androgen receptor

Summary

Gene Symbol: androgen receptor
Description: androgen receptor
Alias: AIS, AR8, DHTR, HUMARA, HYSP1, NR3C4, SBMA, SMAX1, TFM, androgen receptor, dihydrotestosterone receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4
Species: human
Products:     androgen receptor

Top Publications

  1. Mahmoud A, Zhu T, Parray A, Siddique H, Yang W, Saleem M, et al. Differential effects of genistein on prostate cancer cells depend on mutational status of the androgen receptor. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78479 pubmed publisher
    Blocking the androgen receptor (AR) activity is the main goal of therapies for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). However, relapse with a more aggressive, hormone refractory PCa arises, which harbors restored AR activity...
  2. Li B, Lu W, Yang Q, Yu X, Matusik R, Chen Z. Skp2 regulates androgen receptor through ubiquitin-mediated degradation independent of Akt/mTOR pathways in prostate cancer. Prostate. 2014;74:421-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that Skp2 is an E3 ligase for proteasome-dependent AR degradation, and K847 on AR is the recognition site for Skp2-mediated ubiquitination. Our findings reveal an essential role of Skp2 in AR signaling. ..
  3. Demir U, Koehler A, Schneider R, Schweiger S, Klocker H. Metformin anti-tumor effect via disruption of the MID1 translational regulator complex and AR downregulation in prostate cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:52 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a rationale for the use of metformin in the treatment of hormone naïve and castration-resistant prostate cancer and suggest AR is an important indirect target of metformin. ..
  4. Mills I. Maintaining and reprogramming genomic androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2014;14:187-98 pubmed publisher
    Prostate cancer treatment is dominated by strategies to control androgen receptor (AR) activity...
  5. Cortes C, Ling S, Guo L, Hung G, Tsunemi T, Ly L, et al. Muscle expression of mutant androgen receptor accounts for systemic and motor neuron disease phenotypes in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Neuron. 2014;82:295-307 pubmed publisher
    ..SBMA is caused by CAG-polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansions in the androgen receptor (AR) gene...
  6. Antonarakis E, Lu C, Wang H, Luber B, Nakazawa M, Roeser J, et al. AR-V7 and resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone in prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1028-38 pubmed publisher
    ..AR-V7 detection and therapeutic resistance was maintained after adjustment for expression of full-length androgen receptor messenger RNA...
  7. Pawlowski J, Ertel J, Allen M, Xu M, Butler C, Wilson E, et al. Liganded androgen receptor interaction with beta-catenin: nuclear co-localization and modulation of transcriptional activity in neuronal cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20702-10 pubmed
    A yeast two-hybrid assay was employed to identify androgen receptor (AR) protein partners in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal cells...
  8. van de Wijngaart D, Molier M, Lusher S, Hersmus R, Jenster G, Trapman J, et al. Systematic structure-function analysis of androgen receptor Leu701 mutants explains the properties of the prostate cancer mutant L701H. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:5097-105 pubmed publisher
    One mechanism of prostate tumors for escape from androgen ablation therapies is mutation of the androgen receptor (AR)...
  9. Bonaccorsi L, Carloni V, Muratori M, Formigli L, Zecchi S, Forti G, et al. EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling promoting invasion is disrupted in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells by an interaction between EGFR and androgen receptor (AR). Int J Cancer. 2004;112:78-86 pubmed
    We previously demonstrated that expression of androgen receptor (AR) by transfection of the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line PC3 decreases invasion and adhesion of these cells (PC3-AR) through modulation of alpha6beta4 ..

More Information

Publications384 found, 100 shown here

  1. Nielsen T, Hagen C, Wraae K, Bathum L, Larsen R, Brixen K, et al. The impact of the CAG repeat polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene on muscle and adipose tissues in 20-29-year-old Danish men: Odense Androgen Study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;162:795-804 pubmed publisher
    The number of CAG repeats (CAG(n)) within the CAG repeat polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene correlates inversely with the transactivation of the receptor...
