Gene Symbol: AP1M1
Description: adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit mu 1
Alias: AP47, CLAPM2, CLTNM, MU-1A, AP-1 complex subunit mu-1, AP-mu chain family member mu1A, HA1 47 kDa subunit, adapter-related protein complex 1 subunit mu-1, adaptor protein complex AP-1 mu-1 subunit, adaptor protein complex AP-1 subunit mu-1, adaptor related protein complex 1 mu 1 subunit, clathrin adaptor protein AP47, clathrin assembly protein complex 1 medium chain 1, clathrin assembly protein complex 1 mu-1 medium chain 1, clathrin assembly protein complex 1, medium chain, clathrin assembly protein complex AP1, mu subunit, clathrin coat assembly protein AP47, clathrin coat-associated protein AP47, golgi adaptor AP-1 47 kDa protein, golgi adaptor HA1/AP1 adaptin mu-1 subunit, mu-adaptin 1, mu1A-adaptin
Species: human
Products:     AP1M1

Top Publications

  1. Ohno H, Stewart J, Fournier M, Bosshart H, Rhee I, Miyatake S, et al. Interaction of tyrosine-based sorting signals with clathrin-associated proteins. Science. 1995;269:1872-5 pubmed
    ..The interaction was confirmed by in vitro binding assays. Thus, it is likely that the medium chains serve as signal-binding components of the clathrin-dependent sorting machinery. ..
  2. Janvier K, Craig H, Hitchin D, Madrid R, Sol Foulon N, Renault L, et al. HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8725-32 pubmed
    ..The stabilization of these complexes on membranes may underlie the pleiotropic effects of Nef on protein trafficking within the endosomal system. ..
  3. Wyss S, Berlioz Torrent C, Boge M, Blot G, Honing S, Benarous R, et al. The highly conserved C-terminal dileucine motif in the cytosolic domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein is critical for its association with the AP-1 clathrin adaptor [correction of adapter]. J Virol. 2001;75:2982-92 pubmed
    ..Finally, the C-terminal dileucine was shown to assist the membrane-proximal Y712 motif in restricting the cell surface expression of Env. ..
  4. Ohno H, Aguilar R, Fournier M, Hennecke S, Cosson P, Bonifacino J. Interaction of endocytic signals from the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex with members of the adaptor medium chain family. Virology. 1997;238:305-15 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that HIV-1 Env utilizes the protein sorting machinery of the host cells for internalization and sorting at various steps of the endocytic and biosynthetic pathways. ..
  5. Page L, Robinson M. Targeting signals and subunit interactions in coated vesicle adaptor complexes. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:619-30 pubmed
    ..alpha-adaptin, beta-adaptin, AP50, and AP17; while that of the TGN adaptor complex is gamma-adaptin, beta'-adaptin, AP47, and AP19...
  6. Wonderlich E, Williams M, Collins K. The tyrosine binding pocket in the adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) mu1 subunit is necessary for Nef to recruit AP-1 to the major histocompatibility complex class I cytoplasmic tail. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3011-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, these data provide evidence that Nef binding to the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail stabilizes the interaction of a tyrosine in the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail with the natural tyrosine binding pocket in AP-1. ..
  7. Janvier K, Kato Y, Boehm M, Rose J, Martina J, Kim B, et al. Recognition of dileucine-based sorting signals from HIV-1 Nef and LIMP-II by the AP-1 gamma-sigma1 and AP-3 delta-sigma3 hemicomplexes. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:1281-90 pubmed
    ..These observations reveal a novel mode of recognition of sorting signals involving the gamma/delta and sigma subunits of AP-1 and AP-3. ..
  8. Erdtmann L, Janvier K, Raposo G, Craig H, Benaroch P, Berlioz Torrent C, et al. Two independent regions of HIV-1 Nef are required for connection with the endocytic pathway through binding to the mu 1 chain of AP1 complex. Traffic. 2000;1:871-83 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the recruitment by Nef of AP1 via binding to mu 1 participates in the connection of Nef with the endocytic pathway. ..
