Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: AP2B1
Description: adaptor related protein complex 2 subunit beta 1
Alias: ADTB2, AP105B, AP2-BETA, CLAPB1, AP-2 complex subunit beta, adapter-related protein complex 2 beta subunit, adapter-related protein complex 2 subunit beta, adaptin, beta 2 (beta), adaptor protein complex AP-2 subunit beta, adaptor related protein complex 2 beta 1 subunit, adaptor-related protein complex 2 subunit beta, beta-2-adaptin, beta-adaptin, clathrin assembly protein complex 2 beta large chain, clathrin-associated/assembly/adaptor protein, large, beta 1, plasma membrane adaptor HA2/AP2 adaptin beta subunit, testicular tissue protein Li 22
- Laporte S, Miller W, Kim K, Caron M. beta-Arrestin/AP-2 interaction in G protein-coupled receptor internalization: identification of a beta-arrestin binging site in beta 2-adaptin. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:9247-54 pubmed..These results suggest that the interaction of beta-arrestin with beta(2)-adaptin represents a selective endocytic trigger for several members of the GPCR family...
- Knuehl C, Chen C, Manalo V, Hwang P, Ota N, Brodsky F. Novel binding sites on clathrin and adaptors regulate distinct aspects of coat assembly. Traffic. 2006;7:1688-700 pubmed..Thus, the distinct sites for clathrin-adaptor interactions perform distinct functions, revealing new aspects to regulation of CCV formation. ..
- Jackson L, Kelly B, McCoy A, Gaffry T, James L, Collins B, et al. A large-scale conformational change couples membrane recruitment to cargo binding in the AP2 clathrin adaptor complex. Cell. 2010;141:1220-9 pubmed publisher..Using a range of biophysical techniques, we show that the endocytic cargo binding of AP2 is driven by its interaction with PtdIns4,5P(2)-containing membranes. ..
- Berlioz Torrent C, Shacklett B, Erdtmann L, Delamarre L, Bouchaert I, Sonigo P, et al. Interactions of the cytoplasmic domains of human and simian retroviral transmembrane proteins with components of the clathrin adaptor complexes modulate intracellular and cell surface expression of envelope glycoproteins. J Virol. 1999;73:1350-61 pubmed
- Ritter B, Murphy S, Dokainish H, Girard M, Gudheti M, Kozlov G, et al. NECAP 1 regulates AP-2 interactions to control vesicle size, number, and cargo during clathrin-mediated endocytosis. PLoS Biol. 2013;11:e1001670 pubmed publisher..Together, our data demonstrate that NECAP 1 modulates the AP-2 interactome and reveal a new layer of organizational control within the endocytic machinery. ..
- Chaudhuri R, Lindwasser O, Smith W, Hurley J, Bonifacino J. Downregulation of CD4 by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef is dependent on clathrin and involves direct interaction of Nef with the AP2 clathrin adaptor. J Virol. 2007;81:3877-90 pubmed..Together, these results support a model in which HIV-1 Nef downregulates CD4 by promoting its accelerated endocytosis by a clathrin/AP2 pathway. ..
- He G, Gupta S, Yi M, Michaely P, Hobbs H, Cohen J. ARH is a modular adaptor protein that interacts with the LDL receptor, clathrin, and AP-2. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44044-9 pubmed..These data are consistent with the hypothesis that ARH functions as an adaptor protein that couples LDLR to the endocytic machinery. ..
- Byland R, Vance P, Hoxie J, Marsh M. A conserved dileucine motif mediates clathrin and AP-2-dependent endocytosis of the HIV-1 envelope protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:414-25 pubmed
- Gallusser A, Kirchhausen T. The beta 1 and beta 2 subunits of the AP complexes are the clathrin coat assembly components. EMBO J. 1993;12:5237-44 pubmed..It is proposed that the principal function of the beta subunits is to initiate coat formation, while the remaining subunits of the AP complexes have other roles in coated pit and coated vesicle function...
- Tong W, Zeng Y, Chow D, Yeung W, Xu J, Deng Y, et al. Wnt16 attenuates osteoarthritis progression through a PCP/JNK-mTORC1-PTHrP cascade. Ann Rheum Dis. 2019;78:551-561 pubmed publisher..and calcium pathways, Wnt16 activated the planar cell polarity (PCP) and JNK pathway by interacting mainly with AP2b1, and to a lesser extend Ror2 and CD146, and subsequently induced PTHrP expression through phosphor-Raptor ..
