Gene Symbol: AP1G2
Description: adaptor related protein complex 1 subunit gamma 2
Alias: G2AD, AP-1 complex subunit gamma-like 2, adaptor related protein complex 1 gamma 2 subunit, clathrin-associated/assembly/adaptor protein, large, gamma-2, gamma2-adaptin
Species: human
Products:     AP1G2

Top Publications

  1. Craig H, Pandori M, Guatelli J. Interaction of HIV-1 Nef with the cellular dileucine-based sorting pathway is required for CD4 down-regulation and optimal viral infectivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:11229-34 pubmed
    ..The data also suggest that an influence on the distribution of cellular transmembrane proteins may mechanistically unite two previously distinct properties of Nef: down-regulation of CD4 and enhancement of viral infectivity. ..
  2. Checkley M, Luttge B, Freed E. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein biosynthesis, trafficking, and incorporation. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:582-608 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review our current understanding of HIV-1 Env glycoprotein trafficking and incorporation into virions. ..
  3. Coleman S, Van Damme N, Day J, Noviello C, Hitchin D, Madrid R, et al. Leucine-specific, functional interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef and adaptor protein complexes. J Virol. 2005;79:2066-78 pubmed
    ..This binding likely underlies the unusual ability of Nef to induce the stabilization of these complexes on endosomal membranes, an activity that correlates with enhancement of viral replication. ..
  4. Janvier K, Craig H, Hitchin D, Madrid R, Sol Foulon N, Renault L, et al. HIV-1 Nef stabilizes the association of adaptor protein complexes with membranes. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8725-32 pubmed
    ..The stabilization of these complexes on membranes may underlie the pleiotropic effects of Nef on protein trafficking within the endosomal system. ..
  5. Wyss S, Berlioz Torrent C, Boge M, Blot G, Honing S, Benarous R, et al. The highly conserved C-terminal dileucine motif in the cytosolic domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein is critical for its association with the AP-1 clathrin adaptor [correction of adapter]. J Virol. 2001;75:2982-92 pubmed
    ..Finally, the C-terminal dileucine was shown to assist the membrane-proximal Y712 motif in restricting the cell surface expression of Env. ..
  6. Greenberg M, DeTulleo L, Rapoport I, Skowronski J, Kirchhausen T. A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef is essential for sorting into clathrin-coated pits and for downregulation of CD4. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1239-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, the dileucine motif in HIV-1 is required for CD4 downregulation and for interaction with clathrin adaptor complexes. ..
  7. Bresnahan P, Yonemoto W, Ferrell S, Williams Herman D, Geleziunas R, Greene W. A dileucine motif in HIV-1 Nef acts as an internalization signal for CD4 downregulation and binds the AP-1 clathrin adaptor. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1235-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings also reveal an evolutionary difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2/SIV in which the Nef proteins utilize structurally distinct motifs for binding cellular adaptors. ..
  8. Berlioz Torrent C, Shacklett B, Erdtmann L, Delamarre L, Bouchaert I, Sonigo P, et al. Interactions of the cytoplasmic domains of human and simian retroviral transmembrane proteins with components of the clathrin adaptor complexes modulate intracellular and cell surface expression of envelope glycoproteins. J Virol. 1999;73:1350-61 pubmed
  9. Takatsu H, Sakurai M, Shin H, Murakami K, Nakayama K. Identification and characterization of novel clathrin adaptor-related proteins. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:24693-700 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that gamma2-adaptin constitute a novel adaptor-related complex that participates in a transport step different from that of AP-1. ..