  9. Craig H, Reddy T, Riggs N, Dao P, Guatelli J. Interactions of HIV-1 nef with the mu subunits of adaptor protein complexes 1, 2, and 3: role of the dileucine-based sorting motif. Virology. 2000;271:9-17 pubmed

More Information


  1. Owen D, Evans P. A structural explanation for the recognition of tyrosine-based endocytotic signals. Science. 1998;282:1327-32 pubmed
    ..Specificity was conferred by hydrophobic pockets that bind the tyrosine and leucine in the peptide. In the crystal, the protein forms dimers that could increase the strength and specificity of binding to dimeric receptors. ..
  2. Mangasarian A, Foti M, Aiken C, Chin D, Carpentier J, Trono D. The HIV-1 Nef protein acts as a connector with sorting pathways in the Golgi and at the plasma membrane. Immunity. 1997;6:67-77 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that Nef down-regulates CD4 and probably MHC I by physically connecting these receptors with sorting pathways in the Golgi and at the plasma membrane...
  3. Foti M, Mangasarian A, Piguet V, Lew D, Krause K, Trono D, et al. Nef-mediated clathrin-coated pit formation. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:37-47 pubmed
    ..e., adaptins). These Nef-generated complexes would then initiate the nucleation of CCP. ..
  4. Le Gall S, Erdtmann L, Benichou S, Berlioz Torrent C, Liu L, Benarous R, et al. Nef interacts with the mu subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes and reveals a cryptic sorting signal in MHC I molecules. Immunity. 1998;8:483-95 pubmed
    ..Nef interacts with the medium (mu) subunit of AP adaptor complexes involved in the recognition of tyrosine-based sorting signals, likely facilitating the connection between MHC I and the clathrin-dependent sorting machinery. ..
  5. Seaman M, Sowerby P, Robinson M. Cytosolic and membrane-associated proteins involved in the recruitment of AP-1 adaptors onto the trans-Golgi network. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:25446-51 pubmed
    ..p80, which is specifically cross-linked to beta'-adaptin; and p60, which is specifically cross-linked to AP47. These proteins are all candidates for components of the adaptor docking site on the trans-Golgi network membrane.
  6. Roeth J, Williams M, Kasper M, Filzen T, Collins K. HIV-1 Nef disrupts MHC-I trafficking by recruiting AP-1 to the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail. J Cell Biol. 2004;167:903-13 pubmed
    ..In sum, our evidence suggests that binding of AP-1 to the Nef-MHC-I complex is an important step required for inhibition of antigen presentation by HIV. ..
  7. Piguet V, Chen Y, Mangasarian A, Foti M, Carpentier J, Trono D. Mechanism of Nef-induced CD4 endocytosis: Nef connects CD4 with the mu chain of adaptor complexes. EMBO J. 1998;17:2472-81 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data identify mu adaptins as downstream mediators of the down-modulation of CD4, and possibly MHC I, by Nef. ..
  8. FOLSCH H, Pypaert M, Schu P, Mellman I. Distribution and function of AP-1 clathrin adaptor complexes in polarized epithelial cells. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:595-606 pubmed
  9. FOLSCH H, Ohno H, Bonifacino J, Mellman I. A novel clathrin adaptor complex mediates basolateral targeting in polarized epithelial cells. Cell. 1999;99:189-98 pubmed
    ..We conclude that basolateral sorting is mediated by an epithelial cell-specific version of the AP-1 complex containing mu1B...
  10. Berlioz Torrent C, Shacklett B, Erdtmann L, Delamarre L, Bouchaert I, Sonigo P, et al. Interactions of the cytoplasmic domains of human and simian retroviral transmembrane proteins with components of the clathrin adaptor complexes modulate intracellular and cell surface expression of envelope glycoproteins. J Virol. 1999;73:1350-61 pubmed
  11. Singh R, Lau D, Noviello C, Ghosh P, Guatelli J. An MHC-I cytoplasmic domain/HIV-1 Nef fusion protein binds directly to the mu subunit of the AP-1 endosomal coat complex. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8364 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also reveal an unexpected role for a hydrophobic pocket in micro1 for interaction with MHC-I CD/Nef. ..