  2. Burska U, Harle V, Coffey K, Darby S, Ramsey H, O Neill D, et al. Deubiquitinating enzyme Usp12 is a novel co-activator of the androgen receptor. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:32641-50 pubmed publisher
    The androgen receptor (AR), a member of the nuclear receptor family, is a transcription factor involved in prostate cell growth, homeostasis, and transformation...
  3. Ueda T, Mawji N, Bruchovsky N, Sadar M. Ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor by interleukin-6 and the role of steroid receptor coactivator-1 in prostate cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:38087-94 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR) can be activated in the absence of androgens by interleukin-6 (IL-6) in human prostate cancer cells...
  4. Xu K, Shimelis H, Linn D, Jiang R, Yang X, Sun F, et al. Regulation of androgen receptor transcriptional activity and specificity by RNF6-induced ubiquitination. Cancer Cell. 2009;15:270-82 pubmed publisher
    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer. We have identified a ubiquitin E3 ligase, RNF6, as an AR-associated protein in a proteomic screen...
  5. Chatterjee S, Singh R, Kadam S, Maitra A, Thangaraj K, Meherji P, et al. Longer CAG repeat length in the androgen receptor gene is associated with premature ovarian failure. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:3230-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The cause of POF in most cases is unknown. As mice lacking the Androgen receptor (Ar) gene reportedly have a POF-like phenotype, we hypothesize that, variations in the AR gene maybe one of ..
  6. Sutton L, Cao D, Sarode V, Molberg K, Torgbe K, Haley B, et al. Decreased androgen receptor expression is associated with distant metastases in patients with androgen receptor-expressing triple-negative breast carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol. 2012;138:511-6 pubmed
    To characterize prognostic values of androgen receptor (AR) in triple-negative (TN) breast cancers, we investigated AR expression status and levels, explored an association of AR expression with metastatic disease, and correlated AR ..
  7. Wu L, Runkle C, Jin H, Li J, Yang X, Kuzel T, et al. CCN3/NOV gene expression in human prostate cancer is directly suppressed by the androgen receptor. Oncogene. 2014;33:504-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) has essential roles during prostate cancer progression. With genome-wide AR-binding sites mapped to high resolution, studies have recently reported AR as a transcriptional repressor...
  8. Yeap B, Voon D, Vivian J, McCulloch R, Thomson A, Giles K, et al. Novel binding of HuR and poly(C)-binding protein to a conserved UC-rich motif within the 3'-untranslated region of the androgen receptor messenger RNA. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:27183-92 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR) mediates androgen action and plays a central role in the proliferation of specific cancer cells...
  9. Zhao Y, Goto K, Saitoh M, Yanase T, Nomura M, Okabe T, et al. Activation function-1 domain of androgen receptor contributes to the interaction between subnuclear splicing factor compartment and nuclear receptor compartment. Identification of the p102 U5 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle-binding protein a. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:30031-9 pubmed
    In the androgen receptor (AR), most of its transactivation activity is mediated via the activation function-1 (AF-1). By employing yeast two-hybrid assay, we isolated a cDNA sequence encoding a protein binding to AR-AF-1...
  10. Lan K, Hseh C, Lu S, Chang S, Shyr C, Chen Y, et al. Expression of androgen receptor co-regulators in the testes of men with azoospermia. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:1397-405 pubmed
    To elucidate the physiologic and pathologic roles of androgen receptor (AR) and co-regulators in human testes with obstructive azoospermia or nonobstructive azoospermia. Prospective laboratory and clinical study...
  11. Chen Y, Chi P, Rockowitz S, Iaquinta P, Shamu T, Shukla S, et al. ETS factors reprogram the androgen receptor cistrome and prime prostate tumorigenesis in response to PTEN loss. Nat Med. 2013;19:1023-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In mouse prostate tissue, ERG markedly increased androgen receptor (AR) binding...
  12. Mulholland D, Cheng H, Reid K, Rennie P, Nelson C. The androgen receptor can promote beta-catenin nuclear translocation independently of adenomatous polyposis coli. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:17933-43 pubmed
    We provide evidence that the androgen receptor (AR) can promote nuclear translocation of beta-catenin in LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells...
