Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: AP-2
Description: transcription factor AP-2 alpha
Alias: AP-2, AP-2alpha, AP2TF, BOFS, TFAP2, transcription factor AP-2-alpha, AP-2 transcription factor, AP2-alpha, activating enhancer-binding protein 2-alpha, activator protein 2, transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha)
- Heimberger A, McGary E, Suki D, Ruiz M, Wang H, Fuller G, et al. Loss of the AP-2alpha transcription factor is associated with the grade of human gliomas. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:267-72 pubmed..Of all the previously characterized markers of progression, the loss of AP-2alpha would be the most common (96.2%) molecular marker as an astrocytic tumor evolves from grade 2 to 3. ..
- Tan Y, Qin X, Xiang Y, Yang T, Qu F, Wang Y, et al. PPARalpha and AP-2alpha regulate bombesin receptor subtype 3 expression in ozone-stressed bronchial epithelial cells. Biochem J. 2007;405:131-7 pubmed..Our data suggest that AP-2alpha and PPARalpha may be especially involved in this ozone-inducible up-regulation mechanism of BRS-3 expression. ..
- Buettner R, Kannan P, Imhof A, Bauer R, Yim S, Glockshuber R, et al. An alternatively spliced mRNA from the AP-2 gene encodes a negative regulator of transcriptional activation by AP-2. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:4174-85 pubmed..Therefore, inhibition of AP-2 activity by the protein AP-2B may require an additional factor or modification supplied by nuclear extracts. ..
- Bauer R, Imhof A, Pscherer A, Kopp H, Moser M, Seegers S, et al. The genomic structure of the human AP-2 transcription factor. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:1413-20 pubmed..A partial AP-2 promoter fragment including the AP-2 consensus binding site is approximately 5-fold transactivated by cotransfection of an AP-2 expression plasmid. ..
- Jonckheere N, Fauquette V, Stechly L, Saint Laurent N, Aubert S, Susini C, et al. Tumour growth and resistance to gemcitabine of pancreatic cancer cells are decreased by AP-2alpha overexpression. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:637-44 pubmed publisher..Our data suggested that AP-2alpha overexpression could be exploited to decrease in vivo tumour growth of pancreatic cancer cells and to increase their sensitivity to gemcitabine. ..
- Hannay J, Liu J, Zhu Q, Bolshakov S, Li L, Pisters P, et al. Rad51 overexpression contributes to chemoresistance in human soft tissue sarcoma cells: a role for p53/activator protein 2 transcriptional regulation. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:1650-60 pubmed..Electrophoretic mobility shift assays verified activator protein 2 (AP2) binding to this region and increased AP2 binding to the promoter in the presence of wtp53...
- Williams T, Tjian R. Characterization of a dimerization motif in AP-2 and its function in heterologous DNA-binding proteins. Science. 1991;251:1067-71 pubmed..The resulting chimeric protein specifically recognized an AP-1 DNA-binding site in the absence of an intact c-Jun leucine repeat and in a manner that was dependent on the presence of a functional AP-2 dimerization domain. ..
- McPherson L, Loktev A, Weigel R. Tumor suppressor activity of AP2alpha mediated through a direct interaction with p53. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45028-33 pubmed..These results also provide a mechanism to explain patterns of gene expression in cancers where AP2alpha is known to function as a tumor suppressor. ..
- Williams T, Tjian R. Analysis of the DNA-binding and activation properties of the human transcription factor AP-2. Genes Dev. 1991;5:670-82 pubmed
- Jiang M, Tang Q, McLenithan J, Geiman D, Shillinglaw W, Henzel W, et al. Derepression of the C/EBPalpha gene during adipogenesis: identification of AP-2alpha as a repressor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:3467-71 pubmed..Taken together with previous results, these findings suggest that in preadipocytes the C/EBPalpha gene is repressed by AP-2alpha/CUP, which, upon induction of differentiation, is down-regulated, allowing expression of the gene. ..