  12. Greenberg M, DeTulleo L, Rapoport I, Skowronski J, Kirchhausen T. A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef is essential for sorting into clathrin-coated pits and for downregulation of CD4. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1239-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, the dileucine motif in HIV-1 is required for CD4 downregulation and for interaction with clathrin adaptor complexes. ..
  13. Checkley M, Luttge B, Freed E. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein biosynthesis, trafficking, and incorporation. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:582-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review our current understanding of HIV-1 Env glycoprotein trafficking and incorporation into virions. ..
  14. Bresnahan P, Yonemoto W, Ferrell S, Williams Herman D, Geleziunas R, Greene W. A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef acts as an internalization signal for CD4 downregulation and binds the AP-1 clathrin adaptor. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1235-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings also reveal an evolutionary difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2/SIV in which the Nef proteins utilize structurally distinct motifs for binding cellular adaptors. ..
  15. Camus G, Segura Morales C, Molle D, Lopez Verges S, Begon Pescia C, Cazevieille C, et al. The clathrin adaptor complex AP-1 binds HIV-1 and MLV Gag and facilitates their budding. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3193-203 pubmed
    ..We propose that AP-1 promotes Gag release by transporting it to intracellular sites of active budding, and/or by facilitating its interactions with other cellular partners. ..
  16. Coleman S, Van Damme N, Day J, Noviello C, Hitchin D, Madrid R, et al. Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes. J Virol. 2005;79:2066-78 pubmed
    ..This binding likely underlies the unusual ability of Nef to induce the stabilization of these complexes on endosomal membranes, an activity that correlates with enhancement of viral replication. ..
  17. Noviello C, Benichou S, Guatelli J. Cooperative binding of the class I major histocompatibility complex cytoplasmic domain and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef to the endosomal AP-1 complex via its mu subunit. J Virol. 2008;82:1249-58 pubmed
    ..The data support a cooperative binding model in which Nef functions as a clathrin-associated sorting protein that allows recognition of an incomplete, tyrosine-based mu-binding signal in the MHC-I CD by AP-1. ..
  18. Peden A, Park G, Scheller R. The Di-leucine motif of vesicle-associated membrane protein 4 is required for its localization and AP-1 binding. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:49183-7 pubmed
    ..Mutation of the di-leucine motif inhibits AP-1 binding in vitro and affects the steady state distribution of VAMP4 in vivo...
  19. Craig H, Pandori M, Guatelli J. Interaction of HIV-1 Nef with the cellular dileucine-based sorting pathway is required for CD4 down-regulation and optimal viral infectivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11229-34 pubmed
    ..The data also suggest that an influence on the distribution of cellular transmembrane proteins may mechanistically unite two previously distinct properties of Nef: down-regulation of CD4 and enhancement of viral infectivity. ..
  20. Nakagawa T, Setou M, Seog D, Ogasawara K, Dohmae N, Takio K, et al. A novel motor, KIF13A, transports mannose-6-phosphate receptor to plasma membrane through direct interaction with AP-1 complex. Cell. 2000;103:569-81 pubmed
    ..Functional blockade of KIF13A reduced cell surface expression of the M6PR. Thus, KIF13A transports M6PR-containing vesicles and targets the M6PR from TGN to the plasma membrane via direct interaction with the AP-1 adaptor complex. ..
  21. Umeda A, Meyerholz A, Ungewickell E. Identification of the universal cofactor (auxilin 2) in clathrin coat dissociation. Eur J Cell Biol. 2000;79:336-42 pubmed
    ..The cellular distribution of membrane-associated adaptors was unaffected by overexpression of GAK. Our results point to a hsc70/auxilin-based uncoating system as a ubiquitous feature of eukaryotic cells...
