Gene Symbol: AKT2
Description: AKT serine/threonine kinase 2
Alias: HIHGHH, PKBB, PKBBETA, PRKBB, RAC-BETA, RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase, PKB beta, RAC-PK-beta, murine thymoma viral (v-akt) homolog-2, protein kinase Akt-2, protein kinase B beta, rac protein kinase beta, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2
Species: human
Products:     AKT2

Top Publications

  1. Rouette A, Parent S, Girouard J, Leblanc V, Asselin E. Cisplatin increases B-cell-lymphoma-2 expression via activation of protein kinase C and Akt2 in endometrial cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2012;130:1755-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells stably expressing shRNA for Akt isoforms revealed that Akt2 was involved in cisplatin-dependant increase in Bcl-2 and apoptosis...
  2. Heron Milhavet L, Franckhauser C, Rana V, Berthenet C, Fisher D, Hemmings B, et al. Only Akt1 is required for proliferation, while Akt2 promotes cell cycle exit through p21 binding. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:8267-80 pubmed
    ..RNA duplexes in nontransformed mammalian cells, we show that only Akt1 is essential for cell proliferation, while Akt2 promotes cell cycle exit...
  3. Zhu X, Guo Y, Yao S, Yan Q, Xue M, Hao T, et al. Synergy between Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) vIL-6 and HIV-1 Nef protein in promotion of angiogenesis and oncogenesis: role of the AKT signaling pathway. Oncogene. 2014;33:1986-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel findings also suggest that targeting the PI3K/AKT signal may be a potentially effective therapeutic approach in AIDS-KS patients. ..
  4. Lee M, Kim D, Lee J, Lee B, Lee S, Jung H, et al. Roles of AKT1 and AKT2 in non-small cell lung cancer cell survival, growth, and migration. Cancer Sci. 2011;102:1822-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the roles of AKT1 and AKT2 in NSCLC cells using RNAi...
  5. Ericson K, Gan C, Cheong I, Rago C, Samuels Y, Velculescu V, et al. Genetic inactivation of AKT1, AKT2, and PDPK1 in human colorectal cancer cells clarifies their roles in tumor growth regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2598-603 pubmed publisher
    ..To gain insight into the roles of members of this pathway in growth regulation, we inactivated AKT1, AKT2, or PDPK1 genes by targeted homologous recombination in human colon cancer cell lines...
  6. Shin S, Asano T, Yao Y, Zhang R, Claret F, Korc M, et al. Activator protein-1 has an essential role in pancreatic cancer cells and is regulated by a novel Akt-mediated mechanism. Mol Cancer Res. 2009;7:745-754 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings indicate that AP-1 has an important function in pancreatic cancer cells and provide evidence for a previously unknown Akt-mediated mechanism of c-Jun activation. ..
  7. Bouzakri K, Zachrisson A, Al Khalili L, Zhang B, Koistinen H, Krook A, et al. siRNA-based gene silencing reveals specialized roles of IRS-1/Akt2 and IRS-2/Akt1 in glucose and lipid metabolism in human skeletal muscle. Cell Metab. 2006;4:89-96 pubmed
    ..Gene silencing revealed specialized roles of insulin signaling cascades to metabolic endpoints. IRS-1 and Akt2 were required for myoblast differentiation and glucose metabolism, whereas IRS-2 and Akt1 were dispensable...
  8. Zhou G, Tucker D, Bae S, Bhatheja K, Birnbaum M, Field J. Opposing roles for Akt1 and Akt2 in Rac/Pak signaling and cell migration. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36443-53 pubmed
    The Akt/PKB isoforms have different roles in animals, with Akt2 primarily regulating metabolic signaling and Akt1 regulating growth and survival...
  9. Cheng G, Chan J, Wang Q, Zhang W, Sun C, Wang L. Twist transcriptionally up-regulates AKT2 in breast cancer cells leading to increased migration, invasion, and resistance to paclitaxel. Cancer Res. 2007;67:1979-87 pubmed
    ..Twist, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, and AKT2, a known proto-oncogene, were found to be elevated in the invasive cells compared with the parental...