- Yu Y, Wang Y, Li M, Kannan P. Tumorigenic effect of transcription factor hAP-2alpha and the intricate link between hAP-2alpha activation and squelching. Mol Carcinog. 2002;34:172-9 pubmed..Mutants that lacked both properties were nontumorigenic. These results suggest that squelching, but not activation, causes transformation and that the factors that are sequestered at this region are critical in tumorigenesis. ..
- Batsche E, Muchardt C, Behrens J, Hurst H, Cremisi C. RB and c-Myc activate expression of the E-cadherin gene in epithelial cells through interaction with transcription factor AP-2. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:3647-58 pubmed..These data confirm the important role for RB and c-Myc in the maintenance of the epithelial phenotype and reveal a novel mechanism of gene activation by c-Myc. ..
- Mertens P, Steinmann K, Alfonso Jaume M, En Nia A, Sun Y, Lovett D. Combinatorial interactions of p53, activating protein-2, and YB-1 with a single enhancer element regulate gelatinase A expression in neoplastic cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:24875-82 pubmed
- Milunsky J, Maher T, Zhao G, Roberts A, Stalker H, Zori R, et al. TFAP2A mutations result in branchio-oculo-facial syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2008;82:1171-7 pubmed publisherBranchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS) is a rare autosomal-dominant cleft palate-craniofacial disorder with variable expressivity...
- Wajapeyee N, Somasundaram K. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction by activator protein 2alpha (AP-2alpha) and the role of p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 in AP-2alpha-mediated growth inhibition. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52093-101 pubmed..These results suggest that AP-2alpha inhibits the growth of cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and that the use of AP-2alpha should be explored as a therapeutic strategy either alone or in combination with chemotherapy. ..
- Choi H, Chung T, Kim S, Cho S, Lee Y, Lee Y, et al. The AP-2alpha transcription factor is required for the ganglioside GM3-stimulated transcriptional regulation of a PTEN gene. Glycobiology. 2008;18:395-407 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that the AP-2alpha transcription factor is required for the ganglioside GM3-stimulated transcriptional regulation of the PTEN gene. ..
- Braganca J, Swingler T, Marques F, Jones T, Eloranta J, Hurst H, et al. Human CREB-binding protein/p300-interacting transactivator with ED-rich tail (CITED) 4, a new member of the CITED family, functions as a co-activator for transcription factor AP-2. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:8559-65 pubmed..neural crest and neural tube development and that it functions as a co-activator for transcription factor AP-2 (TFAP2)...
- Bamforth S, Braganca J, Eloranta J, Murdoch J, Marques F, Kranc K, et al. Cardiac malformations, adrenal agenesis, neural crest defects and exencephaly in mice lacking Cited2, a new Tfap2 co-activator. Nat Genet. 2001;29:469-74 pubmed..We show that CITED2 interacts with and co-activates all isoforms of transcription factor AP-2 (TFAP2)...
- Koinuma D, Tsutsumi S, Kamimura N, Taniguchi H, Miyazawa K, Sunamura M, et al. Chromatin immunoprecipitation on microarray analysis of Smad2/3 binding sites reveals roles of ETS1 and TFAP2A in transforming growth factor beta signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:172-86 pubmed publisher..Binding elements for the v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ETS) and transcription factor AP-2 (TFAP2) were significantly enriched in Smad2/3 binding sites, and knockdown of either ETS1 or TFAP2A resulted in overall ..
- Fauquette V, Aubert S, Groux Degroote S, Hemon B, Porchet N, Van Seuningen I, et al. Transcription factor AP-2alpha represses both the mucin MUC4 expression and pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:2305-12 pubmed..In conclusion, our data provide evidence that AP-2alpha is an important in vivo negative regulator of MUC4 expression in human pancreatic tissue and that AP-2alpha may play a tumour-suppressive role in pancreatic DAC. ..