  22. Hirst J, Lui W, Bright N, Totty N, Seaman M, Robinson M. A family of proteins with gamma-adaptin and VHS domains that facilitate trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the vacuole/lysosome. J Cell Biol. 2000;149:67-80 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the function of the GGAs is to facilitate the trafficking of proteins between the TGN and the vacuole, or its mammalian equivalent, the lysosome. ..
  23. Hirata Y, Funato Y, Miki H. Basolateral sorting of the Mg²⁺ transporter CNNM4 requires interaction with AP-1A and AP-1B. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;455:184-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply that CNNM4 is sorted to the basolateral membrane by the complementary function of AP-1A and AP-1B. ..
  24. Rybakin V, Gounko N, Späte K, Honing S, Majoul I, Duden R, et al. Crn7 interacts with AP-1 and is required for the maintenance of Golgi morphology and protein export from the Golgi. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:31070-8 pubmed
    ..We identify tyrosine 288-based motif as part of a canonical YXXPhi sorting signal and a major mu1-adaptin binding site in vitro. This study provides the first insight into the function of mammalian Crn7 protein in the Golgi complex. ..
  25. Peyrard M, Parveneh S, Lagercrantz S, Ekman M, Fransson I, Sahlén S, et al. Cloning, expression pattern, and chromosomal assignment to 16q23 of the human gamma-adaptin gene (ADTG). Genomics. 1998;50:275-80 pubmed
    ..In addition, we localized genes for two other components of the AP-1 adaptor, i.e., the medium (AP47) and small (AP19) subunits, to chromosomes 19 and 7, respectively...
  26. Balasubramaniam M, Freed E. New insights into HIV assembly and trafficking. Physiology (Bethesda). 2011;26:236-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the cellular machinery involved in Gag trafficking and virus assembly. ..
  27. Coleman S, Hitchin D, Noviello C, Guatelli J. HIV-1 Nef stabilizes AP-1 on membranes without inducing ARF1-independent de novo attachment. Virology. 2006;345:148-55 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Nef stabilizes AP complexes on endosomal membranes after ARF1-dependent attachment. This stabilization may facilitate coat formation and stimulate the trafficking of multiple cellular proteins. ..
  28. Wonderlich E, Leonard J, Kulpa D, Leopold K, Norman J, Collins K. ADP ribosylation factor 1 activity is required to recruit AP-1 to the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) cytoplasmic tail and disrupt MHC-I trafficking in HIV-1-infected primary T cells. J Virol. 2011;85:12216-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a model in which Nef and ARF-1 stabilize an interaction between MHC-I and AP-1 to disrupt the presentation of HIV-1 epitopes to CTLs. ..
  29. Iijima S, Lee Y, Ode H, Arold S, Kimura N, Yokoyama M, et al. A noncanonical mu-1A-binding motif in the N terminus of HIV-1 Nef determines its ability to downregulate major histocompatibility complex class I in T lymphocytes. J Virol. 2012;86:3944-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings will help understanding of how HIV-1 evades the antiviral immune response by selectively redirecting the cellular protein trafficking system. ..
  30. Yoneyama Y, Matsuo M, Take K, Kabuta T, Chida K, Hakuno F, et al. The AP-1 complex regulates intracellular localization of insulin receptor substrate 1, which is required for insulin-like growth factor I-dependent cell proliferation. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:1991-2003 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate the importance of AP-1-dependent localization of IRS-1 in mediating IGF-I-stimulated signaling and maximum mitogenic response. ..
  31. Kulpa D, Del Cid N, Peterson K, Collins K. Adaptor protein 1 promotes cross-presentation through the same tyrosine signal in major histocompatibility complex class I as that targeted by HIV-1. J Virol. 2013;87:8085-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide evidence for two separable cross-presentation pathways, only one of which is targeted by HIV...
  32. Santos da Silva E, Mulinge M, Perez Bercoff D. The frantic play of the concealed HIV envelope cytoplasmic tail. Retrovirology. 2013;10:54 pubmed publisher
    ..It also considers the cellular and viral proteins that have been described to interact with the gp41-CT, with a particular focus on subtype-related polymorphisms. ..
