alpha 2 macroglobulin


Gene Symbol: alpha 2 macroglobulin
Description: alpha-2-macroglobulin
Alias: A2MD, CPAMD5, FWP007, S863-7, alpha-2-macroglobulin, C3 and PZP-like alpha-2-macroglobulin domain-containing protein 5, alpha-2-M
Species: human
Products:     alpha 2 macroglobulin

Top Publications

  1. Misra U, Gonzalez Gronow M, Gawdi G, Hart J, Johnson C, Pizzo S. The role of Grp 78 in alpha 2-macroglobulin-induced signal transduction. Evidence from RNA interference that the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein is associated with, but not necessary for, GRP 78-mediated signal transduction. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:42082-7 pubmed
  2. Jensen P, Humle Jørgensen S, Datta P, Sørensen P. Significantly increased fractions of transformed to total alpha2-macroglobulin concentrations in plasma from patients with multiple sclerosis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1690:203-7 pubmed
    ..The results suggest an important involvement of alpha2M in regulation of increased proteolytic activity occurring in MS disease. ..
  3. Misra U, Deedwania R, Pizzo S. Binding of activated alpha2-macroglobulin to its cell surface receptor GRP78 in 1-LN prostate cancer cells regulates PAK-2-dependent activation of LIMK. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:26278-86 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest a mechanism by which alpha2M* enhances the metastatic potential of these cells. ..
  4. Wilson M, Yerbury J, Poon S. Potential roles of abundant extracellular chaperones in the control of amyloid formation and toxicity. Mol Biosyst. 2008;4:42-52 pubmed
    ..Further advances in understanding of the mechanisms that control extracellular protein folding are likely to identify new strategies for effective disease therapies. ..
  5. French K, Yerbury J, Wilson M. Protease activation of alpha2-macroglobulin modulates a chaperone-like action with broad specificity. Biochemistry. 2008;47:1176-85 pubmed publisher
  6. Yerbury J, Kumita J, Meehan S, Dobson C, Wilson M. alpha2-Macroglobulin and haptoglobin suppress amyloid formation by interacting with prefibrillar protein species. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:4246-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that both alpha(2)M and Hp are likely to play an important role in controlling the inappropriate aggregation of proteins in the extracellular environment. ..
  7. Borth W. Alpha 2-macroglobulin, a multifunctional binding protein with targeting characteristics. FASEB J. 1992;6:3345-53 pubmed
  8. Urbanová V, Šíma R, Šauman I, Hajdušek O, Kopáček P. Thioester-containing proteins of the tick Ixodes ricinus: gene expression, response to microbial challenge and their role in phagocytosis of the yeast Candida albicans. Dev Comp Immunol. 2015;48:55-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding of the tick immune response against model microbes should provide new concepts for investigating interactions between ticks and relevant tick-borne pathogens. ..
  9. Bettin A, Reyes I, Reyes N. Gene expression profiling of prostate cancer-associated genes identifies fibromodulin as potential novel biomarker for prostate cancer. Int J Biol Markers. 2016;31:e153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Further validation of FMOD transcript in a larger population is required to ascertain its usefulness as biomarker for prostate cancer. ..

More Information

Publications212 found, 100 shown here

  1. Arbelaez L, Bergmann U, Tuuttila A, Shanbhag V, Stigbrand T. Interaction of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 with pregnancy zone protein and alpha2-macroglobulin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997;347:62-8 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 may interact with pregnancy zone protein and alpha2-macroglobulin in vivo. ..
  2. Kurdowska A, Alden S, Noble J, Stevens M, Carr F. Involvement of alpha-2-macroglobulin receptor in clearance of interleukin 8-alpha-2-macroglobulin complexes by human alveolar macrophages. Cytokine. 2000;12:1046-53 pubmed
    ..The study shows an important clearance mechanism for IL-8 in the lung. ..
  3. Mathew S, Arandjelovic S, Beyer W, Gonias S, Pizzo S. Characterization of the interaction between alpha2-macroglobulin and fibroblast growth factor-2: the role of hydrophobic interactions. Biochem J. 2003;374:123-9 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the interactions of FGF-2 with alpha2M* and HSPGs are biochemically distinct, suggesting that different FGF-2 sequences are involved. ..
