androgen receptor

Summary

Gene Symbol: androgen receptor
Description: androgen receptor
Alias: AIS, AR8, DHTR, HUMARA, HYSP1, NR3C4, SBMA, SMAX1, TFM, androgen receptor, dihydrotestosterone receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 4
Species: human
Products:     androgen receptor

Top Publications

  1. Mahmoud A, Zhu T, Parray A, Siddique H, Yang W, Saleem M, et al. Differential effects of genistein on prostate cancer cells depend on mutational status of the androgen receptor. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78479 pubmed publisher
    Blocking the androgen receptor (AR) activity is the main goal of therapies for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). However, relapse with a more aggressive, hormone refractory PCa arises, which harbors restored AR activity...
  2. Li B, Lu W, Yang Q, Yu X, Matusik R, Chen Z. Skp2 regulates androgen receptor through ubiquitin-mediated degradation independent of Akt/mTOR pathways in prostate cancer. Prostate. 2014;74:421-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that Skp2 is an E3 ligase for proteasome-dependent AR degradation, and K847 on AR is the recognition site for Skp2-mediated ubiquitination. Our findings reveal an essential role of Skp2 in AR signaling. ..
  3. Demir U, Koehler A, Schneider R, Schweiger S, Klocker H. Metformin anti-tumor effect via disruption of the MID1 translational regulator complex and AR downregulation in prostate cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:52 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a rationale for the use of metformin in the treatment of hormone naïve and castration-resistant prostate cancer and suggest AR is an important indirect target of metformin. ..
  4. Mills I. Maintaining and reprogramming genomic androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2014;14:187-98 pubmed publisher
    Prostate cancer treatment is dominated by strategies to control androgen receptor (AR) activity...
  5. Cortes C, Ling S, Guo L, Hung G, Tsunemi T, Ly L, et al. Muscle expression of mutant androgen receptor accounts for systemic and motor neuron disease phenotypes in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Neuron. 2014;82:295-307 pubmed publisher
    ..SBMA is caused by CAG-polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansions in the androgen receptor (AR) gene...
  6. Antonarakis E, Lu C, Wang H, Luber B, Nakazawa M, Roeser J, et al. AR-V7 and resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone in prostate cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:1028-38 pubmed publisher
    ..AR-V7 detection and therapeutic resistance was maintained after adjustment for expression of full-length androgen receptor messenger RNA...
  7. Lin Y, Kokontis J, Tang F, Godfrey B, Liao S, Lin A, et al. Androgen and its receptor promote Bax-mediated apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1908-16 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results reveal a novel cross talk between the androgen/AR hormonal signaling pathway and the intrinsic apoptotic death pathway that determines the sensitivity of stress-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. ..
  8. McCall P, Gemmell L, Mukherjee R, Bartlett J, Edwards J. Phosphorylation of the androgen receptor is associated with reduced survival in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:1094-101 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway is upregulated in hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) and can result in phosphorylation of the androgen receptor (AR)...
  9. Wu M, Chou Y, Yu C, Yang T, You S, Chen C, et al. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeats, estrogen exposure status, and breast cancer susceptibility. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2008;17:317-22 pubmed publisher
    The length of a polymorphic CAG repeat in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) is inversely correlated with AR transactivation activity...

More Information

Publications331 found, 100 shown here

  1. Cifuentes E, Mataraza J, Yoshida B, Menon M, Sacks D, Barrack E, et al. Physical and functional interaction of androgen receptor with calmodulin in prostate cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:464-9 pubmed
    ..is sensitive to stimulation by androgen, we assessed the physical and functional interaction between androgen receptor (AR) and CaM...
  2. Slattery M, Sweeney C, Murtaugh M, Ma K, Wolff R, Potter J, et al. Associations between ERalpha, ERbeta, and AR genotypes and colon and rectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:2936-42 pubmed
    ..We evaluate genetic variants of the estrogen receptor genes (ERalpha and ERbeta) and the androgen receptor gene (AR)...
  3. van de Wijngaart D, van Royen M, Hersmus R, Pike A, Houtsmuller A, Jenster G, et al. Novel FXXFF and FXXMF motifs in androgen receptor cofactors mediate high affinity and specific interactions with the ligand-binding domain. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:19407-16 pubmed
    Upon hormone binding, a hydrophobic coactivator binding groove is induced in the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain (LBD)...