More Information


  1. Yamamoto S, Tomita Y, Hoshida Y, Morooka T, Nagano H, Dono K, et al. Prognostic significance of activated Akt expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:2846-50 pubmed
    Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in tumorigenesis. Among the members of Akt family, Akt2 is associated with the development of human cancers...
  2. Xu X, Sakon M, Nagano H, Hiraoka N, Yamamoto H, Hayashi N, et al. Akt2 expression correlates with prognosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2004;11:25-32 pubmed
    ..its role in hepatocarcinogenesis, we immunohistochemically investigated the expression of Akt protein (Akt1 and Akt2) in tumor and non-tumor tissues from 56 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  3. Iliopoulos D, Polytarchou C, Hatziapostolou M, Kottakis F, Maroulakou I, Struhl K, et al. MicroRNAs differentially regulated by Akt isoforms control EMT and stem cell renewal in cancer cells. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra62 pubmed publisher
    ..We expressed each isoform individually in an Akt1(-/-)/Akt2(-/-)/Akt3(-/-) cell line...
  4. Moro L, Arbini A, Yao J, di Sant Agnese P, Marra E, Greco M. Mitochondrial DNA depletion in prostate epithelial cells promotes anoikis resistance and invasion through activation of PI3K/Akt2. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:571-83 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins through upregulation of p85 and p110 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) subunits, which results in Akt2 activation and phosphorylation of downstream substrates GSK3beta, c-Myc, MMP-9, Mdm2, and p53...
  5. Fraser M, Leung B, Yan X, Dan H, Cheng J, Tsang B. p53 is a determinant of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein/Akt-mediated chemoresistance in human ovarian cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2003;63:7081-8 pubmed
    ..Expression of a constitutively active Akt2 prevented CDDP-mediated down-regulation of Xiap and apoptosis in A2780s cells...
  6. Rychahou P, Kang J, Gulhati P, Doan H, Chen L, Xiao S, et al. Akt2 overexpression plays a critical role in the establishment of colorectal cancer metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20315-20 pubmed publisher
    ..for key regulators of colorectal cancer metastasis establishment, we have found that the serine/threonine kinase Akt2, a known proto-oncogene, is highly expressed in late-stage colorectal cancer and metastatic tumors...
  7. Peng F, Dhillon N, Callen S, Yao H, Bokhari S, Zhu X, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor protects neurons against gp120-mediated toxicity. J Neurovirol. 2008;14:62-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together these findings lead us to suggest that PDGF-BB could be considered as a therapeutic agent that can mitigate gp120-mediated neurotoxicity in HAD. ..
  8. Zhou F, Xue M, Qin D, Zhu X, Wang C, Zhu J, et al. HIV-1 Tat promotes Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) vIL-6-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis by regulating PI3K/PTEN/AKT/GSK-3? signaling pathway. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53145 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results provide the first evidence that Tat might contribute to KS pathogenesis by synergizing with vIL-6, and identify PI3K/AKT pathway as a potential therapeutic target in AIDS-related KS patients. ..
  9. Nookala A, Shah A, Noel R, Kumar A. HIV-1 Tat-mediated induction of CCL5 in astrocytes involves NF-?B, AP-1, C/EBP? and C/EBP? transcription factors and JAK, PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78855 pubmed publisher
    ..This was further confirmed at transcriptional level that AP-1, C/EBP? and C/EBP? were involved in CCL5 up-regulation. ..
  10. Staal S. Molecular cloning of the akt oncogene and its human homologues AKT1 and AKT2: amplification of AKT1 in a primary human gastric adenocarcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:5034-7 pubmed
    ..Two human homologues of the v-akt oncogene, AKT1 and AKT2, were cloned...
  11. Santi S, Lee H. The Akt isoforms are present at distinct subcellular locations. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C580-91 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Akt2 was colocalized with the mitochondria, while Akt3 was localized in both the nucleus and nuclear membrane...