  4. Clarimon J, Bertranpetit J, Calafell F, Boada M, Tarraga L, Comas D. Joint analysis of candidate genes related to Alzheimer's disease in a Spanish population. Psychiatr Genet. 2003;13:85-90 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that future association studies should be performed using a battery of polymorphisms in different and new candidate genes, taking into account the linkage disequilibrium in the region. ..
  5. Athauda S, Nishigai M, Arakawa H, Ikai A, Ukai M, Takahashi K. Inhibition of human pepsin and gastricsin by alpha2-macroglobulin. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2003;18:219-24 pubmed
    ..These results show the entrapment and concomitant inhibition of those proteinases by alpha2-M. ..
  6. Rehman A, Ahsan H, Khan F. ?-2-Macroglobulin: a physiological guardian. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228:1665-75 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this multipurpose antiproteinse is not "fail safe" and could be damaged by reactive species generated endogenously or exogenously, leading to various pathophysiological conditions. ..
  7. Cuellar J, Cuellar V, Scuderi G. ?2-Macroglobulin: Autologous Protease Inhibition Technology. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2016;27:909-918 pubmed publisher
    ..Autologous concentrated A2M from plasma is currently in use to successfully treat various painful arthritides. Future directions will focus on recombinant variants that enhance its anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying potential. ..
  8. Webb D, Gonias S. A modified human alpha 2-macroglobulin derivative that binds tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta with high affinity in vitro and reverses lipopolysaccharide toxicity in vivo in mice. Lab Invest. 1998;78:939-48 pubmed
    ..Thus, MAC may have therapeutic potential in the control of chronic inflammatory disorders. ..
  9. Havanapan P, Taengchaiyaphum S, Bourchookarn A, Ketterman A, Krittanai C. Yellow head virus binding to cell surface proteins from Penaeus monodon hemocytes. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2014;41:126-36 pubmed publisher
    ..CrustinPm1 appears to either be directly involved in cellular binding or mediating virus internalization into permissive hemocytes. ..
  10. Miszczuk D, Dębski K, Tanila H, Lukasiuk K, Pitkänen A. Traumatic Brain Injury Increases the Expression of Nos1, Aβ Clearance, and Epileptogenesis in APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:7010-7027 pubmed
    ..05). The present study provides the first comprehensive evidence of exacerbated epileptogenesis and its molecular mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related genetic background after TBI. ..
  11. Pathirana A, Diao M, Huang S, Zuo L, Liang Y. Alpha 2 macroglobulin is a maternally-derived immune factor in amphioxus embryos: New evidence for defense roles of maternal immune components in invertebrate chordate. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;50:21-6 pubmed publisher
    ..coli cells directly. All these points come to a result that A2m is a maternal immune factor existing in eggs of invertebrate chordate, which may be involved in defense their embryos against harmful microbes' attacks. ..
  12. Christensson A, Laurell C, Lilja H. Enzymatic activity of prostate-specific antigen and its reactions with extracellular serine proteinase inhibitors. Eur J Biochem. 1990;194:755-63 pubmed
    ..This complex formation may be a crucial determinant of the turnover of active PSA in intercellular fluid or blood plasma in vivo. ..
  13. Bell G, Rall L, Sanchez Pescador R, Merryweather J, Scott J, Eddy R, et al. Human alpha 2-macroglobulin gene is located on chromosome 12. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1985;11:285-9 pubmed
    ..The cosegregation of this gene and chromosome 12 in the cell hybrid panel indicated that the alpha 2-macroglobulin structural gene (designated A2M) is on human chromosome 12. ..
  14. Chen H, Li Z, Liu N, Zhang W, Zhu G. Influence of Alpha-2-Macroglobulin 5 bp I/D and Ile1000Val polymorphisms on the susceptibility of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 52 studies. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014;70:511-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, due to the heterogeneity in the meta-analysis, the results should be interpreted with caution. ..
  15. Bhattacharya S, Zhou Z, Yee M, Chu C, Lopez A, Lunger V, et al. The genome-wide transcriptional response to neonatal hyperoxia identifies Ahr as a key regulator. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;307:L516-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a global assessment of gene regulation in the acute neonatal hyperoxia model of BPD-like pathology has identified Ahr as one driver of gene dysregulation. ..