  4. Sun S, Sprenger C, Vessella R, Haugk K, Soriano K, Mostaghel E, et al. Castration resistance in human prostate cancer is conferred by a frequently occurring androgen receptor splice variant. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2715-30 pubmed publisher
    Progression of prostate cancer following castration is associated with increased androgen receptor (AR) expression and signaling despite AR blockade...
  5. Karacosta L, Foster B, Azabdaftari G, Feliciano D, Edelman A. A regulatory feedback loop between Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) and the androgen receptor in prostate cancer progression. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:24832-43 pubmed publisher
    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in prostate cancer (PCa) progression, however, the molecular mechanisms by which the AR regulates cell proliferation in androgen-dependent and castration-resistant PCa are incompletely ..
  6. Liu L, Li Y, Xie N, Shynlova O, Challis J, Slater D, et al. Proliferative action of the androgen receptor in human uterine myometrial cells--a key regulator for myometrium phenotype programming. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:218-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Steroid receptors play important roles in regulating myometrial cell phenotype during pregnancy, although detailed mechanisms are not fully defined...
  7. Salmen T, Heikkinen A, Mahonen A, Kroger H, Komulainen M, Pallonen H, et al. Relation of androgen receptor gene polymorphism to bone mineral density and fracture risk in early postmenopausal women during a 5-year randomized hormone replacement therapy trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2003;18:319-24 pubmed
    In women, the influence of androgens on bone health is not clear. It has been suggested that the androgen receptor (AR) genotype is associated with bone mineral density and serum androgen levels in pre- and perimenopausal women, but the ..
  8. Ibanez L, Ong K, Mongan N, Jääskeläinen J, Marcos M, Hughes I, et al. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism in the development of ovarian hyperandrogenism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:3333-8 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that this earlier presentation may relate to increased androgen sensitivity, indicated by androgen receptor gene CAG repeat length. This polymorphism was genotyped in 181 Barcelona girls (age, 10...
  9. Liede A, Zhang W, De Leon Matsuda M, Tan A, Narod S. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility in The Philippines. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12:848-52 pubmed
    ..studied the association of breast cancer and the trinucleotide repeat polymorphism (CAGn) in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene (AR) in 299 cases of breast cancer and in 229 hospital-based controls from The Philippines...
  10. Ma A, Xia L, Desai S, Boucher D, Guan Y, Shih H, et al. Male germ cell-associated kinase, a male-specific kinase regulated by androgen, is a coactivator of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2006;66:8439-47 pubmed
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-induced transcriptional factor, which plays an important role in the normal development of prostate as well as in the progression of prostate cancer...
  11. Nelius T, Filleur S, Yemelyanov A, Budunova I, Shroff E, Mirochnik Y, et al. Androgen receptor targets NFkappaB and TSP1 to suppress prostate tumor growth in vivo. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:999-1008 pubmed
    ..decreased proliferation and stronger response to chemotherapy of the prostate cancer cells stably expressing androgen receptor (AR), however no mechanistic explanation was offered...
  12. Gibbs A, Schwartzman J, Deng V, Alumkal J. Sulforaphane destabilizes the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells by inactivating histone deacetylase 6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16663-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, one of these enzymes, histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), influences the acetylation state of a key androgen receptor (AR) chaperone, HSP90...
  13. Price D, Chau C, Till C, Goodman P, Baum C, Ockers S, et al. Androgen receptor CAG repeat length and association with prostate cancer risk: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. J Urol. 2010;184:2297-302 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no association of AR CAG repeat length with prostate cancer risk. Knowledge of AR CAG repeat length provides no clinically useful information to predict prostate cancer risk. ..
  14. Cai C, Chen S, Ng P, Bubley G, Nelson P, Mostaghel E, et al. Intratumoral de novo steroid synthesis activates androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer and is upregulated by treatment with CYP17A1 inhibitors. Cancer Res. 2011;71:6503-13 pubmed publisher
    ..occurs after androgen deprivation therapy of primary prostate cancer can be mediated by reactivation of the androgen receptor (AR)...
  15. Wang R, Goodarzi M, Xiong T, Wang D, Azziz R, Zhang H. Negative association between androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Hum Reprod. 2012;18:498-509 pubmed
    A number of studies focusing on the association between the exon 1 CAG repeat polymorphism of the androgen receptor (AR) gene and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have revealed conflicting results...