- Li Q, Dashwood R. Activator protein 2alpha associates with adenomatous polyposis coli/beta-catenin and Inhibits beta-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity in colorectal cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:45669-75 pubmed
- Williams T, Admon A, Luscher B, Tjian R. Cloning and expression of AP-2, a cell-type-specific transcription factor that activates inducible enhancer elements. Genes Dev. 1988;2:1557-69 pubmed..This indicates that AP-2 may be a transcription factor involved in the control of developmentally regulated gene expression. ..
- Bennett K, Romigh T, Arab K, Teresi R, Tada Y, Eng C, et al. Activator protein 2 alpha (AP2alpha) suppresses 42 kDa C/CAAT enhancer binding protein alpha (p42(C/EBPalpha)) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:1285-92 pubmed publisher..Interestingly, silencing AP2alpha by shRNA increases the antiproliferative isoform of C/EBPalpha (p42(C/EBPalpha)). Furthermore, growth analysis revealed that these 2 isoforms yield very different proliferative properties in HNSCC. ..
- Schwartz B, Melnikova V, Tellez C, Mourad Zeidan A, Blehm K, Zhao Y, et al. Loss of AP-2alpha results in deregulation of E-cadherin and MMP-9 and an increase in tumorigenicity of colon cancer cells in vivo. Oncogene. 2007;26:4049-58 pubmed..Collectively, our data provide evidence that AP-2alpha acts as a tumor suppressor gene in colon cancer.. ..
- Li H, Watts G, Oshiro M, Futscher B, Domann F. AP-2alpha and AP-2gamma are transcriptional targets of p53 in human breast carcinoma cells. Oncogene. 2006;25:5405-15 pubmed
- Hinrichsen L, Harborth J, Andrees L, Weber K, Ungewickell E. Effect of clathrin heavy chain- and alpha-adaptin-specific small inhibitory RNAs on endocytic accessory proteins and receptor trafficking in HeLa cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:45160-70 pubmed..Since neither clathrin nor AP-2 is essential for the internalization of EGF, we conclude that it is taken up by an alternative mechanism. ..
- Begon D, Delacroix L, Vernimmen D, Jackers P, Winkler R. Yin Yang 1 cooperates with activator protein 2 to stimulate ERBB2 gene expression in mammary cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24428-34 pubmed..b>Activator protein 2 (AP-2) transcription factors account for this overexpression through two recognition sequences located 215 ..
- Li M, Wang Y, Hung M, Kannan P. Inefficient proteasomal-degradation pathway stabilizes AP-2alpha and activates HER-2/neu gene in breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:802-11 pubmed
- Liu H, Tan B, Tseng K, Chuang C, Yeh C, Chen K, et al. Nucleophosmin acts as a novel AP2alpha-binding transcriptional corepressor during cell differentiation. EMBO Rep. 2007;8:394-400 pubmed..This study unveils a hitherto unrecognized transcriptional corepressor function of the NPM protein, and highlights a novel mechanism by which NPM regulates cell growth and differentiation. ..
- Li H, Goswami P, Domann F. AP-2gamma induces p21 expression, arrests cell cycle, and inhibits the tumor growth of human carcinoma cells. Neoplasia. 2006;8:568-77 pubmed..In summary, expression of either AP-2gamma or AP-2alpha inhibited breast carcinoma cell growth; thus, these genes may be therapeutic targets for breast cancer. ..
- Braganca J, Eloranta J, Bamforth S, Ibbitt J, Hurst H, Bhattacharya S. Physical and functional interactions among AP-2 transcription factors, p300/CREB-binding protein, and CITED2. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:16021-9 pubmed..and histone acetyltransferases p300/CREB-binding protein (CBP) interact with CITED2, a transcription factor AP-2 (TFAP2) co-activator. p300/CBP, CITED2, and TFAP2A are essential for normal neural tube and cardiac development...
- Williamson J, Bosher J, Skinner A, Sheer D, Williams T, Hurst H. Chromosomal mapping of the human and mouse homologues of two new members of the AP-2 family of transcription factors. Genomics. 1996;35:262-4 pubmed..Tcfap2b and Tcfap2c map to mouse chromosomes 1A2-4 and 2H3-4, respectively, while TFAP2B and TFAP2C map to human chromosomes 6p12 and 20q13.2, the latter being a region that is frequently amplified in breast carcinoma. ..