More Information


  1. Lambert C, Döring T, Prange R. Hepatitis B virus maturation is sensitive to functional inhibition of ESCRT-III, Vps4, and gamma 2-adaptin. J Virol. 2007;81:9050-60 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that HBV exploits the MVB machinery with the aid of gamma 2-adaptin. ..
  2. Grant R, Denroche R, Borgida A, Virtanen C, Cook N, Smith A, et al. Exome-Wide Association Study of Pancreatic Cancer Risk. Gastroenterology. 2018;154:719-722.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..045). At the suggestive threshold (P < .001), 6 genes were enriched for rare damaging variants (UHMK1, AP1G2, DNTA, CHST6, FGFR3, and EPHA1) and 7 genes had associations with pancreatic cancer risk, based on the sequence-..
  3. Jürgens M, Vörös J, Rautureau G, Shepherd D, Pye V, Muldoon J, et al. The hepatitis B virus preS1 domain hijacks host trafficking proteins by motif mimicry. Nat Chem Biol. 2013;9:540-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The preS1-?2-EAR interaction was relatively weak and efficiently outcompeted by a synthetic peptide. Our data provide the structural road map for developing peptidomimetic antivirals targeting the ?2-EAR-preS1 interaction. ..
  4. Kulpa D, Del Cid N, Peterson K, Collins K. Adaptor protein 1 promotes cross-presentation through the same tyrosine signal in major histocompatibility complex class I as that targeted by HIV-1. J Virol. 2013;87:8085-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide evidence for two separable cross-presentation pathways, only one of which is targeted by HIV...
  5. Bouchet J, Hérate C, Guenzel C, Verollet C, Järviluoma A, Mazzolini J, et al. Single-domain antibody-SH3 fusions for efficient neutralization of HIV-1 Nef functions. J Virol. 2012;86:4856-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that it is possible to inhibit all functions of Nef, both in T lymphocytes and macrophages, with a single ligand that represents an efficient tool to develop new antiviral strategies targeting Nef. ..
  6. Döring T, Gotthardt K, Stieler J, Prange R. ?2-Adaptin is functioning in the late endosomal sorting pathway and interacts with ESCRT-I and -III subunits. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:1252-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations identify ?2-adaptin as a critical factor in MVB trafficking, which likely is involved in endosome-to-lysosome maturation. ..
  7. Rost M, Döring T, Prange R. gamma2-Adaptin, a ubiquitin-interacting adaptor, is a substrate to coupled ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 and functions in the endosomal pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:32119-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate that gamma2-adaptin may operate within the MVB sorting system in a manner different from that of classic adaptins. ..
  8. Herbein G, Varin A, Larbi A, Fortin C, Mahlknecht U, Fulop T, et al. Nef and TNFalpha are coplayers that favor HIV-1 replication in monocytic cells and primary macrophages. Curr HIV Res. 2008;6:117-29 pubmed
  9. Mattera R, Ritter B, Sidhu S, McPherson P, Bonifacino J. Definition of the consensus motif recognized by gamma-adaptin ear domains. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:8018-28 pubmed
    ..These findings shed light on the mechanism of accessory protein recruitment to trans-Golgi network and endosomal clathrin coats. ..
  10. Benichou S, Benmerah A. [The HIV nef and the Kaposi-sarcoma-associated virus K3/K5 proteins: "parasites"of the endocytosis pathway]. Med Sci (Paris). 2003;19:100-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, these viral factors represent valuable tools to study the pathway they are perturbing. ..
  11. Mattera R, Arighi C, Lodge R, Zerial M, Bonifacino J. Divalent interaction of the GGAs with the Rabaptin-5-Rabex-5 complex. EMBO J. 2003;22:78-88 pubmed
    ..These observations thus identify a binding sequence for GAE/gamma-adaptin ear domains and reveal a functional link between proteins regulating TGN cargo export and endosomal tethering/fusion events. ..
  12. Coleman S, Hitchin D, Noviello C, Guatelli J. HIV-1 Nef stabilizes AP-1 on membranes without inducing ARF1-independent de novo attachment. Virology. 2006;345:148-55 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Nef stabilizes AP complexes on endosomal membranes after ARF1-dependent attachment. This stabilization may facilitate coat formation and stimulate the trafficking of multiple cellular proteins. ..
  13. Lewin D, Sheff D, Ooi C, Whitney J, Yamamoto E, Chicione L, et al. Cloning, expression, and localization of a novel gamma-adaptin-like molecule. FEBS Lett. 1998;435:263-8 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that gamma2-adaptin plays a role in membrane transport distinct from that played by gamma-adaptin. ..
  14. Vermeire J, Vanbillemont G, Witkowski W, Verhasselt B. The Nef-infectivity enigma: mechanisms of enhanced lentiviral infection. Curr HIV Res. 2011;9:474-89 pubmed
    ..Hereby we aim to contribute to a better understanding of this highly conserved and therapeutically attractive Nef function. ..
  15. Hartmann Stühler C, Prange R. Hepatitis B virus large envelope protein interacts with gamma2-adaptin, a clathrin adaptor-related protein. J Virol. 2001;75:5343-51 pubmed
    ..Together, the results suggest a role for gamma2-adaptin in L-mediated processes of viral biogenesis and/or pathogenesis, such as facilitating and guiding HBV assembly. ..
  16. Santos da Silva E, Mulinge M, Perez Bercoff D. The frantic play of the concealed HIV envelope cytoplasmic tail. Retrovirology. 2013;10:54 pubmed publisher
    ..It also considers the cellular and viral proteins that have been described to interact with the gp41-CT, with a particular focus on subtype-related polymorphisms. ..
  17. Takatsu H, Yoshino K, Nakayama K. Adaptor gamma ear homology domain conserved in gamma-adaptin and GGA proteins that interact with gamma-synergin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000;271:719-25 pubmed
  18. Page L, Sowerby P, Lui W, Robinson M. Gamma-synergin: an EH domain-containing protein that interacts with gamma-adaptin. J Cell Biol. 1999;146:993-1004 pubmed
    ..The presence of an EH domain suggests that gamma-synergin links the AP-1 complex to another protein or proteins. ..
  19. Tavares L, da Silva E, da Silva Januário M, Januário Y, de Cavalho J, Czernisz É, et al. CD4 downregulation by the HIV-1 protein Nef reveals distinct roles for the ?1 and ?2 subunits of the AP-1 complex in protein trafficking. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:429-443 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we report that this lysosomal targeting requires a variant of AP-1 containing isoform 2 of ?-adaptin (AP1G2, hereafter ?2)...