  16. Ao J, Meng J, Zhu L, Nie H, Yang C, Li J, et al. Activation of androgen receptor induces ID1 and promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and invasion. Mol Oncol. 2012;6:507-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) activity is associated with cancer development and progression. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), AR contributes to HCC incidence, but the role of AR in HCC cell migration and invasion remains largely unknown...
  17. Reebye V, Querol Cano L, Lavery D, Brooke G, Powell S, Chotai D, et al. Role of the HSP90-associated cochaperone p23 in enhancing activity of the androgen receptor and significance for prostate cancer. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:1694-706 pubmed
    Prostate tumor growth initially depends on androgens, which act via the androgen receptor (AR). Despite androgen ablation therapy, tumors eventually progress to a castrate-resistant stage in which the AR remains active...
  18. Lin H, Yeh S, Kang H, Chang C. Akt suppresses androgen-induced apoptosis by phosphorylating and inhibiting androgen receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:7200-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that Akt phosphorylates the androgen receptor (AR) at Ser-210 and Ser-790...
  19. Zitzmann M, Depenbusch M, Gromoll J, Nieschlag E. Prostate volume and growth in testosterone-substituted hypogonadal men are dependent on the CAG repeat polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene: a longitudinal pharmacogenetic study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:2049-54 pubmed
    ..T effects are mediated via the androgen receptor (AR)...
  20. He B, Bai S, Hnat A, Kalman R, Minges J, Patterson C, et al. An androgen receptor NH2-terminal conserved motif interacts with the COOH terminus of the Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP). J Biol Chem. 2004;279:30643-53 pubmed
    ..study, a primary sequence homology comparison identified a 14-amino acid NH2-terminal motif of the human androgen receptor (AR) that is common to AR from all species reported, including the lower vertebrates...
  21. Aschim E, Nordenskjold A, Giwercman A, Lundin K, Ruhayel Y, Haugen T, et al. Linkage between cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and GGN repeat length in the androgen receptor gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:5105-9 pubmed
    Although sufficient androgen receptor (AR) function is crucial for normal male sexual differentiation, single-point mutations in the AR gene are infrequent in the two most common male congenital malformations, hypospadias and ..
  22. Karvonen U, Janne O, Palvimo J. Androgen receptor regulates nuclear trafficking and nuclear domain residency of corepressor HDAC7 in a ligand-dependent fashion. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:3165-83 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the class II HDAC family member HDAC7 is an efficient corepressor of the androgen receptor (AR)...
  23. Liu Q, Hong J, Cui B, Zhang Y, Gu W, Chi Z, et al. Androgen receptor gene CAG(n) trinucleotide repeats polymorphism in Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrine. 2008;33:165-70 pubmed publisher
    Trinucleotide repeats CAG(n) in androgen receptor gene is thought to be a potential site of genetic susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
  24. Sivanandam A, Murthy S, Kim S, Barrack E, Veer Reddy G. Role of androgen receptor in prostate cancer cell cycle regulation: interaction with cell cycle regulatory proteins and enzymes of DNA synthesis. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2010;11:451-8 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in proliferation and viability of prostate cancer cells...
  25. Taplin M, Bubley G, Ko Y, Small E, Upton M, Rajeshkumar B, et al. Selection for androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancers treated with androgen antagonist. Cancer Res. 1999;59:2511-5 pubmed
    The role of androgen receptor (AR) mutations in androgen-independent prostate cancer (PCa) was determined by examining AR transcripts and genes from a large series of bone marrow metastases...
  26. Kim J, Jia L, Stallcup M, Coetzee G. The role of protein kinase A pathway and cAMP responsive element-binding protein in androgen receptor-mediated transcription at the prostate-specific antigen locus. J Mol Endocrinol. 2005;34:107-18 pubmed
    ..Accumulating evidence indicates that aberrant activation of androgen receptor (AR) via signal transduction pathways, AR gene mutation and/or amplification, and/or coregulator alterations ..
  27. El Sheikh S, Romanska H, Abel P, Domin J, Lalani E. Predictive value of PTEN and AR coexpression of sustained responsiveness to hormonal therapy in prostate cancer--a pilot study. Neoplasia. 2008;10:949-53 pubmed
    ..and clinical outcome (relapse-free and overall survival)) of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and the androgen receptor (AR) immunoexpression in the presenting biopsy...
  28. Lamb L, Knudsen B, Miranti C. E-cadherin-mediated survival of androgen-receptor-expressing secretory prostate epithelial cells derived from a stratified in vitro differentiation model. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:266-76 pubmed publisher
    The androgen receptor (AR) is expressed in differentiated secretory prostate epithelial cells in vivo...