  33. Jia X, Weber E, Tokarev A, Lewinski M, Rizk M, Suarez M, et al. Structural basis of HIV-1 Vpu-mediated BST2 antagonism via hijacking of the clathrin adaptor protein complex 1. elife. 2014;3:e02362 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of Vpu to hijack AP-dependent trafficking pathways suggests a potential common theme for Vpu-mediated downregulation of host proteins.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02362.001. ..
  34. Lubben N, Sahlender D, Motley A, Lehner P, Benaroch P, Robinson M. HIV-1 Nef-induced down-regulation of MHC class I requires AP-1 and clathrin but not PACS-1 and is impeded by AP-2. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3351-65 pubmed
    ..We propose that depleting AP-2 potentiates Nef activity by altering the membrane composition and dynamics of endosomes and causing increased delivery of HLA-A2 to a prelysosomal compartment. ..
  35. Orzech E, Cohen S, Weiss A, Aroeti B. Interactions between the exocytic and endocytic pathways in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:15207-19 pubmed
  36. Benichou S, Benmerah A. [The HIV nef and the Kaposi-sarcoma-associated virus K3/K5 proteins: "parasites"of the endocytosis pathway]. Med Sci (Paris). 2003;19:100-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, these viral factors represent valuable tools to study the pathway they are perturbing. ..
  37. Bernhardt U, Carlotti F, Hoeben R, Joost H, Al Hasani H. A dual role of the N-terminal FQQI motif in GLUT4 trafficking. Biol Chem. 2009;390:883-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate a dual role of the F5QQI motif and support the conclusion that the AP complexes direct GLUT4 trafficking and endocytosis. ..
  38. Delevoye C, Hurbain I, Tenza D, Sibarita J, Uzan Gafsou S, Ohno H, et al. AP-1 and KIF13A coordinate endosomal sorting and positioning during melanosome biogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:247-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that LRO protein sorting is coupled to cell type-specific positioning of endosomes that facilitate endosome-LRO contacts and are required for organelle maturation...
  39. Hirst J, Lindsay M, Robinson M. GGAs: roles of the different domains and comparison with AP-1 and clathrin. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:3573-88 pubmed
    ..Together with results from other studies, our findings suggest that the GGAs act as monomeric adaptors, with the four domains involved in cargo selection, membrane localization, clathrin binding, and accessory protein recruitment. ..
  40. Hinners I, Wendler F, Fei H, Thomas L, Thomas G, Tooze S. AP-1 recruitment to VAMP4 is modulated by phosphorylation-dependent binding of PACS-1. EMBO Rep. 2003;4:1182-9 pubmed
    The R-SNARE VAMP4, which contains a dileucine motif, binds to the AP-1 (adaptor protein-1) subunit mu 1a, but not mu 1b, or the GGAs (Golgi-associated gamma ear containing ARF binding proteins)...
  41. Vermeire J, Vanbillemont G, Witkowski W, Verhasselt B. The Nef-infectivity enigma: mechanisms of enhanced lentiviral infection. Curr HIV Res. 2011;9:474-89 pubmed
    ..Hereby we aim to contribute to a better understanding of this highly conserved and therapeutically attractive Nef function. ..
  42. Lavezzari G, McCallum J, Dewey C, Roche K. Subunit-specific regulation of NMDA receptor endocytosis. J Neurosci. 2004;24:6383-91 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate fundamental differences between NR2A and NR2B that help clarify developmental changes in NMDA receptor trafficking and surface expression. ..
  43. Jia X, Singh R, Homann S, Yang H, Guatelli J, Xiong Y. Structural basis of evasion of cellular adaptive immunity by HIV-1 Nef. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:701-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure shows how Nef functions as a clathrin-associated sorting protein to alter the specificity of host membrane trafficking and enable viral evasion of adaptive immunity. ..
