrival of the new meningococcal B vaccine will contribute to improving these patients' care...
  31. Kiguchi Y, Aono Y, Watanabe Y, Yamamoto Nemoto S, Shimizu K, Shimizu T, et al. In vivo neurochemical evidence that delta1-, delta2- and mu2-opioid receptors, but not mu1-opioid receptors, inhibit acetylcholine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;789:402-410 pubmed publisher
    ..Delta- and mu-opioid receptors are divided into delta1- and delta2-opioid receptors and mu1- and mu2-opioid receptors, respectively...
  32. Magro Checa C, Schaarenburg R, Beaart H, Huizinga T, Steup Beekman G, Trouw L. Complement levels and anti-C1q autoantibodies in patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2016;25:878-88 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured in serum of all patients anti-C1q and C1q CIC levels, the activation capacity of complement (CH50 and AP50) and different complement components (C1q, C3, C4). In 92 patients the symptoms were attributed to SLE...
  33. Kadlecova Z, Spielman S, Loerke D, Mohanakrishnan A, Reed D, Schmid S. Regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by hierarchical allosteric activation of AP2. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:167-179 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we speculate that AP2 has evolved as a key regulatory node to coordinate CCP formation and cargo sorting and ensure high spatial and temporal regulation of CME. ..
  34. Focking M, Lopez L, English J, Dicker P, Wolff A, Brindley E, et al. Proteomic and genomic evidence implicates the postsynaptic density in schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2015;20:424-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data provide robust evidence implicating PSD-associated proteins and genes in schizophrenia, and suggest that within the PSD, NMDA-interacting and endocytosis-related proteins contribute to disease pathophysiology. ..
  35. Vendeville A, Rayne F, Bonhoure A, Bettache N, Montcourrier P, Beaumelle B. HIV-1 Tat enters T cells using coated pits before translocating from acidified endosomes and eliciting biological responses. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:2347-60 pubmed
    ..Hence, Tat enters T cells essentially like diphtheria toxin, using clathrin-mediated endocytosis before low-pH-induced and Hsp90-assisted endosomal translocation. Cell responses are then induced from the cytosol. ..
  36. Bukrinskaya A. HIV-1 matrix protein: a mysterious regulator of the viral life cycle. Virus Res. 2007;124:1-11 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that two MA fractions possess diverse functions and are involved in different stages of virus morphogenesis as key regulators of the viral life cycle. ..
  37. Wollscheid H, Biancospino M, He F, Magistrati E, Molteni E, Lupia M, et al. Diverse functions of myosin VI elucidated by an isoform-specific α-helix domain. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2016;23:300-308 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the α2-linker acts like a molecular switch that assigns myosin VI to distinct endocytic (myosin VI(long)) or migratory (myosin VI(short)) functional roles. ..
  38. Ballmer B, Moos R, Liberali P, Pelkmans L, Hornemann S, Aguzzi A. Modifiers of prion protein biogenesis and recycling identified by a highly parallel endocytosis kinetics assay. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:8356-8368 pubmed publisher
    ..5). RNA interference assays showed that suppression of AP2M1 (AP-2 adaptor protein), RAB5A, VPS35 (vacuolar protein sorting 35 homolog), and M6PR (mannose 6-phosphate receptor)..
  39. Santini F, Marks M, Keen J. Endocytic clathrin-coated pit formation is independent of receptor internalization signal levels. Mol Biol Cell. 1998;9:1177-94 pubmed
    ..Rather, the findings support a model in which coated pit formation proceeds through recruitment and activation of AP2, likely through a limited number of regulated docking sites that act independently of endocytic signals...
  40. Ghanam R, Samal A, Fernandez T, Saad J. Role of the HIV-1 Matrix Protein in Gag Intracellular Trafficking and Targeting to the Plasma Membrane for Virus Assembly. Front Microbiol. 2012;3:55 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the structural and functional role of MA in HIV replication. ..
  41. Luo S, Xin X, Du L, Ye K, Wei Y. Dimerization Mediated by a Divergent Forkhead-associated Domain Is Essential for the DNA Damage and Spindle Functions of Fission Yeast Mdb1. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:21054-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The FHA domain of the Drosophila homolog of MDC1, MU2, also forms a homodimer but utilizes a different dimer interface...
  42. Chen M, Wu J, Shi S, Chen Y, Wang H, Fan H, et al. Structure analysis of a heteropolysaccharide from Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz. and anticomplementary activity of its sulfated derivatives. Carbohydr Polym. 2016;152:241-252 pubmed publisher
    ..94±0.43?g/mL; heparin, 104.40±3.82?g/mL) and alternative pathway (AP50: Sul-DPSW-A, 42.76±0.46?g/mL; heparin, 43.42±0.22?g/mL)...