  29. Liu Y, Wu X, Dong Z, Lu S. The molecular mechanism of Vav3 oncogene on upregulation of androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2010;36:623-33 pubmed
    Our previous studies revealed that Vav3 oncogene is overexpressed in human prostate cancer, enhances androgen receptor (AR)-mediated signaling, and may play a role in prostate cancer development and progression...
  30. Gioeli D, Paschal B. Post-translational modification of the androgen receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;352:70-8 pubmed publisher
    Regulation of the androgen receptor (AR) by its cognate ligand is well established, but how post-translational modification modulates AR activity is only emerging...
  31. Kominea A, Konstantinopoulos P, Kapranos N, Vandoros G, Gkermpesi M, Andricopoulos P, et al. Androgen receptor (AR) expression is an independent unfavorable prognostic factor in gastric cancer. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2004;130:253-8 pubmed
    ..Identification of AR-positive gastric carcinomas in gastric biopsies may warrant a more aggressive therapeutic approach and anti-androgen or AR-targeted agents may represent a novel strategy in tackling this devastating malignancy. ..
  32. Bai V, Cifuentes E, Menon M, Barrack E, Reddy G. Androgen receptor regulates Cdc6 in synchronized LNCaP cells progressing from G1 to S phase. J Cell Physiol. 2005;204:381-7 pubmed
    We have shown previously that androgen receptor (AR) activity is required for the progression of cells from G(1) to S phase...
  33. Jagla M, Fève M, Kessler P, Lapouge G, Erdmann E, Serra S, et al. A splicing variant of the androgen receptor detected in a metastatic prostate cancer exhibits exclusively cytoplasmic actions. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4334-43 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that displays genomic actions characterized by binding to androgen-response elements in the promoter of target genes as well as nongenomic actions that do not require ..
  34. Lakshmikanthan V, Zou L, Kim J, Michal A, Nie Z, Messias N, et al. Identification of betaArrestin2 as a corepressor of androgen receptor signaling in prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9379-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) signaling regulates the development and homeostasis of male reproductive organs, including the prostate...
  35. Askew E, Bai S, Hnat A, Minges J, Wilson E. Melanoma antigen gene protein-A11 (MAGE-11) F-box links the androgen receptor NH2-terminal transactivation domain to p160 coactivators. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34793-808 pubmed publisher
    Androgen-dependent transcriptional activity by the androgen receptor (AR) and its coregulators is required for male reproductive development and function...
  36. Lindstrom S, Ma J, Altshuler D, Giovannucci E, Riboli E, Albanes D, et al. A large study of androgen receptor germline variants and their relation to sex hormone levels and prostate cancer risk. Results from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:E121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A long-standing hypothesis has been that inherited variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene plays a role in prostate cancer initiation...
  37. Otsuka T, Iguchi K, Fukami K, Ishii K, Usui S, Sugimura Y, et al. Androgen receptor W741C and T877A mutations in AIDL cells, an androgen-independent subline of prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Tumour Biol. 2011;32:1097-102 pubmed publisher
    ..We first examined the expression of androgen receptor (AR) and its co-regulators...
  38. Tian J, Lee S, Liang L, Luo J, Huang C, Li L, et al. Targeting the unique methylation pattern of androgen receptor (AR) promoter in prostate stem/progenitor cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) leads to suppressed prostate tumorigenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:39954-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) expression surveys found that normal prostate/prostate cancer (PCa) stem/progenitor cells, but not embryonic or mesenchymal stem cells, expressed little AR with high methylation in the AR promoter...
  39. Suh J, Shong M, Choi H, Lee K. CR6-interacting factor 1 represses the transactivation of androgen receptor by direct interaction. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:33-46 pubmed
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that CRIF1 acts as a novel corepressor of the androgen receptor (AR) in prostatic cells...
  40. Holter E, Kotaja N, MAKELA S, Strauss L, Kietz S, Janne O, et al. Inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) function by the reproductive orphan nuclear receptor DAX-1. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:515-28 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have identified the androgen receptor (AR) NR3C4 as a novel target for DAX-1...
  41. Kim J, Jia L, Tilley W, Coetzee G. Dynamic methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 in transcriptional regulation by the androgen receptor. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6741-7 pubmed
    ..methylation at the human prostate specific antigen (PSA) locus following gene activation and repression via androgen receptor (AR)...