  13. Kim O, Jiang T, Xie Y, Guo Z, Chen H, Qiu Y. Synergism of cytoplasmic kinases in IL6-induced ligand-independent activation of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells. Oncogene. 2004;23:1838-44 pubmed
    IL6 is a pleiotropic cytokine which has been implicated in ligand-independent activation of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells. Here, we present the evidence that two cytoplasmic kinases Pim1 and Etk are involved in this process...
  14. Lin D, Fang H, Ma A, Huang Y, Pu Y, Jenster G, et al. Negative modulation of androgen receptor transcriptional activity by Daxx. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:10529-41 pubmed
    The transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) modulated by positive or negative regulators plays a critical role in controlling the growth and survival of prostate cancer cells...
  15. Zhang T, Liang W, Fang M, Yu J, Ni Y, Li Z. Association of the CAG repeat polymorphisms in androgen receptor gene with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Gene. 2013;524:161-7 pubmed publisher
    Many studies have reported the associations of polymorphic CAG repeats in androgen receptor (AR) gene with PCOS risk, but with inconsistent results...
  16. Allera A, Herbst M, Griffin J, Wilson J, Schweikert H, McPhaul M. Mutations of the androgen receptor coding sequence are infrequent in patients with isolated hypospadias. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995;80:2697-9 pubmed
    b>Androgen receptor defects can cause severe hypospadias...
  17. Mazor M, Kawano Y, Zhu H, Waxman J, Kypta R. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 represses androgen receptor activity and prostate cancer cell growth. Oncogene. 2004;23:7882-92 pubmed
    The transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) is regulated by interaction with various coregulators, one of which is beta-catenin...
  18. Wang W, John E, Ingles S. Androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen gene polymorphisms and breast cancer in African-American women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:2990-4 pubmed
    Several previous studies have found the CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene to be associated with breast cancer risk among some groups of Caucasian and Asian women...
  19. Axlund S, Lambert J, Nordeen S. HOXC8 inhibits androgen receptor signaling in human prostate cancer cells by inhibiting SRC-3 recruitment to direct androgen target genes. Mol Cancer Res. 2010;8:1643-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we show that HOXC8 inhibits androgen receptor (AR)-mediated gene induction in LNCaP prostate cancer cells and HPr-1 AR, a nontumorigenic prostate ..
  20. Moilanen A, Poukka H, Karvonen U, Hakli M, Janne O, Palvimo J. Identification of a novel RING finger protein as a coregulator in steroid receptor-mediated gene transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:5128-39 pubmed
    Using the DNA-binding domain of androgen receptor (AR) as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening, we have identified a small nuclear RING finger protein, termed SNURF, that interacts with AR in a hormone-dependent fashion in both yeast ..
  21. Cheng J, Wang D, Wang Z, Yeh E. SENP1 enhances androgen receptor-dependent transcription through desumoylation of histone deacetylase 1. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:6021-8 pubmed
    ..Here we show that androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transcription is markedly enhanced by SENP1, a member of SUMO-specific protease family...
  22. Zong H, Chi Y, Wang Y, Yang Y, Zhang L, Chen H, et al. Cyclin D3/CDK11p58 complex is involved in the repression of androgen receptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:7125-42 pubmed
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) is essential for the maintenance of the male reproductive systems and is critical for the carcinogenesis of human prostate cancers (PCas). D-type cyclins are closely related to the repression of AR function...
  23. Zhang L, Altuwaijri S, Deng F, Chen L, Lal P, Bhanot U, et al. NF-kappaB regulates androgen receptor expression and prostate cancer growth. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:489-99 pubmed publisher
    Prostate cancers that progress during androgen-deprivation therapy often overexpress the androgen receptor (AR) and depend on AR signaling for growth...
  24. Korpal M, Korn J, Gao X, Rakiec D, Ruddy D, Doshi S, et al. An F876L mutation in androgen receptor confers genetic and phenotypic resistance to MDV3100 (enzalutamide). Cancer Discov. 2013;3:1030-43 pubmed publisher
    ..MDV3100 (enzalutamide), an antagonist of the androgen receptor (AR), was approved for clinical use in men with metastatic CRPC...