- Kirchhausen T. Clathrin. Annu Rev Biochem. 2000;69:699-727 pubmed..This review summarizes and illustrates the recent structural results and outlines what is known about coated-vesicle assembly in the context of this information. ..
- Laporte S, Oakley R, Zhang J, Holt J, Ferguson S, Caron M, et al. The beta2-adrenergic receptor/betaarrestin complex recruits the clathrin adaptor AP-2 during endocytosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:3712-7 pubmed..These findings point to a role for AP-2 in GPCR endocytosis, and they suggest that AP-2 functions as a clathrin adaptor for the endocytosis of diverse classes of membrane receptors. ..
- Ono A. HIV-1 Assembly at the Plasma Membrane: Gag Trafficking and Localization. Future Virol. 2009;4:241-257 pubmed..In addition, findings on Gag association with specific plasma membrane domains are discussed in light of potential roles in cell-to-cell transmission. ..
- Greenberg M, Bronson S, Lock M, Neumann M, Pavlakis G, Skowronski J. Co-localization of HIV-1 Nef with the AP-2 adaptor protein complex correlates with Nef-induced CD4 down-regulation. EMBO J. 1997;16:6964-76 pubmed..This evidence supports a model whereby Nef recruits CD4 to the endocytic machinery via AP-2-containing clathrin coats at the plasma membrane. ..
- Saafan H, Foerster S, Parra Guillén Z, Hammer E, Michaelis M, Cinatl J, et al. Utilising the EGFR interactome to identify mechanisms of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer - Proof of concept towards a systems pharmacology approach. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2016;94:20-32 pubmed publisher..with an increase of protein levels of members of the clathrin-associated adaptor protein family AP2 (AP2A1, AP2A2, AP2B1), structural proteins of cytoskeleton rearrangement as well as signalling molecules such as Shc...
- Koscielny A, Malik A, Liszewska E, Zmorzynska J, Tempes A, Tarkowski B, et al. Adaptor Complex 2 Controls Dendrite Morphology via mTOR-Dependent Expression of GluA2. Mol Neurobiol. 2018;55:1590-1606 pubmed publisher..We found that the knockdown of AP2b1 (β2-adaptin), an AP2 subunit, reduced the number of dendrites in developing rat hippocampal neurons and decreased ..
- Katikireddy K, Schmedt T, Price M, Price F, Jurkunas U. Existence of Neural Crest-Derived Progenitor Cells in Normal and Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy Corneal Endothelium. Am J Pathol. 2016;186:2736-50 pubmed publisher..genes SOX2, OCT4, LGR5, TP63 (p63), as well as neural crest marker genes PSIP1 (p75(NTR)), PAX3, SOX9, AP2B1 (AP-2?), and NES, generated a phenotypic footprint of endothelial NCDPs...
- Swigut T, Shohdy N, Skowronski J. Mechanism for down-regulation of CD28 by Nef. EMBO J. 2001;20:1593-604 pubmed..The likely consequence of the concerted down-regulation of CD28, CD4 and/or CD3 by Nef is disruption of antigen-specific signaling machineries in infected T cells following a productive antigen recognition event. ..
- Fan G, Yang W, Wang X, Qian Q, Richmond A. Identification of a motif in the carboxyl terminus of CXCR2 that is involved in adaptin 2 binding and receptor internalization. Biochemistry. 2001;40:791-800 pubmed..These data demonstrate a role for the LLKIL motif in the carboxyl terminus of CXCR2 in receptor internalization and cell chemotaxis and imply a role for adaptin 2 in the endocytosis of CXCR2. ..
- Cayrol C, Cougoule C, Wright M. The beta2-adaptin clathrin adaptor interacts with the mitotic checkpoint kinase BubR1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;298:720-30 pubmed..Together, these results support a model in which the mitotic checkpoint kinases BubR1 and BuB1, by binding to beta-adaptins, may play novel roles in the regulation of vesicular intracellular traffic. ..
- Muthusamy B, Budi E, Katsuno Y, Lee M, Smith S, Mirza A, et al. ShcA Protects against Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition through Compartmentalized Inhibition of TGF-β-Induced Smad Activation. PLoS Biol. 2015;13:e1002325 pubmed publisher..These findings position ShcA as a determinant of the epithelial phenotype by repressing TGF-β-induced Smad activation through differential partitioning of receptor complexes at the cell surface. ..