  16. Shi J, Ma C, Lao H, Feng R, Guo Y, Mu N, et al. [No evidence for association between the alpha 2-macroglobulin polymorphism and Alzheimer's disease in the Han Chinese]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2001;18:299-302 pubmed
    ..The above data demonstrate that there is no evidence for the association of A2M polymorphism with the development of LOAD in the Han Chinese population in Gaungzhou. ..
  17. Haines J, Schnetz Boutaud N, Schmidt S, Scott W, Agarwal A, Postel E, et al. Functional candidate genes in age-related macular degeneration: significant association with VEGF, VLDLR, and LRP6. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:329-35 pubmed
    ..02) datasets. VLDLR showed evidence of association in both the family based (P = 0.03) and case-control (P = 0.01) datasets. These data suggest that LRP6, VEGF, and VLDLR may play a role in the risk of developing AMD. ..
  18. Michałowska Wender G, Wawrzynek A, Rossa G, Kozubski W, Wender M. On the lack of a clear-cut association between alpha-2-macroglobulin deletion and the risk of Alzheimer disease in Poland. Folia Neuropathol. 2014;52:417-20 pubmed
    ..The deletions were found more frequently in AD; however, they were found in only a small proportion of studied patients. These findings indicate that A2M is not the only biological candidate gene for AD determination. ..
  19. Falkenberg C, Enghild J, Thøgersen I, Salvesen G, Akerstrom B. Isolation and characterization of fibronectin-alpha 1-microglobulin complex in rat plasma. Biochem J. 1994;301 ( Pt 3):745-51 pubmed
    ..The existence of a complex between alpha 1-m and fibronectin in rats and humans suggests a mechanism for the incorporation of the immunoregulatory molecule alpha 1-m into the extracellular matrix. ..
  20. Schellenberg G, D Souza I, Poorkaj P. The genetics of Alzheimer's disease. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2000;2:158-64 pubmed
    ..Identification of additional late-onset genes will require larger samples, more sophisticated analysis methods, and large-scale positional cloning efforts. ..
  21. Chen D, Zhang J, Zhang Z, Wu Y, Qu Q. Association of alpha 2-macroglobulin polymorphisms and Alzheimer disease in Mainland Han Chinese. J Neurol Sci. 2004;217:13-5 pubmed
    ..99, 95% CI: 1.33-6.71, p=0.007). These results indicated that A2M-D allele was probably a weak AD protective factor, and there was a possible interaction of APOE-epsilon 4 and A2M-G alleles to increase AD risk in Mainland Han Chinese. ..
  22. Arandjelovic S, Van Sant C, Gonias S. Limited mutations in full-length tetrameric human alpha2-macroglobulin abrogate binding of platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-beta1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:17061-8 pubmed
    ..The exact sequences required for binding different growth factors may be non-identical, mimicking the model of the bait region in which different proteases target adjacent and sometimes overlapping sequences. ..
  23. Yerbury J, Wilson M. Extracellular chaperones modulate the effects of Alzheimer's patient cerebrospinal fluid on Abeta(1-42) toxicity and uptake. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2010;15:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that extracellular chaperones are an important element of a system of extracellular protein folding quality control that protects against Abeta toxicity and accumulation. ..
  24. Ghelani A, Samanta A, Jones A, Mastana S. Association analysis of TNFR2, VDR, A2M, GSTT1, GSTM1, and ACE genes with rheumatoid arthritis in South Asians and Caucasians of East Midlands in the United Kingdom. Rheumatol Int. 2011;31:1355-61 pubmed publisher
    ..002) genotypes were associated with RA. In the majority of cases, recessive and multiplicative modes of inheritance explained the observed associations. This study demonstrates that ethnicity affects the genetic associations in RA. ..
  25. Zhang F, Wen Y, Guo X, Zhang Y, Wang S, Yang T, et al. Genome-wide pathway-based association study implicates complement system in the development of Kashin-Beck disease in Han Chinese. Bone. 2015;71:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..038). Our study is the first to suggest that complement system-related CACC pathway contributed to the development of KBD. ..