  25. Shenk J, Fisher C, Chen S, Zhou X, Tillman K, Shemshedini L. p53 represses androgen-induced transactivation of prostate-specific antigen by disrupting hAR amino- to carboxyl-terminal interaction. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:38472-9 pubmed
    ..One important regulator of PSA expression is the androgen receptor (AR), the nuclear receptor that mediates the biological actions of androgens...
  26. Amir A, Barua M, McKnight N, Cheng S, Yuan X, Balk S. A direct beta-catenin-independent interaction between androgen receptor and T cell factor 4. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:30828-34 pubmed
    ..A recently demonstrated interaction between beta-catenin and the androgen receptor (AR) ligand binding domain has suggested that AR may be a Tcf-independent Wnt/beta-catenin effector...
  27. Gaughan L, Logan I, Neal D, Robson C. Regulation of androgen receptor and histone deacetylase 1 by Mdm2-mediated ubiquitylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:13-26 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family of transcription factors and plays a critical role in regulating the expression of genes involved in androgen-dependent and -independent tumour formation...
  28. Waltering K, Urbanucci A, Visakorpi T. Androgen receptor (AR) aberrations in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;360:38-43 pubmed publisher
    Genetic aberrations affecting the androgen receptor (AR) are rare in untreated prostate cancers (PCs) but have been found in castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs)...
  29. Yeh S, Chang C. Cloning and characterization of a specific coactivator, ARA70, for the androgen receptor in human prostate cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5517-21 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the steroid receptor superfamily that plays an important role in male sexual differentiation and prostate cell proliferation...
  30. Langdahl B, Stenkjaer L, Carstens M, Tofteng C, Eriksen E. A CAG repeat polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene is associated with reduced bone mass and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Calcif Tissue Int. 2003;73:237-43 pubmed
    ..The estrogen and androgen receptor genes are therefore strong candidates for mediating the genetic influence on bone mass and risk of ..
  31. Wang Y, Li Q, Xu J, Liu Q, Wang W, Lin Y, et al. Mutation analysis of five candidate genes in Chinese patients with hypospadias. Eur J Hum Genet. 2004;12:706-12 pubmed
    ..Mutations in AR, SRD5A2 or WT1 seem to be associated not only with hypospadias but also with micropenis. ..
  32. Giovannucci E, Stampfer M, Krithivas K, Brown M, Dahl D, Brufsky A, et al. The CAG repeat within the androgen receptor gene and its relationship to prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3320-3 pubmed
    The length of a polymorphic CAG repeat sequence, occurring in the androgen receptor gene, is inversely correlated with transcriptional activity by the androgen receptor...
  33. Hatzoglou A, Kampa M, Kogia C, Charalampopoulos I, Theodoropoulos P, Anezinis P, et al. Membrane androgen receptor activation induces apoptotic regression of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:893-903 pubmed
    Nongenomic androgen actions imply mechanisms different from the classical intracellular androgen receptor (iAR) activation...
  34. Lin Y, Kokontis J, Tang F, Godfrey B, Liao S, Lin A, et al. Androgen and its receptor promote Bax-mediated apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1908-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results reveal a novel cross talk between the androgen/AR hormonal signaling pathway and the intrinsic apoptotic death pathway that determines the sensitivity of stress-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. ..
  35. McCall P, Gemmell L, Mukherjee R, Bartlett J, Edwards J. Phosphorylation of the androgen receptor is associated with reduced survival in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:1094-101 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway is upregulated in hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) and can result in phosphorylation of the androgen receptor (AR)...
  36. Wu M, Chou Y, Yu C, Yang T, You S, Chen C, et al. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeats, estrogen exposure status, and breast cancer susceptibility. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2008;17:317-22 pubmed publisher
    The length of a polymorphic CAG repeat in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) is inversely correlated with AR transactivation activity...