- Chen C, Brodsky F. Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (Hip1) and Hip1-related protein (Hip1R) bind the conserved sequence of clathrin light chains and thereby influence clathrin assembly in vitro and actin distribution in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:6109-17 pubmed..Together these results suggest that the roles of Hip1 and Hip1R in affecting clathrin assembly and actin distribution are mediated by their interaction with the conserved sequence of clathrin light chains. ..
- Wyatt D, Malik R, Vesecky A, Marchese A. Small ubiquitin-like modifier modification of arrestin-3 regulates receptor trafficking. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:3884-93 pubmed publisher..Our data reveal an unprecedented role for SUMOylation in mediating GPCR endocytosis and provide novel mechanistic insight into arrestin function and regulation. ..
- Gallicchio M, Bach L. Advanced glycation end products inhibit Na+ K+ ATPase in proximal tubule epithelial cells: role of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase gamma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:919-30 pubmed publisher..Elucidation of new intracellular AGE signaling pathways may lead to improved therapies for diabetic nephropathy...
- Paing M, Johnston C, Siderovski D, Trejo J. Clathrin adaptor AP2 regulates thrombin receptor constitutive internalization and endothelial cell resensitization. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3231-42 pubmed..Our findings establish a novel role for AP2 in direct regulation of PAR1 trafficking, a process critically important to the temporal and spatial aspects of thrombin signaling. ..
- Ponnambalam S, Robinson M, Jackson A, Peiperl L, Parham P. Conservation and diversity in families of coated vesicle adaptins. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:4814-20 pubmedThe complete sequence of the beta adaptin subunit of the plasma membrane adaptor complex from coated vesicles has been elucidated...
- Aguilar R, Ohno H, Roche K, Bonifacino J. Functional domain mapping of the clathrin-associated adaptor medium chains mu1 and mu2. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:27160-6 pubmed
- Lu W, Ziff E. PICK1 interacts with ABP/GRIP to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking. Neuron. 2005;47:407-21 pubmed..We suggest that the PICK1 interaction with ABP/GRIP is a critical step in controlling GluR2 trafficking. ..
- Yano H, Lee F, Kong H, Chuang J, Arevalo J, Perez P, et al. Association of Trk neurotrophin receptors with components of the cytoplasmic dynein motor. J Neurosci. 2001;21:RC125 pubmed..The association of Trk receptors with components of cytoplasmic dynein suggests that transport of neurotrophins during vesicular trafficking may occur through a direct interaction of the Trk receptor with the dynein motor machinery. ..
- Miller S, Mathiasen S, Bright N, Pierre F, Kelly B, Kladt N, et al. CALM regulates clathrin-coated vesicle size and maturation by directly sensing and driving membrane curvature. Dev Cell. 2015;33:163-75 pubmed publisher..CALM is thus a major factor in controlling CCV size and maturation and hence in determining the rates of endocytic cargo uptake. ..
- Keyel P, Thieman J, Roth R, Erkan E, Everett E, Watkins S, et al. The AP-2 adaptor beta2 appendage scaffolds alternate cargo endocytosis. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:5309-26 pubmed publisher..We conclude that ARH and beta-arrestin depend on a privileged beta2 appendage site for proper cargo recruitment to clathrin bud sites. ..
- Kalthoff C, Groos S, Kohl R, Mahrhold S, Ungewickell E. Clint: a novel clathrin-binding ENTH-domain protein at the Golgi. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:4060-73 pubmed..Our results suggest that Clint might participate in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles at the level of the trans-Golgi network and remains associated with the vesicles longer than clathrin and adaptors. ..
- Yao D, Ehrlich M, Henis Y, Leof E. Transforming growth factor-beta receptors interact with AP2 by direct binding to beta2 subunit. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:4001-12 pubmed
- Santos da Silva E, Mulinge M, Perez Bercoff D. The frantic play of the concealed HIV envelope cytoplasmic tail. Retrovirology. 2013;10:54 pubmed publisher..It also considers the cellular and viral proteins that have been described to interact with the gp41-CT, with a particular focus on subtype-related polymorphisms. ..
- Garcia J, Miller A. Serine phosphorylation-independent downregulation of cell-surface CD4 by nef. Nature. 1991;350:508-11 pubmed..Also, nef can downregulate a CD4 triple mutant (Ser----Ala) that is neither phosphorylated nor down-regulated by phorbol esters, indicating that nef is acting by a different mechanism. ..