  26. Zamani M, Mohammadi M, Zamani H, Tavasoli A. Pharmacogenetic Study on the Impact of Rivastigmine Concerning Genetic Variants of A2M and IL-6 Genes on Iranian Alzheimer's Patients. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:4521-8 pubmed publisher
  27. Loomba R, Jain A, Diehl A, Guy C, Portenier D, Sudan R, et al. Validation of Serum Test for Advanced Liver Fibrosis in Patients With Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..86, based on levels of serum biomarkers. We validated the findings in 2 separate sets of patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD. The algorithm can be used non-invasively to determine risk of advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. ..
  28. Gauthier F, Genell S, Mouray H, Ohlsson K. The in vitro interactions of rat pancreatic elastase and normal and inflammatory ray serum. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978;526:218-26 pubmed
    ..The 60% value of alpha 1-M bound radioactivity in normal serum corresponds to the sum of alpha 1-M and alpha 2-AP labelling in inflammatory serum. ..
  29. Wei P, Zhao Y, Zhuang L, Ruben S, Sang Q. Expression and enzymatic activity of human disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM19/meltrin beta. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;280:744-55 pubmed
    ..It did not cleave the MMP substrates tested, e.g., type I collagen and gelatin, casein, and four peptide substrates. Thus, hADAM19 is an active metalloproteinase and may have a specific substrate profile. ..
  30. Lindner I, Hemdan N, Buchold M, Huse K, Bigl M, Oerlecke I, et al. Alpha2-macroglobulin inhibits the malignant properties of astrocytoma cells by impeding beta-catenin signaling. Cancer Res. 2010;70:277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, LRP1 antibodies could phenocopy the effects of A2M*. Our findings suggest a pathway of tumor suppression in astrocytoma that might be tractable to therapeutic exploitation...
  31. Kanoh Y, Ohtani H, Egawa S, Baba S, Akahoshi T. Clinicopathological characteristics of androgen-dependent advanced prostate cancer patients with α2-macroglobulin deficiency. Int J Oncol. 2012;41:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that α2M deficiency develops from catabolism of α2M in androgen-dependent advanced PCa patients, and serum α2M level may be an indicator of PCa disease progression in addition to PSA level. ..
  32. Misra U, Pizzo S. Activated ?2-macroglobulin binding to cell surface GRP78 induces T-loop phosphorylation of Akt1 by PDK1 in association with Raptor. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e88373 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus demonstrate that phosphorylating the T-loop Akt residue Thr(308) by PDK1 requires Raptor of the mTORC1 complex as a platform or scaffold protein. ..
  33. Wong S, Dessen A. Structure of a bacterial α2-macroglobulin reveals mimicry of eukaryotic innate immunity. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4917 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that bacteria have developed a rudimentary innate immune system whose mechanism mimics that of eukaryotes. ..
  34. Rodríguez Calvo R, Ferrán B, Alonso J, Martí Pàmies I, Aguiló S, Calvayrac O, et al. NR4A receptors up-regulate the antiproteinase alpha-2 macroglobulin (A2M) and modulate MMP-2 and MMP-9 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Thromb Haemost. 2015;113:1323-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the pan-proteinase inhibitor A2M is expressed in the vasculature and that NR4A receptors modulate VSMC MMP activity by several mechanisms including the up-regulation of A2M. ..
  35. Feng J, Lu Y, Li J, Qi Y, Yi M, Ma D. Upregulation of salivary α2 macroglobulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:2268-74 pubmed publisher
    ..12, P = 0.199). The expression of salivary α2-MG showed a remarkable increase in T2DM patients, which may be associated with functional disorders of the salivary gland. ..
  36. Qian J, Ren C, Xia J, Chen T, Yu Z, Hu C. Discovery, structural characterization and functional analysis of alpha-2-macroglobulin, a novel immune-related molecule from Holothuria atra. Gene. 2016;585:205-15 pubmed publisher
    ..8-fold) in the coelomic fluids of H. atra infected by V. alginolyticus. Our study, as a whole, supplied the evidences for HaA2M as an immune-relevant molecule and it might have multiple functions in the innate immune system of H. atra. ..