  37. Cifuentes E, Mataraza J, Yoshida B, Menon M, Sacks D, Barrack E, et al. Physical and functional interaction of androgen receptor with calmodulin in prostate cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:464-9 pubmed
    ..is sensitive to stimulation by androgen, we assessed the physical and functional interaction between androgen receptor (AR) and CaM...
  38. Slattery M, Sweeney C, Murtaugh M, Ma K, Wolff R, Potter J, et al. Associations between ERalpha, ERbeta, and AR genotypes and colon and rectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:2936-42 pubmed
    ..We evaluate genetic variants of the estrogen receptor genes (ERalpha and ERbeta) and the androgen receptor gene (AR)...
  39. van de Wijngaart D, van Royen M, Hersmus R, Pike A, Houtsmuller A, Jenster G, et al. Novel FXXFF and FXXMF motifs in androgen receptor cofactors mediate high affinity and specific interactions with the ligand-binding domain. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19407-16 pubmed
    Upon hormone binding, a hydrophobic coactivator binding groove is induced in the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain (LBD)...
  40. Sun S, Sprenger C, Vessella R, Haugk K, Soriano K, Mostaghel E, et al. Castration resistance in human prostate cancer is conferred by a frequently occurring androgen receptor splice variant. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2715-30 pubmed publisher
    Progression of prostate cancer following castration is associated with increased androgen receptor (AR) expression and signaling despite AR blockade...
  41. Karacosta L, Foster B, Azabdaftari G, Feliciano D, Edelman A. A regulatory feedback loop between Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) and the androgen receptor in prostate cancer progression. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:24832-43 pubmed publisher
    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer (PCa) progression, however, the molecular mechanisms by which the AR regulates cell proliferation in androgen-dependent and castration-resistant PCa are incompletely ..
  42. Liu L, Li Y, Xie N, Shynlova O, Challis J, Slater D, et al. Proliferative action of the androgen receptor in human uterine myometrial cells--a key regulator for myometrium phenotype programming. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Steroid receptors play important roles in regulating myometrial cell phenotype during pregnancy, although detailed mechanisms are not fully defined...
  43. Salmen T, Heikkinen A, Mahonen A, Kroger H, Komulainen M, Pallonen H, et al. Relation of androgen receptor gene polymorphism to bone mineral density and fracture risk in early postmenopausal women during a 5-year randomized hormone replacement therapy trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;18:319-24 pubmed
    In women, the influence of androgens on bone health is not clear. It has been suggested that the androgen receptor (AR) genotype is associated with bone mineral density and serum androgen levels in pre- and perimenopausal women, but the ..
  44. Ibanez L, Ong K, Mongan N, Jääskeläinen J, Marcos M, Hughes I, et al. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism in the development of ovarian hyperandrogenism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:3333-8 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that this earlier presentation may relate to increased androgen sensitivity, indicated by androgen receptor gene CAG repeat length. This polymorphism was genotyped in 181 Barcelona girls (age, 10...
  45. Liede A, Zhang W, De Leon Matsuda M, Tan A, Narod S. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility in The Philippines. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12:848-52 pubmed
    ..studied the association of breast cancer and the trinucleotide repeat polymorphism (CAGn) in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene (AR) in 299 cases of breast cancer and in 229 hospital-based controls from The Philippines...
  46. Ma A, Xia L, Desai S, Boucher D, Guan Y, Shih H, et al. Male germ cell-associated kinase, a male-specific kinase regulated by androgen, is a coactivator of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2006;66:8439-47 pubmed
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-induced transcriptional factor, which plays an important role in the normal development of prostate as well as in the progression of prostate cancer...
  47. Nelius T, Filleur S, Yemelyanov A, Budunova I, Shroff E, Mirochnik Y, et al. Androgen receptor targets NFkappaB and TSP1 to suppress prostate tumor growth in vivo. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:999-1008 pubmed
    ..decreased proliferation and stronger response to chemotherapy of the prostate cancer cells stably expressing androgen receptor (AR), however no mechanistic explanation was offered...