- Lim D, Kirsch D, Canman C, Ahn J, Ziv Y, Newman L, et al. ATM binds to beta-adaptin in cytoplasmic vesicles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:10146-51 pubmed..Our data describing the association of ATM with beta-adaptin in vesicles indicate that ATM may play a role in intracellular vesicle and/or protein transport mechanisms. ..
- Vendeville A, Rayne F, Bonhoure A, Bettache N, Montcourrier P, Beaumelle B. HIV-1 Tat enters T cells using coated pits before translocating from acidified endosomes and eliciting biological responses. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:2347-60 pubmed..Hence, Tat enters T cells essentially like diphtheria toxin, using clathrin-mediated endocytosis before low-pH-induced and Hsp90-assisted endosomal translocation. Cell responses are then induced from the cytosol. ..
- Wollscheid H, Biancospino M, He F, Magistrati E, Molteni E, Lupia M, et al. Diverse functions of myosin VI elucidated by an isoform-specific Î±-helix domain. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2016;23:300-308 pubmed publisher..Thus, the Î±2-linker acts like a molecular switch that assigns myosin VI to distinct endocytic (myosin VI(long)) or migratory (myosin VI(short)) functional roles. ..
- Zhang X, Yin L, Zheng Y, Lu L, Zhou Z, Sha J. Expression of a novel beta adaptin subunit mRNA splice variant in human testes. Asian J Androl. 2005;7:179-88 pubmed..Ap2beta-NY is an isoform of Ap2beta and may be involved in regulating the process of spermatogenesis and testis development. ..
- Bukrinskaya A. HIV-1 matrix protein: a mysterious regulator of the viral life cycle. Virus Res. 2007;124:1-11 pubmed..It is suggested that two MA fractions possess diverse functions and are involved in different stages of virus morphogenesis as key regulators of the viral life cycle. ..
- Schmidt U, Briese S, Leicht K, Schurmann A, Joost H, Al Hasani H. Endocytosis of the glucose transporter GLUT8 is mediated by interaction of a dileucine motif with the beta2-adaptin subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2321-31 pubmed
- Huang F, Jiang X, Sorkin A. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the beta2 subunit of clathrin adaptor complex AP-2 reveals the role of a di-leucine motif in the epidermal growth factor receptor trafficking. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:43411-7 pubmed..Surprisingly, mutation of the Leu-1010/Leu-1011 motif resulted in impaired degradation of EGF receptors, suggesting the role of this motif in lysosomal targeting of the receptor. ..
- Nakano Kobayashi A, Yamazaki M, Unoki T, Hongu T, Murata C, Taguchi R, et al. Role of activation of PIP5Kgamma661 by AP-2 complex in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. EMBO J. 2007;26:1105-16 pubmed..These findings provide evidence for the molecular mechanism through which PIP5Kgamma661 locally generates PI(4,5)P2 in hippocampal neurons and suggest a model in which the interaction trigger SV endocytosis. ..
- Kamiguchi H, Long K, Pendergast M, Schaefer A, Rapoport I, Kirchhausen T, et al. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 interacts with the AP-2 adaptor and is endocytosed via the clathrin-mediated pathway. J Neurosci. 1998;18:5311-21 pubmed..These results establish a mechanism by which L1 can be internalized from the cell surface and suggest that an active region of L1 endocytosis at the rear of growth cones is important in L1-dependent axon growth. ..
- Rosenthal J, Chen H, Slepnev V, Pellegrini L, Salcini A, Di Fiore P, et al. The epsins define a family of proteins that interact with components of the clathrin coat and contain a new protein module. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:33959-65 pubmed..The epsins define a new protein family implicated in membrane dynamics at the cell surface. ..
- Krieger J, Taylor P, Gajadhar A, Guha A, Moran M, McGlade C. Identification and selected reaction monitoring (SRM) quantification of endocytosis factors associated with Numb. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013;12:499-514 pubmed publisher..Hence, quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of Numb protein-protein interactions has provided new insights into the assembly and regulation of protein complexes important in development and cancer. ..
- Rappoport J, Taha B, Lemeer S, Benmerah A, Simon S. The AP-2 complex is excluded from the dynamic population of plasma membrane-associated clathrin. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:47357-60 pubmed..These results suggest that colocalized clathrin/AP-2 puncta may represent loci for coated pit production and that previous models that assumed AP-2 was retained within clathrin coats during endocytosis may need to be re-evaluated. ..