  43. Jullien Flores V, Mahe Y, Mirey G, Leprince C, Meunier Bisceuil B, Sorkin A, et al. RLIP76, an effector of the GTPase Ral, interacts with the AP2 complex: involvement of the Ral pathway in receptor endocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 16):2837-44 pubmed
    ..b>Mu2, the medium chain of the AP2 complex is shown to interact with RLIP76...
  44. Szymczak A, Vignali D. Plasticity and rigidity in adaptor protein-2-mediated internalization of the TCR:CD3 complex. J Immunol. 2005;174:4153-60 pubmed
    ..These contrasting requirements suggest a general principle by which AP-2 may mediate the internalization of large, multichain complexes. ..
  45. Mikula M, Skrzypczak M, Goryca K, Paczkowska K, Ledwon J, Statkiewicz M, et al. Genome-wide co-localization of active EGFR and downstream ERK pathway kinases mirrors mitogen-inducible RNA polymerase 2 genomic occupancy. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:10150-10164 pubmed
    ..Perturbation of endosome internalization process, through the depletion of AP2M1 protein, resulted in decreased number of the EGFR containing endosomes and inhibition of Pol2, EGFR/ERK ..
  46. Liu Q, Feng Y, Forgac M. Activity and in vitro reassembly of the coated vesicle (H+)-ATPase requires the 50-kDa subunit of the clathrin assembly complex AP-2. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:31592-7 pubmed
    We have previously shown that the 50-kDa subunit of the clathrin assembly complex AP-2 (AP50) stoichiometrically binds to and is immunoprecipitated with the vacuolar (H+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) from clathrin-coated vesicles (Myers, M...
  47. Wang X, Kilimann M. Identification of two new mu-adaptin-related proteins, mu-ARP1 and mu-ARP2. FEBS Lett. 1997;402:57-61 pubmed
    ..60% amino acid sequence identity with each other and 27-31%, identity with mu1-adaptin (ap47) and mu2-adaptin (ap50)...
  48. Umeda A, Meyerholz A, Ungewickell E. Identification of the universal cofactor (auxilin 2) in clathrin coat dissociation. Eur J Cell Biol. 2000;79:336-42 pubmed
    ..The cellular distribution of membrane-associated adaptors was unaffected by overexpression of GAK. Our results point to a hsc70/auxilin-based uncoating system as a ubiquitous feature of eukaryotic cells...
  49. Schmidt U, Briese S, Leicht K, Schurmann A, Joost H, Al Hasani H. Endocytosis of the glucose transporter GLUT8 is mediated by interaction of a dileucine motif with the beta2-adaptin subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2321-31 pubmed
    ..Our results show that RNAi-mediated targeting of the mu2 subunit leads to cellular depletion of AP-2, but not AP-1 adaptor complexes in HeLa cells...
  50. Krieger J, Taylor P, Gajadhar A, Guha A, Moran M, McGlade C. Identification and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) quantification of endocytosis factors associated with Numb. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013;12:499-514 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of Numb protein-protein interactions has provided new insights into the assembly and regulation of protein complexes important in development and cancer. ..
  51. Miller S, Mathiasen S, Bright N, Pierre F, Kelly B, Kladt N, et al. CALM regulates clathrin-coated vesicle size and maturation by directly sensing and driving membrane curvature. Dev Cell. 2015;33:163-75 pubmed publisher
    ..CALM is thus a major factor in controlling CCV size and maturation and hence in determining the rates of endocytic cargo uptake. ..
  52. Druck T, Gu Y, Prabhala G, Cannizzaro L, Park S, Huebner K, et al. Chromosome localization of human genes for clathrin adaptor polypeptides AP2 beta and AP50 and the clathrin-binding protein, VCP. Genomics. 1995;30:94-7 pubmed
    ..We have determined human chromosomal locations of genes for a large AP2 beta (CLAPB1) and a medium (CLAPM1) AP subunit and of a novel clathrin-binding protein, VCP, that binds clathrin simultaneously with APs...
  53. Rose J, Janvier K, Chandrasekhar S, Sekaly R, Bonifacino J, Venkatesan S. CD4 down-regulation by HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Nef proteins involves both internalization and intracellular retention mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:7413-26 pubmed
    ..In contrast, AP-2-mediated enhanced endocytosis constitutes the predominant mechanism for SIV (MAC-239 strain) Nef-induced down-regulation of human CD4 in human cells. ..