  12. Foley N, Bray I, Tivnan A, Bryan K, Murphy D, Buckley P, et al. MicroRNA-184 inhibits neuroblastoma cell survival through targeting the serine/threonine kinase AKT2. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:83 pubmed publisher
    ..when over-expressed, and increased cell numbers when inhibited, we demonstrate direct targeting and degradation of AKT2, a major downstream effector of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, one of the most potent pro-..
  13. Tachado S, Li X, Swan K, Patel N, Koziel H. Constitutive activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway down-regulates TLR4-mediated tumor necrosis factor-alpha release in alveolar macrophages from asymptomatic HIV-positive persons in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33191-8 pubmed publisher
  14. Cheney L, Hou J, Morrison S, Pessin J, Steigbigel R. Nef inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes and contributes to insulin resistance in human immunodeficiency virus type I infection. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:1824-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified HIV Nef, which is detectable and antigenic in serum samples from HIV-infected people, as a novel contributor to the development of insulin resistance. ..
  15. Gangwani M, Noel R, Shah A, Rivera Amill V, Kumar A. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R (Vpr) induces CCL5 expression in astrocytes via PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways. J Neuroinflammation. 2013;10:136 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this effect was observed to be mediated by transcription factors NF-?B and AP-1 and involved the p38-MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathway. ..
  16. Cheng J, Ruggeri B, Klein W, Sonoda G, Altomare D, Watson D, et al. Amplification of AKT2 in human pancreatic cells and inhibition of AKT2 expression and tumorigenicity by antisense RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:3636-41 pubmed
    We previously demonstrated that the putative oncogene AKT2 is amplified and overexpressed in some human ovarian carcinomas...
  17. Arboleda M, Lyons J, Kabbinavar F, Bray M, Snow B, Ayala R, et al. Overexpression of AKT2/protein kinase Bbeta leads to up-regulation of beta1 integrins, increased invasion, and metastasis of human breast and ovarian cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2003;63:196-206 pubmed
    To determine how AKT2 might contribute to tumor cell progression, a full-length, wild-type, human AKT2/protein kinase B (PKB)beta cDNA was transfected into a panel of eight human breast and ovarian cancer cells...
  18. Liu X, Shah A, Gangwani M, Silverstein P, Fu M, Kumar A. HIV-1 Nef induces CCL5 production in astrocytes through p38-MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathway and utilizes NF-kB, CEBP and AP-1 transcription factors. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4450 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated that the PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK pathways, along with the transcription factors NF-?B, CEBP, and AP-1, are involved in Nef-induced CCL5 production in astrocytes. ..
  19. Borgatti P, Zauli G, Colamussi M, Gibellini D, Previati M, Cantley L, et al. Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein activates phosphatidylinositol 3- and Akt/PKB kinases in CD4+ T lymphoblastoid Jurkat cells. Eur J Immunol. 1997;27:2805-11 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the anti-apoptotic activity of low concentrations of Tat protein on Jurkat cells is mediated by a PI 3-kinase/Akt pathway. ..
  20. Virtakoivu R, Pellinen T, Rantala J, Perälä M, Ivaska J. Distinct roles of AKT isoforms in regulating ?1-integrin activity, migration, and invasion in prostate cancer. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3357-69 pubmed publisher
    AKT1 and AKT2 kinases have been shown to play opposite roles in breast cancer migration and invasion...
  21. Irie H, Pearline R, Grueneberg D, Hsia M, Ravichandran P, Kothari N, et al. Distinct roles of Akt1 and Akt2 in regulating cell migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:1023-34 pubmed
    ..receptor (IGF-IR) hyperstimulation induced hyperproliferation and antiapoptotic activities that were reversed by Akt2 down-regulation...
  22. Santi S, Lee H. Ablation of Akt2 induces autophagy through cell cycle arrest, the downregulation of p70S6K, and the deregulation of mitochondria in MDA-MB231 cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e14614 pubmed publisher
    ..By systematically studying Akt-ablated MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells with isoform-specific siRNA, we here show that Akt2 is the most relevant isoform to cell proliferation and survival in our cancer model...