  42. Karvela M, Stefanakis N, Papadopoulou S, Tsitilou S, Tsilivakos V, Lamnissou K. Evidence for association of the G1733A polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene with recurrent spontaneous abortions. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:2010.e9-12 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether the G1733A polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene is associated with an increased risk for recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Case-control study...
  43. Fu J, Jiang J, Li J, Wang S, Shi G, Feng Q, et al. Deleted in breast cancer 1, a novel androgen receptor (AR) coactivator that promotes AR DNA-binding activity. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:6832-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in development and maintenance of male reproductive functions and the etiology of prostate cancer...
  44. De Amicis F, Thirugnansampanthan J, Cui Y, Selever J, Beyer A, Parra I, et al. Androgen receptor overexpression induces tamoxifen resistance in human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;121:1-11 pubmed publisher
    Although the androgen receptor (AR) is a known clinical target in prostate cancer, little is known about its possible role in breast cancer...
  45. Andersen R, Mawji N, Wang J, Wang G, Haile S, Myung J, et al. Regression of castrate-recurrent prostate cancer by a small-molecule inhibitor of the amino-terminus domain of the androgen receptor. Cancer Cell. 2010;17:535-46 pubmed publisher
    Castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC) is suspected to depend on androgen receptor (AR). The AF-1 region in the amino-terminal domain (NTD) of AR contains most, if not all, of the transcriptional activity...
  46. Koochekpour S. Androgen receptor signaling and mutations in prostate cancer. Asian J Androl. 2010;12:639-57 pubmed publisher
    Normal and neoplastic growth of the prostate gland are dependent on androgen receptor (AR) expression and function...
  47. Grasso C, Wu Y, Robinson D, Cao X, Dhanasekaran S, Khan A, et al. The mutational landscape of lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer. Nature. 2012;487:239-43 pubmed publisher
    ..rearrangements and copy number gains and losses, including ETS gene family fusions, PTEN loss and androgen receptor (AR) amplification, which drive prostate cancer development and progression to lethal, metastatic castration-..
  48. Lu M, Schneider M, Zheng Y, Zhang X, Richie J. Caveolin-1 interacts with androgen receptor. A positive modulator of androgen receptor mediated transactivation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:13442-51 pubmed
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) belongs to the steroid hormone nuclear receptor superfamily. It functions as an androgen-dependent transcriptional factor that regulates genes for cell proliferation and differentiation...
  49. Dirac A, Bernards R. The deubiquitinating enzyme USP26 is a regulator of androgen receptor signaling. Mol Cancer Res. 2010;8:844-54 pubmed publisher
    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and is essential for male sexual development and maturation, as well as prostate cancer development...
  50. Watson P, Chen Y, Balbas M, Wongvipat J, Socci N, Viale A, et al. Constitutively active androgen receptor splice variants expressed in castration-resistant prostate cancer require full-length androgen receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16759-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) splice variants lacking the ligand binding domain (ARVs), originally isolated from prostate cancer cell lines derived from a single patient, are detected in normal and malignant human prostate tissue, with the ..
  51. Butovskaya M, Vasilyev V, Lazebny O, Burkova V, Kulikov A, Mabulla A, et al. Aggression, digit ratio, and variation in the androgen receptor, serotonin transporter, and dopamine D4 receptor genes in African foragers: the Hadza. Behav Genet. 2012;42:647-62 pubmed publisher
    ..It is still to be found to what extent the relationships observed in this study are similar to those in other human populations. ..
  52. Guo Z, Yang X, Sun F, Jiang R, Linn D, Chen H, et al. A novel androgen receptor splice variant is up-regulated during prostate cancer progression and promotes androgen depletion-resistant growth. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2305-13 pubmed publisher
    The androgen receptor (AR) plays a key role in progression to incurable androgen ablation-resistant prostate cancer (PCA)...
  53. Wen Y, Hu M, Makino K, Spohn B, Bartholomeusz G, Yan D, et al. HER-2/neu promotes androgen-independent survival and growth of prostate cancer cells through the Akt pathway. Cancer Res. 2000;60:6841-5 pubmed
    HER-2/neu has been implicated in the activation of androgen receptor (AR) and in inducing hormone-independent prostate cancer growth...
  54. Rytinki M, Kaikkonen S, Sutinen P, Paakinaho V, Rahkama V, Palvimo J. Dynamic SUMOylation is linked to the activity cycles of androgen receptor in the cell nucleus. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:4195-205 pubmed
    Despite of the progress in the molecular etiology of prostate cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) remains the major druggable target for the advanced disease...