- Orso F, Penna E, Cimino D, Astanina E, Maione F, Valdembri D, et al. AP-2alpha and AP-2gamma regulate tumor progression via specific genetic programs. FASEB J. 2008;22:2702-14 pubmed publisher..In particular, we showed that ESDN, EREG, and CXCL2 play a major role in AP-2 controlled migration, as ablation of any of these genes severely altered migration. ..
- Eloranta J, Hurst H. Transcription factor AP-2 interacts with the SUMO-conjugating enzyme UBC9 and is sumolated in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:30798-804 pubmed..Transient transfection studies indicate that sumolation of AP-2 decreases its transcription activation potential, and we discuss the possible mechanisms for the observed suppression of AP-2 transactivation. ..
- Wajapeyee N, Britto R, Ravishankar H, Somasundaram K. Apoptosis induction by activator protein 2alpha involves transcriptional repression of Bcl-2. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:16207-19 pubmed..These results suggest that AP-2alpha induces apoptosis by down-regulating Bcl-2 and utilizing a bax/cytochrome c/Apaf1/caspase 9-dependent mitochondrial pathway. ..
- Zhu C, Huang Y, Oberley L, Domann F. A family of AP-2 proteins down-regulate manganese superoxide dismutase expression. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:14407-13 pubmed..These results indicate that AP-2-mediated transcriptional repression contributes to the constitutively low expression of Mn-SOD in SV40-transformed fibroblasts and suggest a mechanism for Mn-SOD down-regulation in cancer. ..
- Zou L, Sun Y, Wang M, Zhan Q. Aurora-A interacts with AP-2? and down regulates its transcription activity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23110 pubmed publisher..These findings provide new insights into molecular mechanism by which Aurora-A acts as an oncogenic molecule in tumor occurrence and malignant development. ..
- Wang W, Lv L, Pan K, Zhang Y, Zhao J, Chen J, et al. Reduced expression of transcription factor AP-2? is associated with gastric adenocarcinoma prognosis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24897 pubmed publisherThis study aims to investigate the expression and prognostic significance of activator protein 2? (AP-2?) in gastric adenocarcinoma...
- Sundvall M, Veikkolainen V, Kurppa K, Salah Z, Tvorogov D, van Zoelen E, et al. Cell death or survival promoted by alternative isoforms of ErbB4. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:4275-86 pubmed publisher..These findings indicate that two alternative ErbB4 isoforms may promote antagonistic cellular responses and suggest that pharmacological inhibition of ErbB4 kinase activity may lead to either suppression or promotion of cellular growth. ..
- Zolotarenko A, Chekalin E, Mehta R, Baranova A, Tatarinova T, Bruskin S. Identification of Transcriptional Regulators of Psoriasis from RNA-Seq Experiments. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1613:355-370 pubmed publisher..hyperproliferation and migration of keratinocytes (JUN, FOS, NFIB, TFAP2A, TFAP2C), and lipid metabolism (TFAP2, RARA, VDR)...
- Blagoev B, Kratchmarova I, Ong S, Nielsen M, Foster L, Mann M. A proteomics strategy to elucidate functional protein-protein interactions applied to EGF signaling. Nat Biotechnol. 2003;21:315-8 pubmed..SILAC combined with modification-based affinity purification is a useful approach to detect specific and functional protein-protein interactions. ..
- Felding U. Blowout fractures - clinic, imaging and applied anatomy of the orbit. Dan Med J. 2018;65: pubmedIsolated fractures of the orbital floor or medial wall are often referred to as blowout fractures (BOFs)...
- Imai K, Hikawa H, Kobayashi K, Satou Y. Tfap2 and Sox1/2/3 cooperatively specify ectodermal fates in ascidian embryos. Development. 2017;144:33-37 pubmed publisher..These circuits started with Tfap2-r.b and Sox1/2/3, which are expressed in the ectodermal lineage immediately after zygotic genome activation...