  54. Ravikumar B, Moreau K, Jahreiss L, Puri C, Rubinsztein D. Plasma membrane contributes to the formation of pre-autophagosomal structures. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:747-57 pubmed publisher
  55. Dutta D, Chakraborty S, Bandyopadhyay C, Valiya Veettil M, Ansari M, Singh V, et al. EphrinA2 regulates clathrin mediated KSHV endocytosis in fibroblast cells by coordinating integrin-associated signaling and c-Cbl directed polyubiquitination. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003510 pubmed publisher
  56. Rapoport I, Miyazaki M, Boll W, Duckworth B, Cantley L, Shoelson S, et al. Regulatory interactions in the recognition of endocytic sorting signals by AP-2 complexes. EMBO J. 1997;16:2240-50 pubmed
    ..The mu2 subunit of isolated AP-2 complexes binds specifically, but rather weakly, to proteins bearing the tyrosine-based ..
  57. Yano H, Lee F, Kong H, Chuang J, Arevalo J, Perez P, et al. Association of Trk neurotrophin receptors with components of the cytoplasmic dynein motor. J Neurosci. 2001;21:RC125 pubmed
    ..The association of Trk receptors with components of cytoplasmic dynein suggests that transport of neurotrophins during vesicular trafficking may occur through a direct interaction of the Trk receptor with the dynein motor machinery. ..
  58. Diviani D, Lattion A, Abuin L, Staub O, Cotecchia S. The adaptor complex 2 directly interacts with the alpha 1b-adrenergic receptor and plays a role in receptor endocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:19331-40 pubmed
    ..The direct association of the adaptor complex 2 with a G protein-coupled receptor has not been reported so far and might represent a common mechanism underlying clathrin-mediated receptor endocytosis. ..
  59. Rapetti Mauss R, O Mahony F, Sepúlveda F, Urbach V, Harvey B. Oestrogen promotes KCNQ1 potassium channel endocytosis and postendocytic trafficking in colonic epithelium. J Physiol. 2013;591:2813-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has provided the first demonstration of hormonal regulation of KCNQ1 trafficking. In conclusion, we propose that internalization of KCNQ1 is a key event in the sustained antisecretory response to oestrogen. ..
  60. Harris J, Richards R, Chow C, Lee S, Kim M, Buck M, et al. BMCC1 is an AP-2 associated endosomal protein in prostate cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73880 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, we posit a novel role for BMCC1 in post-endocytic trafficking. This study provides fundamental characterisation of the BMCC1 complex in prostate cancer cells and for the first time implicates it in vesicle trafficking. ..
  61. Gondim M, Wiltzer Bach L, Maurer B, Banning C, Argañaraz E, Schindler M. AP-2 Is the Crucial Clathrin Adaptor Protein for CD4 Downmodulation by HIV-1 Nef in Infected Primary CD4+ T Cells. J Virol. 2015;89:12518-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, among the factors tested, AP-2 is the most important player for Nef-mediated CD4 downmodulation. ..
  62. Chang M, Mallet W, Mostov K, Brodsky F. Adaptor self-aggregation, adaptor-receptor recognition and binding of alpha-adaptin subunits to the plasma membrane contribute to recruitment of adaptor (AP2) components of clathrin-coated pits. EMBO J. 1993;12:2169-80 pubmed
  63. Del Valle J, Engel P, Martin M. The cell surface expression of SAP-binding receptor CD229 is regulated via its interaction with clathrin-associated adaptor complex 2 (AP-2). J Biol Chem. 2003;278:17430-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that CD229 cell surface expression on lymphocytes surface is strongly and differentially regulated within the CD150 family members. ..
  64. John B, Herrin B, Raman C, Wang Y, Bobbitt K, Brody B, et al. The B cell coreceptor CD22 associates with AP50, a clathrin-coated pit adapter protein, via tyrosine-dependent interaction. J Immunol. 2003;170:3534-43 pubmed
    ..In the current study, yeast two-hybrid analysis was used to demonstrate that CD22 interacts with AP50, the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 complex, via tyrosine-based internalization motifs in its cytoplasmic domain...
  65. Park S, Ha B, Choi G, Ryu J, Kim B, Jung C, et al. EHD2 interacts with the insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in rat adipocytes and may participate in insulin-induced GLUT4 recruitment. Biochemistry. 2004;43:7552-62 pubmed
    ..These findings strongly suggest that EHD2 interacts with GLUT4 in rat adipocytes and may play a key role in insulin-induced GLUT4 recruitment to the plasma membrane. ..
  66. Magnani S, Mulliri G, Sainas G, Ghiani G, Pinna V, Sanna I, et al. The occurrence of cardiac output decrease (via stroke volume) is more pronounced in women than in men during prolonged dry static apnoea. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2017;:jap.00991.2016 pubmed publisher
    ..In the first quarter (AP25%) and half (AP50%) of apnoea duration cardiac output (CO) showed a more rapid and intense decrease in females than males (-43% vs...
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