  23. Cheng J, Godwin A, Bellacosa A, Taguchi T, Franke T, Hamilton T, et al. AKT2, a putative oncogene encoding a member of a subfamily of protein-serine/threonine kinases, is amplified in human ovarian carcinomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:9267-71 pubmed
    We isolated cDNA clones containing the entire coding region of the putative oncogene AKT2. Sequence analysis and in vitro translation demonstrated that AKT2 encodes a 56-kDa protein with homology to serine/threonine kinases; moreover, ..
  24. Weng D, Song X, Xing H, Ma X, Xia X, Weng Y, et al. Implication of the Akt2/survivin pathway as a critical target in paclitaxel treatment in human ovarian cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2009;273:257-65 pubmed publisher
    ..have been implicated in paclitaxel (PTX)-induced resistance in ovarian cancer, recent evidence has suggested that Akt2 has an important role in the protection of cells from paclitaxel-induced apoptosis...
  25. Altomare D, Tanno S, De Rienzo A, Klein Szanto A, Tanno S, Skele K, et al. Frequent activation of AKT2 kinase in human pancreatic carcinomas. J Cell Biochem. 2002;87:470-6 pubmed
    ..We previously demonstrated amplification and overexpression of the AKT2 gene in a subset of human pancreatic carcinomas...
  26. Chugh P, Fan S, Planelles V, Maggirwar S, Dewhurst S, Kim B. Infection of human immunodeficiency virus and intracellular viral Tat protein exert a pro-survival effect in a human microglial cell line. J Mol Biol. 2007;366:67-81 pubmed
    ..We propose that the expression of Tat may enable HIV-1 infected microglia to survive throughout the course of infection, leading to persistent HIV-1 production and infection in the central nervous system. ..
  27. Chen X, Cheng L, Jia X, Zeng Y, Yao S, Lv Z, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat accelerates Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus Kaposin A-mediated tumorigenesis of transformed fibroblasts in vitro as well as in nude and immunocompetent mice. Neoplasia. 2009;11:1272-84 pubmed
  28. Zhu X, Zhou F, Qin D, Zeng Y, Lv Z, Yao S, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induces lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: role of Ras/c-Raf/MEK1/2, PI3K/AKT, and NF-?B signaling pathways. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:1035-51 pubmed publisher
  29. Hellyer N, Kim M, Koland J. Heregulin-dependent activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt via the ErbB2/ErbB3 co-receptor. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:42153-61 pubmed
    ..Recruitment of PI 3-kinase to ErbB3 was required for both activities, and it appeared that ErbB2 activation alone was not sufficient to activate PI 3-kinase signaling in these cells. ..
  30. Deregibus M, Cantaluppi V, Doublier S, Brizzi M, Deambrosis I, Albini A, et al. HIV-1-Tat protein activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ AKT-dependent survival pathways in Kaposi's sarcoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:25195-202 pubmed
  31. Figueroa C, Tarras S, Taylor J, Vojtek A. Akt2 negatively regulates assembly of the POSH-MLK-JNK signaling complex. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:47922-7 pubmed
    We demonstrate that POSH, a scaffold for the JNK signaling pathway, binds to Akt2. A POSH mutant that is unable to bind Akt2 (POSH W489A) exhibits enhanced-binding to MLK3, and this increase in binding is accompanied by increased ..
  32. Dietrich M, Zuellig R, Spinas G, Lehmann R, Tschopp O, Niessen M. Specific and redundant roles of PKBα/AKT1 and PKBβ/AKT2 in human pancreatic islets. Exp Cell Res. 2015;338:82-8 pubmed publisher
    Protein kinase Bα (PKBα)/AKT1 and PKBβ/AKT2 are required for normal peripheral insulin action but their role in pancreatic β cells remains enigmatic as indicated by the relatively mild islet phenotype of mice with deficiency for ..