  37. Tvarijonaviciute A, Ceron J, de Torre C, Ljubić B, Holden S, Queau Y, et al. Obese dogs with and without obesity-related metabolic dysfunction - a proteomic approach. BMC Vet Res. 2016;12:211 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical significance of these changes remains to be defined. ..
  38. Varma V, Varma S, An Y, Hohman T, Seddighi S, Casanova R, et al. Alpha-2 macroglobulin in Alzheimer's disease: a marker of neuronal injury through the RCAN1 pathway. Mol Psychiatry. 2017;22:13-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively these novel findings suggest that A2M is associated with preclinical AD, reflects early neuronal injury in the disease course and may be responsive to tau phosphorylation in the brain through the RCAN1-calcineurin pathway. ..
  39. Mörsky P. Detection of lysozyme and alpha 2-macroglobulin--lysozyme complexes by immunoblotting. Clin Chim Acta. 1988;178:327-36 pubmed
    ..Neither did lysozyme bind to urinary proteins in five samples from patients with myeloic leukemias nor in 10 samples from myeloma patients with urinary excretion of a monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain...
  40. Virca G, Salvesen G, Travis J. Human neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G cleavage sites in the bait region of alpha 2-macroglobulin. Proposed structural limits of the bait region. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1983;364:1297-302 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that this area represents the outer limits of the "bait region" loop. ..
  41. Falkenberg C, Allhorn M, Thøgersen I, Valnickova Z, Pizzo S, Salvesen G, et al. alpha 1-Microglobulin destroys the proteinase inhibitory activity of alpha 1-inhibitor-3 by complex formation. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:4478-83 pubmed
  42. Valnickova Z, Thogersen I, Christensen S, Chu C, Pizzo S, Enghild J. Activated human plasma carboxypeptidase B is retained in the blood by binding to alpha2-macroglobulin and pregnancy zone protein. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:12937-43 pubmed
    ..The specific binding of plasma CPB to alpha-macroglobulins suggest that these proteins may function as a "shuttle" in vivo to modulate the clearance of plasma CPB from the circulatory system. ..
  43. Camelo D, Arboleda G, Yunis J, Pardo R, Arango G, Solano E, et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme and alpha-2-macroglobulin gene polymorphisms are not associated with Alzheimer's disease in Colombian patients. J Neurol Sci. 2004;218:47-51 pubmed
  44. Depboylu C, Lohmüller F, Du Y, Riemenschneider M, Kurz A, Gasser T, et al. Alpha2-macroglobulin, lipoprotein receptor-related protein and lipoprotein receptor-associated protein and the genetic risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2006;400:187-90 pubmed
    ..Although LRP as well as RAP seem to play an essential role in the metabolism of alpha2M and APOE, there is no increase in the genetic risk for AD in patients carrying the investigated polymorphisms. ..
  45. Barcelona P, Saragovi H. A Pro-Nerve Growth Factor (proNGF) and NGF Binding Protein, α2-Macroglobulin, Differentially Regulates p75 and TrkA Receptors and Is Relevant to Neurodegeneration Ex Vivo and In Vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:3396-408 pubmed publisher
    ..These three mechanisms are operative in vivo, and α2M causes neurodegeneration in a p75(NTR)- and proNGF-dependent manner. α2M could be exploited as a therapeutic target, or as a modifier of neurotrophin signals. ..
  46. Hou L, Xiu Y, Wang J, Liu X, Liu Y, Gu W, et al. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of Macrobrachium rosenbergii hemocytes during Spiroplasma eriocheiris infection. J Proteomics. 2016;136:112-22 pubmed publisher
    ..rosenbergii using an infection model. The results reported here can provide a significant step forward toward a more complete elucidation of the immune relationship between M. rosenbergii and the pathogen S. eriocheiris. ..
  47. Liu R, Wu W, Chen L, Chen H, Zhang S. Transcriptional expression profiles of the main proteinases and their regulators in coronary artery ectasia patients' mononuclear cells. Acta Cardiol. 2016;71:157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..PBMCs might participate in the pathological process of CAE by the increased expression of MMP1, MMP9, IL1A, IFN? and GDF15. ..