- Huang W, Chen C, Liang Z, Qiu J, Li X, Hu X, et al. AP-2Î± inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth and migration. Int J Oncol. 2016;48:1125-34 pubmed publisher..Therefore, AP-2Î± might represent a novel potential target in human hepatocellular cancer therapy. ..
- Zhu Z, Meng W, Liu P, Zhu X, Liu Y, Zou H. DNA hypomethylation of a transcription factor binding site within the promoter of a gout risk gene NRBP1 upregulates its expression by inhibition of TFAP2A binding. Clin Epigenetics. 2017;9:99 pubmed publisher..This study sought to understand the molecular mechanism of a common genetic variant, rs780093, in the development of gout, both in vitro and in vivo...
- Zhang D, Li H, Jiang X, Cao L, Wen Z, Yang X, et al. Role of AP-2α and MAPK7 in the regulation of autocrine TGF-β/miR-200b signals to maintain epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cholangiocarcinoma. J Hematol Oncol. 2017;10:170 pubmed publisher..Our study highlights that miR-200b-based gene therapy is effective in the treatment of CCA. ..
- Tchieu J, Zimmer B, Fattahi F, Amin S, Zeltner N, Chen S, et al. A Modular Platform for Differentiation of Human PSCs into All Major Ectodermal Lineages. Cell Stem Cell. 2017;21:399-410.e7 pubmed publisher..We highlight the utility of this system by interrogating the role of TFAP2 transcription factors in ectodermal differentiation, revealing the importance of TFAP2A in NC and CP ..
- Ren K, Xian S, He F, Zhang W, Ding X, Wu Y, et al. CK2 phosphorylates AP-2? and increases its transcriptional activity. BMB Rep. 2011;44:490-5 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest a novel cellular function of CK-2 as a transcriptional co-activator of AP-2?. ..
- Bairstow S, Ling K, Su X, Firestone A, Carbonara C, Anderson R. Type Igamma661 phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase directly interacts with AP2 and regulates endocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:20632-42 pubmed..Collectively, this evidence implies an important role for PIPKIgamma661 in the AP2-mediated endocytosis of transferrin. ..
- Stabach P, Thiyagarajan M, Woodfield G, Weigel R. AP2alpha alters the transcriptional activity and stability of p53. Oncogene. 2006;25:2148-59 pubmed..These findings may provide a mechanism to account for the discrepancies reported for the association between AP2 and p21 expression in tumor tissue. ..
- Zhang Z, Zhang L, Jia L, Cui S, Shi Y, Chang A, et al. AP-2? suppresses invasion in BeWo cells by repression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and up-regulation of E-cadherin. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;381:31-9 pubmed publisher..We presume that AP-2? may suppress trophoblast invasion by repression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and up-regulation of E-cadherin, thus leading to shallow placentation in severe preeclampsia. ..
- Duan C, Clemmons D. Transcription factor AP-2 regulates human insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:24844-51 pubmed..This AP-2-mediated trans-activation contributes at least in part to the constitutively high expression of IGFBP-5 in fibroblasts and to the cAMP responsiveness of this gene. ..
- CARRIERE C, Mirocha S, Deharvengt S, Gunn J, Korc M. Aberrant expressions of AP-2? splice variants in pancreatic cancer. Pancreas. 2011;40:695-700 pubmed publisher..Multiple isoforms of AP-2? are highly expressed in pancreatic cancer cell lines including a new isoform, AP-2? variant 6, which seems to be pancreatic cancer specific and is deprived of transcriptional activity. ..
- Thewes V, Orso F, Jäger R, Eckert D, Schäfer S, Kirfel G, et al. Interference with activator protein-2 transcription factors leads to induction of apoptosis and an increase in chemo- and radiation-sensitivity in breast cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:192 pubmed publisher..Therefore, interference with AP-2 function could increase the sensitivity of tumor cells towards therapeutic intervention. ..