  33. Chen Q, Jiao D, Zhu Y, Hu H, Wang J, Tang X, et al. Identification of carcinogenic potential-associated molecular mechanisms in CD133(+) A549 cells based on microRNA profiles. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:521-30 pubmed publisher
    ..g., AKT1, AKT2, PIK3CB, PIK3CG, PIK3R1, PIK3CA, and PIK3CD) were involved, as well as some ceRNAs...
  34. Shin J, Maeng H, Hong S, Moon J, Kim J, Suh Y, et al. Iris Nertschinskia ethanol extract differentially induces cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells depending on AKT1/2 activity. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:6511-6 pubmed
    ..Knockdown of endogenous AKT1 or AKT2 in breast cancer cells by RNA interference determined the sensitivity to I...
  35. Stottrup C, Tsang T, Chin Y. Upregulation of AKT3 Confers Resistance to the AKT Inhibitor MK2206 in Breast Cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2016;15:1964-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, knockdown of AKT3, but not AKT1 or AKT2, in resistant cells restores sensitivity to MK2206...
  36. Wang G, Kang C, Pu P. Increased expression of Akt2 and activity of PI3K and cell proliferation with the ascending of tumor grade of human gliomas. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2010;112:324-7 pubmed publisher
    To study the expression of Akt2 and activation of PI3K in different grades of human gliomas and correlate the Akt2 expression with the proliferation activity of gliomas...
  37. Ding J, Du K. ClipR-59 interacts with Akt and regulates Akt cellular compartmentalization. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1459-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that ClipR-59 functions as a scaffold protein that interacts with phospho-Akt and recruits active Akt on the membrane and may play an important role in adipocyte glucose transport. ..
  38. Kapasi A, Fan S, Singhal P. Role of 14-3-3epsilon, c-Myc/Max, and Akt phosphorylation in HIV-1 gp 120-induced mesangial cell proliferation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001;280:F333-42 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that HIV-1 gp 120 induces alterations in conflicting survival signaling pathways that contribute to the potential dual effects of gp 120 in promoting or inhibiting HMC proliferation...
  39. Makker A, Goel M, Mahdi A, Bhatia V, Das V, Agarwal A, et al. PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling & its regulator tumour suppressor genes PTEN & LKB1 in human uterine leiomyomas. Indian J Med Res. 2016;143:S112-S119 pubmed publisher
    ..Real time PCR (qPCR) was used to quantify relative gene expression levels of PTEN, Akt1, Akt2, mTOR, LKB1 and VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A) in leiomyoma as compared to adjacent normal myometrium...
  40. Baer K, Lisinski I, Gompert M, Stuhlmann D, Schmolz K, Klein H, et al. Activation of a GST-tagged AKT2/PKBbeta. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1725:340-7 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we have expressed and purified dimeric GST-fusion proteins of human protein kinase AKT2 (DeltaPH-AKT2) in milligram quantities via the baculovirus expression system...
  41. Kerr B, West X, Kim Y, Zhao Y, Tischenko M, Cull R, et al. Stability and function of adult vasculature is sustained by Akt/Jagged1 signalling axis in endothelium. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10960 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, sustained endothelial Akt1/2 signalling is critical in maintaining vascular stability and homeostasis, thereby preserving tissue and organ function. ..
  42. Zhang D, Piao H, Li Y, Qiu Q, Li D, Du M, et al. Inhibition of AKT sensitizes chemoresistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin by abrogating S and G2/M arrest. Exp Mol Pathol. 2016;100:506-13 pubmed publisher
    ..responses of the chemoresistant cells to cisplatin were attenuated with forced expression of constitutive active AKT2. Chk1 knock-down also facilitated cisplatin-induced apoptosis in chemoresistant cells...
  43. Patitucci C, Couchy G, Bagattin A, Cañeque T, de Reynies A, Scoazec J, et al. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1? suppresses steatosis-associated liver cancer by inhibiting PPAR? transcription. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:1873-1888 pubmed publisher
    ..factor PPAR? promotes metabolic adaptations of lipogenesis and aerobic glycolysis under the control of Akt2 activity, but the role of PPAR? in liver tumorigenesis is unknown...