  48. Gibbs A, Schwartzman J, Deng V, Alumkal J. Sulforaphane destabilizes the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells by inactivating histone deacetylase 6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16663-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, one of these enzymes, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), influences the acetylation state of a key androgen receptor (AR) chaperone, HSP90...
  49. Price D, Chau C, Till C, Goodman P, Baum C, Ockers S, et al. Androgen receptor CAG repeat length and association with prostate cancer risk: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. J Urol. 2010;184:2297-302 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no association of AR CAG repeat length with prostate cancer risk. Knowledge of AR CAG repeat length provides no clinically useful information to predict prostate cancer risk. ..
  50. Cai C, Chen S, Ng P, Bubley G, Nelson P, Mostaghel E, et al. Intratumoral de novo steroid synthesis activates androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer and is upregulated by treatment with CYP17A1 inhibitors. Cancer Res. 2011;71:6503-13 pubmed publisher
    ..occurs after androgen deprivation therapy of primary prostate cancer can be mediated by reactivation of the androgen receptor (AR)...
  51. Wang R, Goodarzi M, Xiong T, Wang D, Azziz R, Zhang H. Negative association between androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Hum Reprod. 2012;18:498-509 pubmed
    A number of studies focusing on the association between the exon 1 CAG repeat polymorphism of the androgen receptor (AR) gene and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have revealed conflicting results...
  52. Ao J, Meng J, Zhu L, Nie H, Yang C, Li J, et al. Activation of androgen receptor induces ID1 and promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and invasion. Mol Oncol. 2012;6:507-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) activity is associated with cancer development and progression. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), AR contributes to HCC incidence, but the role of AR in HCC cell migration and invasion remains largely unknown...
  53. Reebye V, Querol Cano L, Lavery D, Brooke G, Powell S, Chotai D, et al. Role of the HSP90-associated cochaperone p23 in enhancing activity of the androgen receptor and significance for prostate cancer. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:1694-706 pubmed
    Prostate tumor growth initially depends on androgens, which act via the androgen receptor (AR). Despite androgen ablation therapy, tumors eventually progress to a castrate-resistant stage in which the AR remains active...
  54. Lin H, Yeh S, Kang H, Chang C. Akt suppresses androgen-induced apoptosis by phosphorylating and inhibiting androgen receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7200-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that Akt phosphorylates the androgen receptor (AR) at Ser-210 and Ser-790...
  55. Zitzmann M, Depenbusch M, Gromoll J, Nieschlag E. Prostate volume and growth in testosterone-substituted hypogonadal men are dependent on the CAG repeat polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene: a longitudinal pharmacogenetic study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:2049-54 pubmed
    ..T effects are mediated via the androgen receptor (AR)...
  56. He B, Bai S, Hnat A, Kalman R, Minges J, Patterson C, et al. An androgen receptor NH2-terminal conserved motif interacts with the COOH terminus of the Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP). J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30643-53 pubmed
    ..study, a primary sequence homology comparison identified a 14-amino acid NH2-terminal motif of the human androgen receptor (AR) that is common to AR from all species reported, including the lower vertebrates...
  57. Aschim E, Nordenskjold A, Giwercman A, Lundin K, Ruhayel Y, Haugen T, et al. Linkage between cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and GGN repeat length in the androgen receptor gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5105-9 pubmed
    Although sufficient androgen receptor (AR) function is crucial for normal male sexual differentiation, single-point mutations in the AR gene are infrequent in the two most common male congenital malformations, hypospadias and ..
  58. Karvonen U, Janne O, Palvimo J. Androgen receptor regulates nuclear trafficking and nuclear domain residency of corepressor HDAC7 in a ligand-dependent fashion. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:3165-83 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the class II HDAC family member HDAC7 is an efficient corepressor of the androgen receptor (AR)...