  55. Yang F, Li X, Sharma M, Sasaki C, Longo D, Lim B, et al. Linking beta-catenin to androgen-signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:11336-44 pubmed
    ..The growth-promoting effects of androgen on prostate cells are mediated mostly through the androgen receptor (AR)...
  56. Sato N, Sadar M, Bruchovsky N, Saatcioglu F, Rennie P, Sato S, et al. Androgenic induction of prostate-specific antigen gene is repressed by protein-protein interaction between the androgen receptor and AP-1/c-Jun in the human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:17485-94 pubmed
    ..Transcription of PSA is initiated when ligand-activated androgen receptor (AR) binds to a region in the PSA promoter that contains an androgen-responsive element (ARE)...
  57. Loibl S, Müller B, von Minckwitz G, Schwabe M, Roller M, Darb Esfahani S, et al. Androgen receptor expression in primary breast cancer and its predictive and prognostic value in patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;130:477-87 pubmed publisher
    The androgen receptor (AR) has been shown to be of potential prognostic importance in retrospective cohorts...
  58. McNamara K, Yoda T, Takagi K, Miki Y, Suzuki T, Sasano H. Androgen receptor in triple negative breast cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;133:66-76 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset of TNBC patients has been reported to express androgen receptor (AR) in carcinoma cells and the manipulation of androgen signalling or AR targeted therapies have been ..
  59. Dai Y, Ngo D, Forman L, Qin D, Jacob J, Faller D. Sirtuin 1 is required for antagonist-induced transcriptional repression of androgen-responsive genes by the androgen receptor. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:1807-21 pubmed
    ..Androgen antagonist-bound androgen receptor (AR) recruits SIRT1 and nuclear receptor corepressor to AR-responsive promoters and deacetylates histone H3 ..
  60. Huhtaniemi I, Pye S, Limer K, Thomson W, O Neill T, Platt H, et al. Increased estrogen rather than decreased androgen action is associated with longer androgen receptor CAG repeats. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..androgenic-anabolic functions of aging men may be influenced by the CAG repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR), affecting androgen sensitivity. However, findings on its phenotypic effects are inconclusive...
  61. D Antonio J, Vander Griend D, Antony L, Ndikuyeze G, Dalrymple S, Koochekpour S, et al. Loss of androgen receptor-dependent growth suppression by prostate cancer cells can occur independently from acquiring oncogenic addiction to androgen receptor signaling. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11475 pubmed publisher
    The conversion of androgen receptor (AR) signaling as a mechanism of growth suppression of normal prostate epithelial cells to that of growth stimulation in prostate cancer cells is often associated with AR mutation, amplification and ..
  62. Sharma A, Yeow W, Ertel A, Coleman I, Clegg N, Thangavel C, et al. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor controls androgen signaling and human prostate cancer progression. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:4478-92 pubmed publisher
    ..critical for tumor progression and that it did so via E2F transcription factor 1-mediated regulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression and output...
  63. Zhao J, Yu J, Runkle C, Wu L, Hu M, Wu D, et al. Cooperation between Polycomb and androgen receptor during oncogenic transformation. Genome Res. 2012;22:322-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) is a hormone-activated transcription factor that plays important roles in prostate development and function, as well as malignant transformation. The downstream pathways of AR, however, are incompletely understood...
  64. Dotzlaw H, Moehren U, Mink S, Cato A, INIGUEZ LLUHI J, Baniahmad A. The amino terminus of the human AR is target for corepressor action and antihormone agonism. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:661-73 pubmed
    Antiandrogens inhibit the ligand-induced transactivation by the androgen receptor (AR) and have a widespread use in the treatment of prostate cancer but their mode of action is not fully understood...
  65. Zhao X, Malloy P, Krishnan A, Swami S, Navone N, Peehl D, et al. Glucocorticoids can promote androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells through a mutated androgen receptor. Nat Med. 2000;6:703-6 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR) is involved in the development, growth and progression of prostate cancer (CaP). CaP often progresses from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-independent tumor, making androgen ablation therapy ineffective...
  66. Betney R, McEwan I. Role of conserved hydrophobic amino acids in androgen receptor AF-1 function. J Mol Endocrinol. 2003;31:427-39 pubmed
    The intracellular androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor...