  44. Zheng B, Geng L, Zeng L, Liu F, Huang Q. AKT2 contributes to increase ovarian cancer cell migration and invasion through the AKT2-PKM2-STAT3/NF-κB axis. Cell Signal. 2018;45:122-131 pubmed publisher
    Multiple studies have shown that protein kinase Bβ (AKT2) is involved in the development and progression of ovarian cancer, however, its precise role remains unclear...
  45. Villegas Comonfort S, Castillo Sanchez R, Serna Marquez N, Cortes Reynosa P, Salazar E. Arachidonic acid promotes migration and invasion through a PI3K/Akt-dependent pathway in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2014;90:169-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that AA induces Akt2 activation and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells...
  46. Sun X, Luo Y, An L, Chu L, Huo L, Han X, et al. Contribution of the Akt2 gene to type 2 diabetes in the Chinese Han population. Chin Med J (Engl). 2011;124:725-8 pubmed
    The Akt2 protein kinase is thought to be a key mediator of the insulin signal transduction process. Akt2 is suggested to play a role in glucose metabolism and the development or maintenance of proper adipose tissue and islet mass...
  47. Caccuri F, Giagulli C, Reichelt J, Martorelli D, Marsico S, Bugatti A, et al. Simian immunodeficiency virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 matrix proteins specify different capabilities to modulate B cell growth. J Virol. 2014;88:5706-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Computational analysis suggests that the accumulation of mutations in the C-terminal region may have led to a further SIV MA adaptation to the human host. This finding in turn sheds light on the evolutionary trajectory of HIV-1. ..
  48. Politz O, Siegel F, Bärfacker L, Bömer U, Hägebarth A, Scott W, et al. BAY 1125976, a selective allosteric AKT1/2 inhibitor, exhibits high efficacy on AKT signaling-dependent tumor growth in mouse models. Int J Cancer. 2017;140:449-459 pubmed publisher
    ..vitro kinase activity assays, BAY 1125976 potently and selectively inhibited the activity of full-length AKT1 and AKT2 by binding into an allosteric binding pocket formed by kinase and PH domain...
  49. Kim Y, Hollenbaugh J, Kim D, Kim B. Novel PI3K/Akt inhibitors screened by the cytoprotective function of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21781 pubmed publisher
    ..Compound K inhibited Akt phosphorylation. This study supports that Tat-expressing CHME5 cells are an effective model system for screening novel PI3K/Akt inhibitors. ..
  50. Lohberger B, Leithner A, Stuendl N, Kaltenegger H, Kullich W, Steinecker Frohnwieser B. Diacerein retards cell growth of chondrosarcoma cells at the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint via cyclin B1/CDK1 and CDK2 downregulation. BMC Cancer. 2015;15:891 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, diacerein treatment increased the phosphorylation of p38α and p38β MAPKs, and Akt1, Akt2, and Akt 3 in SW-1353, whereas in Cal-78 the opposite effect has been demonstrated...
  51. Nechamen C, Thomas R, Dias J. APPL1, APPL2, Akt2 and FOXO1a interact with FSHR in a potential signaling complex. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;260-262:93-9 pubmed
    ..demonstrated to interact with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor (FSHR), including APPL1, 14-3-3tau and Akt2. To further define the repertoire of proteins involved in FSH-induced signal transduction, several signaling and ..
  52. Tokuda E, Fujita N, Oh hara T, Sato S, Kurata A, Katayama R, et al. Casein kinase 2-interacting protein-1, a novel Akt pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein, down-regulates PI3K/Akt signaling and suppresses tumor growth in vivo. Cancer Res. 2007;67:9666-76 pubmed
    ..CKIP-1 formed a complex with each Akt isoform (Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3) via its NH2 terminus...