- Scheele U, Alves J, Frank R, Duwel M, Kalthoff C, Ungewickell E. Molecular and functional characterization of clathrin- and AP-2-binding determinants within a disordered domain of auxilin. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25357-68 pubmed..Like AP180, auxilin also directly interacts with the ear domain of beta-adaptin. On the basis of our data, we propose a refined model for the uncoating mechanism of clathrin-coated vesicles. ..
- Slepnev V, Ochoa G, Butler M, De Camilli P. Tandem arrangement of the clathrin and AP-2 binding domains in amphiphysin 1 and disruption of clathrin coat function by amphiphysin fragments comprising these sites. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:17583-9 pubmed
- Mizutani A, Saitoh M, Imamura T, Miyazawa K, Miyazono K. Arkadia complexes with clathrin adaptor AP2 and regulates EGF signalling. J Biochem. 2010;148:733-41 pubmed publisher..Arkadia thus appears to regulate EGF signalling by modulating endocytosis of EGFR through interaction with AP2 complex. ..
- Stove V, Van de Walle I, Naessens E, Coene E, Stove C, Plum J, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus Nef induces rapid internalization of the T-cell coreceptor CD8alphabeta. J Virol. 2005;79:11422-33 pubmed..The Nef-mediated internalization of receptors, such as CD4, major histocompatibility complex class I, CD28, and CD8alphabeta, may contribute to the subversion of the host immune system and progression towards AIDS. ..
- Bai M, Gad H, Turacchio G, Cocucci E, Yang J, Li J, et al. ARFGAP1 promotes AP-2-dependent endocytosis. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:559-67 pubmed publisher..The role of ARFGAP1 in AP-2-regulated endocytosis has mechanistic parallels with its roles in COPI transport, as both its GAP activity and coat function contribute to promoting AP-2 transport. ..
- Kahlfeldt N, Vahedi Faridi A, Koo S, Schäfer J, Krainer G, Keller S, et al. Molecular basis for association of PIPKI gamma-p90 with clathrin adaptor AP-2. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:2734-49 pubmed publisher..We postulate a model according to which multiple interactions between PIPKI gamma-p90 and AP-2 lead to spatiotemporally controlled PI(4,5)P(2) synthesis during clathrin-mediated SV endocytosis. ..
- Hood F, Royle S. Functional equivalence of the clathrin heavy chains CHC17 and CHC22 in endocytosis and mitosis. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2185-90 pubmed publisher..We find that CHC17 and CHC22 are functionally equivalent. We also describe how previous work on CHC22 has involved a splice variant that is not usually expressed in cells. ..
- Rangel R, Guzman Rojas L, Kodama T, Kodama M, Newberg J, Copeland N, et al. Identification of new tumor suppressor genes in triple-negative breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher..genetic mutation resulted in increased cellular proliferation in all cell lines tested, the genes ADNP, AP2B1, TOMM70A and ZNF326 showed tumor suppressor (TS) activity in tumor xenograft studies...
- Druck T, Gu Y, Prabhala G, Cannizzaro L, Park S, Huebner K, et al. Chromosome localization of human genes for clathrin adaptor polypeptides AP2 beta and AP50 and the clathrin-binding protein, VCP. Genomics. 1995;30:94-7 pubmed..The AP form at the plasma membrane, AP2, is composed of two large subunits of 100-115 kDa, denoted AP2 alpha and AP2 beta, a medium chain of 50 kDa, designated AP50, and a small chain...
- Vermeire J, Vanbillemont G, Witkowski W, Verhasselt B. The Nef-infectivity enigma: mechanisms of enhanced lentiviral infection. Curr HIV Res. 2011;9:474-89 pubmed..Hereby we aim to contribute to a better understanding of this highly conserved and therapeutically attractive Nef function. ..
- Boll W, Rapoport I, Brunner C, Modis Y, Prehn S, Kirchhausen T. The mu2 subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-2 binds to FDNPVY and YppØ sorting signals at distinct sites. Traffic. 2002;3:590-600 pubmed..These results suggest the possibility that low-density lipoprotein receptor uptake may be modulated specifically and independently of other proteins in the clathrin pathway. ..
- Giri D, Ali Seyed M, Li L, Lee D, Ling P, Bartholomeusz G, et al. Endosomal transport of ErbB-2: mechanism for nuclear entry of the cell surface receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:11005-18 pubmed..This pathway may serve as a general mechanism to allow direct communication between cell surface receptors and the nucleus, and our findings thus open a new era in understanding direct trafficking between the cell membrane and nucleus. ..