  67. Salas T, Kim J, Vakar Lopez F, Sabichi A, Troncoso P, Jenster G, et al. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta is involved in the phosphorylation and suppression of androgen receptor activity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:19191-200 pubmed
    Kinases can phosphorylate and regulate androgen receptor activity during prostate cancer progression...
  68. Arnold J, Liu X, Allen J, Le H, McFann K, Blackman M. Androgen receptor or estrogen receptor-beta blockade alters DHEA-, DHT-, and E(2)-induced proliferation and PSA production in human prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2007;67:1152-62 pubmed
    ..whether DHEA-modulated proliferation and prostate specific antigen (PSA) production were mediated via the androgen receptor (AR) and/or ERbeta...
  69. Tilley W, Marcelli M, McPhaul M. Expression of the human androgen receptor gene utilizes a common promoter in diverse human tissues and cell lines. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:13776-81 pubmed
    ..To define the mechanisms controlling the expression of the androgen receptor, we have isolated and characterized the promoter of the androgen receptor gene in the human prostate cell ..
  70. Faus H, Meyer H, Huber M, Bahr I, Haendler B. The ubiquitin-specific protease USP10 modulates androgen receptor function. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;245:138-46 pubmed
    ..We identified the ubiquitin-specific protease USP10 as part of DNA-bound androgen receptor (AR) complexes purified from nuclear extracts of PC-3 cells stably expressing the AR...
  71. Shiota M, Yokomizo A, Masubuchi D, Tada Y, Inokuchi J, Eto M, et al. Tip60 promotes prostate cancer cell proliferation by translocation of androgen receptor into the nucleus. Prostate. 2010;70:540-54 pubmed publisher
    ..CRPC which is resistant to castration is thought to result from increased activation of the androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway, which may be augmented by AR coactivators...
  72. Marcelli M, Ittmann M, Mariani S, Sutherland R, Nigam R, Murthy L, et al. Androgen receptor mutations in prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2000;60:944-9 pubmed
    We analyzed the frequency and relevance of mutations in the coding region of the androgen receptor (AR) in genomic DNA extracted from 137 specimens of prostate cancer...
  73. Hsu C, Chen Y, Ting H, Lin W, Yang Z, Zhang Y, et al. Androgen receptor (AR) NH2- and COOH-terminal interactions result in the differential influences on the AR-mediated transactivation and cell growth. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:350-61 pubmed
    Early reports showed that androgen receptor (AR) NH2- and COOH-terminal (N-C) interaction was important for full AR function. However, the influence of these interactions on the AR in vivo effects remains unclear...
  74. Gao S, Lee P, Wang H, Gerald W, Adler M, Zhang L, et al. The androgen receptor directly targets the cellular Fas/FasL-associated death domain protein-like inhibitory protein gene to promote the androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:1792-802 pubmed
    ..The androgen receptor was recruited to the promoter of the c-FLIP gene in the presence of androgens...
  75. Brooke G, Parker M, Bevan C. Mechanisms of androgen receptor activation in advanced prostate cancer: differential co-activator recruitment and gene expression. Oncogene. 2008;27:2941-50 pubmed
    ..Eventually tumours progress and in approximately 30% of patients this is associated with mutation of the androgen receptor. Several receptor variants associated with advanced disease show promiscuous activation by other hormones ..
  76. Heinlein C, Ting H, Yeh S, Chang C. Identification of ARA70 as a ligand-enhanced coactivator for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:16147-52 pubmed
    ..ARA70 was initially described as a coactivator for the androgen receptor (AR) and is expressed in a range of tissues including adipose tissue (Yeh, S., and Chang, C. (1996) Proc...
  77. Song L, Herrell R, Byers S, Shah S, Wilson E, Gelmann E. Beta-catenin binds to the activation function 2 region of the androgen receptor and modulates the effects of the N-terminal domain and TIF2 on ligand-dependent transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1674-87 pubmed
    ..beta-Catenin can also enhance the transcriptional activity of some steroid hormone receptors such as the androgen receptor and retinoic acid receptor alpha...
  78. Marcias G, Erdmann E, Lapouge G, Siebert C, Barthelemy P, Duclos B, et al. Identification of novel truncated androgen receptor (AR) mutants including unreported pre-mRNA splicing variants in the 22Rv1 hormone-refractory prostate cancer (PCa) cell line. Hum Mutat. 2010;31:74-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) from tumor cells have been shown to induce androgen independency both in PCa cell lines and in the ..