  48. Li J, Liu X, Xiang Y, Ding X, Wang T, Liu Y, et al. Alpha-2-macroglobulin and heparin cofactor II and the vulnerability of carotid atherosclerotic plaques: An iTRAQ-based analysis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;483:964-971 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide potential new targets for the research of carotid plaque vulnerability. Plasma ?2M and HCII may be potential biomarkers for evaluation of the vulnerability of carotid plaques if further studied. ..
  49. Murata A, Ogawa M, Fujimoto K, Kitahara T, Matsuda Y, Kosaki G. Radioimmunoassay of human pancreatic elastase 1. In vitro interaction of human pancreatic elastase 1 with serum protease inhibitors. Enzyme. 1983;30:29-37 pubmed
    ..Its concentration was significantly increased in patients with acute pancreatitis, and although its concentration varied widely in patients with pancreatic cancer, its average concentration in these patients was significantly elevated. ..
  50. Arai Y, Hosoda F, Kobayashi H, Arai K, Hayashi Y, Kamada N, et al. The inv(11)(p15q22) chromosome translocation of de novo and therapy-related myeloid malignancies results in fusion of the nucleoporin gene, NUP98, with the putative RNA helicase gene, DDX10. Blood. 1997;89:3936-44 pubmed
    ..The predicted NUP98-DDX10 fusion protein may promote leukemogenesis through aberrant nucleoplasmic transport of mRNA or alterations in ribosome assembly. ..
  51. Dolmer K, Huang W, Gettins P. NMR solution structure of complement-like repeat CR3 from the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. Evidence for specific binding to the receptor binding domain of human alpha(2)-macroglobulin. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:3264-9 pubmed
    ..This specific interaction is consistent with a mode of LRP binding to ligands that uses contributions from more than one domain to generate a wide array of different binding sites, each with overall high affinity. ..
  52. Janka Z, Juhász A, Rimanóczy A, Boda K, Marki Zay J, Palotás M, et al. Alpha2-macroglobulin exon 24 (Val-1000-Ile) polymorphism is not associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's dementia in the Hungarian population. Psychiatr Genet. 2002;12:49-54 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that, although A2M has an important role in the AD-specific neurodegenerative process, its exon 24 Val-1000-Ile polymorphism is not likely to be associated with late-onset sporadic AD in the Hungarian population. ..
  53. Rugsarash W, Tungtrongchitr R, Petmitr S, Phonrat B, Pongpaew P, Harnroongroj T, et al. The genetic association between alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) gene deletion polymorphism and low serum A2M concentration in overweight/obese Thais. Nutr Neurosci. 2006;9:93-8 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to investigate other A2M genes located on chromosome 12 to prove A2M gene polymorphism's association with low serum A2M and aging. ..
  54. Mocchegiani E, Malavolta M. Zinc dyshomeostasis, ageing and neurodegeneration: implications of A2M and inflammatory gene polymorphisms. J Alzheimers Dis. 2007;12:101-9 pubmed
    ..The role played by MT and A2M is reported in ageing and Alzheimer's disease and on some polymorphisms of A2M and inflammatory genes (cytokines and their receptors) because some of them may be affected by zinc, via MT homeostasis. ..
  55. Mantuano E, Mukandala G, Li X, Campana W, Gonias S. Molecular dissection of the human alpha2-macroglobulin subunit reveals domains with antagonistic activities in cell signaling. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:19904-11 pubmed publisher
  56. Wyatt A, Constantinescu P, Ecroyd H, Dobson C, Wilson M, Kumita J, et al. Protease-activated alpha-2-macroglobulin can inhibit amyloid formation via two distinct mechanisms. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:398-403 pubmed publisher
  57. Wyatt A, Kumita J, Mifsud R, Gooden C, Wilson M, Dobson C. Hypochlorite-induced structural modifications enhance the chaperone activity of human ?2-macroglobulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E2081-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the conclusion that ?2M is a specialized chaperone that prevents the extracellular accumulation of misfolded and potentially pathogenic proteins, particularly during innate immune system activity. ..
  58. Zhao K, Murray E, Murray S. Fibroblastic synoviocytes secrete plasma proteins via α2 -macroglobulins serving as intracellular and extracellular chaperones. J Cell Biochem. 2015;116:2563-76 pubmed publisher
  59. Staubli S, Oertli D, Nebiker C. Laboratory markers predicting severity of acute pancreatitis. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 2015;52:273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite these difficulties, research is still very active in finding new markers to predict the severity of AP. ..