- Gibson L, Hahner L, Osborne Lawrence S, German Z, Wu K, Chambliss K, et al. Molecular basis of estrogen-induced cyclooxygenase type 1 upregulation in endothelial cells. Circ Res. 2005;96:518-25 pubmed..In addition, the process may be initiated by cytoplasmic ERalpha, and critical receptor elements reside within the amino terminus. ..
- Lee J, Kim I, Kim J, Cho W, Suh P, Ryu S. Determination of EGFR endocytosis kinetic by auto-regulatory association of PLD1 with mu2. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7090 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that the temporal regulation of EGFR endocytosis is achieved by auto-regulatory PLD1 which senses the receptor activation and triggers the translocation of AP2 near to the activated receptor. ..
- Yu L, Venkataraman S, Coleman M, Spitz D, Wertz P, Domann F. Glutathione peroxidase-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2alpha expression in human keratinocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;351:1066-71 pubmed..Taken together, these findings suggest that GPx-1 inhibits UVA-induced AP-2alpha expression by suppressing the accumulation of H(2)O(2). ..
- Milunsky J, Maher T, Zhao G, Wang Z, Mulliken J, Chitayat D, et al. Genotype-phenotype analysis of the branchio-oculo-facial syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2011;155A:22-32 pubmed publisherBranchio-oculo-facial syndrome (BOFS; OMIM#113620) is a rare autosomal dominant craniofacial disorder with variable expression...
- Whetstine J, Witt T, Matherly L. The human reduced folate carrier gene is regulated by the AP2 and sp1 transcription factor families and a functional 61-base pair polymorphism. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:43873-80 pubmed..Moreover, they document a functionally novel polymorphism that increases promoter activity and may contribute to interpatient variations in hRFC expression and effects on tissue folate homeostasis and antitumor response to antifolates. ..
- Xu Y, Fang F, Dhar S, Bosch A, St Clair W, Kasarskis E, et al. Mutations in the SOD2 promoter reveal a molecular basis for an activating protein 2-dependent dysregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase expression in cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:1881-93 pubmed publisher..The presence of AP-2 attenuates this induction. Our results suggest that the high level of MnSOD observed in aggressive cancer cells may be due, in part, to the absence of AP-2 transcriptional repression. ..
- Gondim M, Wiltzer Bach L, Maurer B, Banning C, Argañaraz E, Schindler M. AP-2 Is the Crucial Clathrin Adaptor Protein for CD4 Downmodulation by HIV-1 Nef in Infected Primary CD4+ T Cells. J Virol. 2015;89:12518-24 pubmed publisher..Altogether, among the factors tested, AP-2 is the most important player for Nef-mediated CD4 downmodulation. ..
- Hervouet E, Vallette F, Cartron P. Dnmt3/transcription factor interactions as crucial players in targeted DNA methylation. Epigenetics. 2009;4:487-99 pubmed
- Nolens G, Pignon J, Koopmansch B, ElMoualij B, Zorzi W, De Pauw E, et al. Ku proteins interact with activator protein-2 transcription factors and contribute to ERBB2 overexpression in breast cancer cell lines. Breast Cancer Res. 2009;11:R83 pubmed publisher..Ku proteins in interaction with AP-2 (alpha and gamma) contribute to increased ERBB2 mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer cells. ..
- Murata T, Noda C, Narita Y, Watanabe T, Yoshida M, Ashio K, et al. Induction of Epstein-Barr Virus Oncoprotein LMP1 by Transcription Factors AP-2 and Early B Cell Factor. J Virol. 2016;90:3873-3889 pubmed publisher..1, and POU domain factors. Our results will provide insight into the transcriptional regulation of the major oncogene LMP1. ..
- Li K, Singh A, Crooks D, Dai X, Cong Z, Pan L, et al. Expression of human frataxin is regulated by transcription factors SRF and TFAP2. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12286 pubmed publisher..We found that the transcription factors SRF and TFAP2 bind directly to FXN promoter sequences...