  79. Skrgatić L, Baldani D, Cerne J, Ferk P, Gersak K. CAG repeat polymorphism in androgen receptor gene is not directly associated with polycystic ovary syndrome but influences serum testosterone levels. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;128:107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..594, P=0.095, P=0.290 and P=0.151, respectively). In conclusion, the AR CAG repeat polymorphism is not a major determinant of PCOS in the Croatian population, but it is a predictor of serum TT level variability in women with PCOS. ..
  80. Chang C, Kokontis J, Liao S. Structural analysis of complementary DNA and amino acid sequences of human and rat androgen receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:7211-5 pubmed
  81. Fu M, Wang C, Reutens A, Wang J, Angeletti R, Siconolfi Baez L, et al. p300 and p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-associated factor acetylate the androgen receptor at sites governing hormone-dependent transactivation. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:20853-60 pubmed
    The androgen receptor (AR) is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that plays a key role in prostate cancer cellular proliferation by dihydrotestosterone and the induction of secondary sexual characteristics...
  82. Chen G, Wang X, Zhang S, Lu Y, Sun Y, Zhang J, et al. Androgen receptor mutants detected in recurrent prostate cancer exhibit diverse functional characteristics. Prostate. 2005;63:395-406 pubmed
    Alterations in the function of androgen receptor (AR) and its signaling pathway may be responsible for the progression of prostate cancer...
  83. Lyons L, Burnstein K. Vav3, a Rho GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factor, increases during progression to androgen independence in prostate cancer cells and potentiates androgen receptor transcriptional activity. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:1061-72 pubmed
    ..of prostate cancer from androgen dependence to androgen independence is often accompanied by enhanced androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity...
  84. Zhu P, Baek S, Bourk E, Ohgi K, Garcia Bassets I, Sanjo H, et al. Macrophage/cancer cell interactions mediate hormone resistance by a nuclear receptor derepression pathway. Cell. 2006;124:615-29 pubmed
    ..report specific prostate cancer cell/macrophage interactions that mediate a switch in function of selective androgen receptor antagonists/modulators (SARMs) from repression to activation in vivo...
  85. Tsezou A, Tzetis M, Gennatas C, Giannatou E, Pampanos A, Malamis G, et al. Association of repeat polymorphisms in the estrogen receptors alpha, beta (ESR1, ESR2) and androgen receptor (AR) genes with the occurrence of breast cancer. Breast. 2008;17:159-66 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, an association for breast cancer risk between short (SS) alleles for the repeat variants of the ESR2 and AR genes was found in women of Greek descent. ..
  86. Haring R, Ernst F, Schürmann C, Homuth G, Volker U, Volzke H, et al. The androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism as a risk factor of low serum testosterone and its cardiometabolic effects in men. Int J Androl. 2012;35:511-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The added clinical value of a combined assessment of CAG repeat length and serum TT concentrations merits further investigation. ..
  87. Hickey T, Robinson J, Carroll J, Tilley W. Minireview: The androgen receptor in breast tissues: growth inhibitor, tumor suppressor, oncogene?. Mol Endocrinol. 2012;26:1252-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) signaling exerts an antiestrogenic, growth-inhibitory influence in normal breast tissue, and this role may be sustained in estrogen receptor ? (ER?)-positive luminal breast cancers...
  88. Radpour R, Rezaee M, Tavasoly A, Solati S, Saleki A. Association of long polyglycine tracts (GGN repeats) in exon 1 of the androgen receptor gene with cryptorchidism and penile hypospadias in Iranian patients. J Androl. 2007;28:164-9 pubmed
    ..3%-0.7% and 2%-4%, respectively, at birth. To study the association of CAG/GGN trinucleotide repeats in the androgen receptor gene with cryptorchidism and hypospadias in an Iranian population, we performed a case-control study of 76 ..
  89. Litvinov I, Vander Griend D, Antony L, Dalrymple S, De Marzo A, Drake C, et al. Androgen receptor as a licensing factor for DNA replication in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:15085-90 pubmed
    b>Androgen receptor (AR) protein expression and function are critical for survival and proliferation of androgen-sensitive (AS) prostate cancer cells...
  90. Mahajan N, Liu Y, Majumder S, Warren M, Parker C, Mohler J, et al. Activated Cdc42-associated kinase Ack1 promotes prostate cancer progression via androgen receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:8438-43 pubmed
    Activation of the androgen receptor (AR) may play a role in androgen-independent progression of prostate cancer. Multiple mechanisms of AR activation, including stimulation by tyrosine kinases, have been postulated...