  59. Liu Q, Hong J, Cui B, Zhang Y, Gu W, Chi Z, et al. Androgen receptor gene CAG(n) trinucleotide repeats polymorphism in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrine. 2008;33:165-70 pubmed publisher
    Trinucleotide repeats CAG(n) in androgen receptor gene is thought to be a potential site of genetic susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
  60. Sivanandam A, Murthy S, Kim S, Barrack E, Veer Reddy G. Role of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cell cycle regulation: interaction with cell cycle regulatory proteins and enzymes of DNA synthesis. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2010;11:451-8 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in proliferation and viability of prostate cancer cells...
  61. Taplin M, Bubley G, Ko Y, Small E, Upton M, Rajeshkumar B, et al. Selection for androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancers treated with androgen antagonist. Cancer Res. 1999;59:2511-5 pubmed
    The role of androgen receptor (AR) mutations in androgen-independent prostate cancer (PCa) was determined by examining AR transcripts and genes from a large series of bone marrow metastases...
  62. Kim J, Jia L, Stallcup M, Coetzee G. The role of protein kinase A pathway and cAMP responsive element-binding protein in androgen receptor-mediated transcription at the prostate-specific antigen locus. J Mol Endocrinol. 2005;34:107-18 pubmed
    ..Accumulating evidence indicates that aberrant activation of androgen receptor (AR) via signal transduction pathways, AR gene mutation and/or amplification, and/or coregulator alterations ..
  63. El Sheikh S, Romanska H, Abel P, Domin J, Lalani E. Predictive value of PTEN and AR coexpression of sustained responsiveness to hormonal therapy in prostate cancer--a pilot study. Neoplasia. 2008;10:949-53 pubmed
    ..and clinical outcome (relapse-free and overall survival)) of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and the androgen receptor (AR) immunoexpression in the presenting biopsy...
  64. Lamb L, Knudsen B, Miranti C. E-cadherin-mediated survival of androgen-receptor-expressing secretory prostate epithelial cells derived from a stratified in vitro differentiation model. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:266-76 pubmed publisher
    The androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in differentiated secretory prostate epithelial cells in vivo...
  65. Liu Y, Wu X, Dong Z, Lu S. The molecular mechanism of Vav3 oncogene on upregulation of androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2010;36:623-33 pubmed
    Our previous studies revealed that Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human prostate cancer, enhances androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling, and may play a role in prostate cancer development and progression...
  66. Gioeli D, Paschal B. Post-translational modification of the androgen receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;352:70-8 pubmed publisher
    Regulation of the androgen receptor (AR) by its cognate ligand is well established, but how post-translational modification modulates AR activity is only emerging...
  67. Kominea A, Konstantinopoulos P, Kapranos N, Vandoros G, Gkermpesi M, Andricopoulos P, et al. Androgen receptor (AR) expression is an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in gastric cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2004;130:253-8 pubmed
    ..Identification of AR-positive gastric carcinomas in gastric biopsies may warrant a more aggressive therapeutic approach and anti-androgen or AR-targeted agents may represent a novel strategy in tackling this devastating malignancy. ..
  68. Bai V, Cifuentes E, Menon M, Barrack E, Reddy G. Androgen receptor regulates Cdc6 in synchronized LNCaP cells progressing from G1 to S phase. J Cell Physiol. 2005;204:381-7 pubmed
    We have shown previously that androgen receptor (AR) activity is required for the progression of cells from G(1) to S phase...
  69. Jagla M, Fève M, Kessler P, Lapouge G, Erdmann E, Serra S, et al. A splicing variant of the androgen receptor detected in a metastatic prostate cancer exhibits exclusively cytoplasmic actions. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4334-43 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that displays genomic actions characterized by binding to androgen-response elements in the promoter of target genes as well as nongenomic actions that do not require ..
  70. Lakshmikanthan V, Zou L, Kim J, Michal A, Nie Z, Messias N, et al. Identification of betaArrestin2 as a corepressor of androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9379-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) signaling regulates the development and homeostasis of male reproductive organs, including the prostate...
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    Androgen-dependent transcriptional activity by the androgen receptor (AR) and its coregulators is required for male reproductive development and function...
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    ..A long-standing hypothesis has been that inherited variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene plays a role in prostate cancer initiation...
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    ..We first examined the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and its co-regulators...