  60. Lövgren K, Christensen K, Majewski W, Østrup O, Skov S, Wiinberg B. Acute Haemarthrosis in the Haemophilia A Rat Generates a Local and Systemic Proinflammatory Response. Thromb Haemost. 2017;117:2092-2104 pubmed publisher
  61. Marynen P, Devriendt K, Van den Berghe H, Cassiman J. A genetic polymorphism in a functional domain of human pregnancy zone protein: the bait region. Genomic structure of the bait domains of human pregnancy zone protein and alpha 2 macroglobulin. FEBS Lett. 1990;262:349-52 pubmed
    Genomic clones containing the exons coding for the bait domain of human pregnancy zone protein and alpha 2 macroglobulin were isolated and fragments containing the bait exons were sequenced...
  62. Hall P, Nelles L, Travis J, Roberts R. Proteolytic cleavage sites on alpha 2-macroglobulin resulting in proteinase binding are different for trypsin and Staphylococcus aureus V-8 proteinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1981;100:8-16 pubmed
  63. Kovacs D. alpha2-macroglobulin in late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Exp Gerontol. 2000;35:473-9 pubmed
    ..These data support an important role for A2M in AD etiopathology. ..
  64. Ambrus G, Gal P, Kojima M, Szilágyi K, Balczer J, Antal J, et al. Natural substrates and inhibitors of mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 and -2: a study on recombinant catalytic fragments. J Immunol. 2003;170:1374-82 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, relative rates of reaction with alpha-2-macroglobulin and C1-inhibitor suggest that alpha-2-macroglobulin may be a significant physiological inhibitor of MASP-1. ..
  65. Bian L, Yang J, Guo T, Duan Y, Qin W, Sun Y, et al. Association study of the A2M and LRP1 Genes with Alzheimer disease in the Han Chinese. Biol Psychiatry. 2005;58:731-7 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the CTCG haplotype of LRP1 may reduce the risk of late-onset AD, but A2M is not associated with this disease in the Han Chinese population. ..
  66. Wang X, Huang J, Feng M, Ju Z, Wang C, Yang G, et al. Regulatory mutations in the A2M gene are involved in the mastitis susceptibility in dairy cows. Anim Genet. 2014;45:28-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provided the molecular basis for A2M transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. A close relationship between regulatory mutations and mastitis susceptibility of cows also was established. ..
  67. Niu F, Zhao S, Xu C, Chen L, Ye L, Bi G, et al. Identification and functional analysis of differentially expressed genes related to metastatic osteosarcoma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15:10797-801 pubmed
    ..The response to hormone stimulus, MAPK signaling pathway and focal adhesion may play important roles in metastatic OS. ..
  68. Brasier A, Zhao Y, Wiktorowicz J, Spratt H, Nascimento E, Cordeiro M, et al. Molecular classification of outcomes from dengue virus -3 infections. J Clin Virol. 2015;64:97-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Early detection of intermediate outcomes of DENV-3 will speed clinical trials evaluating vaccines or drug interventions. ..
  69. Yazzie N, Salazar K, Castillo M. Identification, molecular characterization, and gene expression analysis of a CD109 molecule in the Hawaiian bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;44:342-55 pubmed publisher
  70. Wakle Prabagaran M, Lorca R, Ma X, Stamnes S, Amazu C, Hsiao J, et al. BKCa channel regulates calcium oscillations induced by alpha-2-macroglobulin in human myometrial smooth muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E2335-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that α2M* and LRP1 modulate the BKCachannel in human myometrium and that BKCaand its immunomodulatory interacting partners regulate Ca(2+)dynamics in hMSMCs during pregnancy. ..
  71. Suman S, Basak T, Gupta P, Mishra S, Kumar V, Sengupta S, et al. Quantitative proteomics revealed novel proteins associated with molecular subtypes of breast cancer. J Proteomics. 2016;148:183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, these proteins could have clinical importance for the diagnosis and prognosis purposes among molecular BC subtypes. ..
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