  44. Herbein G, Varin A, Larbi A, Fortin C, Mahlknecht U, Fulop T, et al. Nef and TNFalpha are coplayers that favor HIV-1 replication in monocytic cells and primary macrophages. Curr HIV Res. 2008;6:117-29 pubmed
  45. Owen D, Setiadi H, Evans P, McEver R, Green S. A third specificity-determining site in mu 2 adaptin for sequences upstream of Yxx phi sorting motifs. Traffic. 2001;2:105-10 pubmed
    ..This structure suggests that some sequences can function as a 'three pinned plug', in which internalization activity is not critically dependent on any one of the three interacting side chains. ..
  46. Dordor A, Poudevigne E, Gottlinger H, Weissenhorn W. Essential and supporting host cell factors for HIV-1 budding. Future Microbiol. 2011;6:1159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review recent advances in understanding the role of host cell factors recruited by Gag during HIV-1 assembly and budding. ..
  47. Hurley J, Bonifacino J. Nef-arious goings-on at the Golgi. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:661-2 pubmed publisher
  48. Follows E, McPheat J, Minshull C, Moore N, Pauptit R, Rowsell S, et al. Study of the interaction of the medium chain mu 2 subunit of the clathrin-associated adapter protein complex 2 with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and CD28. Biochem J. 2001;359:427-34 pubmed
  49. Korolchuk V, Banting G. CK2 and GAK/auxilin2 are major protein kinases in clathrin-coated vesicles. Traffic. 2002;3:428-39 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that the 'stripped' CCV membranes that remain once the peripheral membrane proteins have been removed from CCVs inhibit CK2 but not GAK/auxilin2 activity. ..
  50. Tavares L, da Silva E, da Silva Januário M, Januário Y, de Cavalho J, Czernisz É, et al. CD4 downregulation by the HIV-1 protein Nef reveals distinct roles for the ?1 and ?2 subunits of the AP-1 complex in protein trafficking. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:429-443 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of the ?2 or ?1A (AP1M1) subunits of AP-1, but not of ?1 (AP1G1), precludes Nef-mediated lysosomal degradation of CD4...
  51. Sawasdee N, Junking M, Ngaojanlar P, Sukomon N, Ungsupravate D, Limjindaporn T, et al. Human kidney anion exchanger 1 interacts with adaptor-related protein complex 1 ?1A (AP-1 mu1A). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;401:85-91 pubmed publisher
  52. Medigeshi G, Krikunova M, Radhakrishnan K, Wenzel D, Klingauf J, Schu P. AP-1 membrane-cytoplasm recycling regulated by mu1A-adaptin. Traffic. 2008;9:121-32 pubmed
    ..None of the proteins known to influence AP-1 membrane recycling bound to this micro1A domain, indicating the regulation of AP-1 membrane-cytoplasm recycling by an yet unidentified cytoplasmic protein. ..
  53. Park S, Ha B, Choi G, Ryu J, Kim B, Jung C, et al. EHD2 interacts with the insulin-responsive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in rat adipocytes and may participate in insulin-induced GLUT4 recruitment. Biochemistry. 2004;43:7552-62 pubmed
    ..These findings strongly suggest that EHD2 interacts with GLUT4 in rat adipocytes and may play a key role in insulin-induced GLUT4 recruitment to the plasma membrane. ..
  54. Friocourt G, Chafey P, Billuart P, Koulakoff A, Vinet M, Schaar B, et al. Doublecortin interacts with mu subunits of clathrin adaptor complexes in the developing nervous system. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2001;18:307-19 pubmed
    ..Taken together these data indicate that a certain proportion of Doublecortin interacts with AP-1 and/or AP-2 in vivo and are consistent with a potential involvement of Doublecortin in protein sorting or vesicular trafficking. ..
  55. Navarro Negredo P, Edgar J, Wrobel A, Zaccai N, Antrobus R, Owen D, et al. Contribution of the clathrin adaptor AP-1 subunit µ1 to acidic cluster protein sorting. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:2927-2943 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, these mutants failed to rescue Nef-induced down-regulation of MHC class I, suggesting a possible mechanism for attacking the virus while sparing the host cell. ..