  53. Fohlin H, Pérez Tenorio G, Fornander T, Skoog L, Nordenskjold B, Carstensen J, et al. Akt2 expression is associated with good long-term prognosis in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:1196-204 pubmed publisher
    ..of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 1 (Akt1) and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue 2 (Akt2) in oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) and oestrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer with long-term follow-up...
  54. Shin S, Wall B, Goydos J, Chen S. AKT2 is a downstream target of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (Grm1). Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2010;23:103-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We also detected strong activation of AKT in allograft tumors specifically AKT2 as the predominant isoform involved...
  55. Joel P, Smith J, Sturgill T, Fisher T, Blenis J, Lannigan D. pp90rsk1 regulates estrogen receptor-mediated transcription through phosphorylation of Ser-167. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:1978-84 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results strongly suggest that pp90rsk1 phosphorylates Ser-167 of the human ER in vivo and that Ser-167 aids in regulating the transcriptional activity of AF-1 in the ER. ..
  56. Koral K, Li H, Ganesh N, Birnbaum M, Hallows K, Erkan E. Akt recruits Dab2 to albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;307:F1380-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Endocytosis experiments utilizing Akt1- and Akt2-silencing RNA revealed that both Akt1 and Akt2 mediate albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells; ..
  57. Pham N, Tsao M, Cao P, Hedley D. Dissociation of gemcitabine sensitivity and protein kinase B signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma models. Pancreas. 2007;35:e16-26 pubmed
    ..PKB activity with wortmannin in BxPC-3, PK-1, and PK-8 cells and silencing RNA targeted to total PKB, rather than PKBbeta, in PANC-1 cells...
  58. Frías A, Lambies G, Viñas Castells R, Martínez Guillamon C, Dave N, García de Herreros A, et al. A Switch in Akt Isoforms Is Required for Notch-Induced Snail1 Expression and Protection from Cell Death. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;36:923-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Notch-induced switch in the Akt isoforms, whereby Akt1, the predominant isoform expressed in ECs, is decreased and Akt2 transcription is upregulated...
  59. Hill M, Feng J, Hemmings B. Identification of a plasma membrane Raft-associated PKB Ser473 kinase activity that is distinct from ILK and PDK1. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1251-5 pubmed
    ..In contrast to previous observations, however, ILK immunoprecipitates did not retain Ser473 kinase activity. Thus, we have identified a novel raft-associated PKB Ser473 kinase, implicating a role for lipid rafts in PKB signaling. ..
  60. Chin Y, Yuan X, Balk S, Toker A. PTEN-deficient tumors depend on AKT2 for maintenance and survival. Cancer Discov. 2014;4:942-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that AKT2 is exclusively required for PTEN-deficient prostate tumor spheroid maintenance, whereas AKT1 is dispensable...
  61. Saito S, Hoshi N, Zulkifli L, Widyastuti S, Goshima S, Dreyer I, et al. Identification of regions responsible for the function of the plant K+ channels KAT1 and AKT2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes. Channels (Austin). 2017;:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..K+ uptake defective Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain CY162, while another K+ channel, AKT2, does not...
  62. Tan K, Kimber W, Luan J, Soos M, Semple R, Wareham N, et al. Analysis of genetic variation in Akt2/PKB-beta in severe insulin resistance, lipodystrophy, type 2 diabetes, and related metabolic phenotypes. Diabetes. 2007;56:714-9 pubmed
    We previously reported a family in which a heterozygous missense mutation in Akt2 led to a dominantly inherited syndrome of insulin-resistant diabetes and partial lipodystrophy...
  63. Goto A, Dobashi Y, Tsubochi H, Maeda D, Ooi A. MicroRNAs associated with increased AKT gene number in human lung carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2016;56:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..expression profiles were examined in 3 groups of lung carcinomas that had been stratified by increases in AKT1 or AKT2 gene number...
  64. Miyashita T, Kawakami A, Tamai M, Izumi Y, Mingguo H, Tanaka F, et al. Akt is an endogenous inhibitor toward tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand-mediated apoptosis in rheumatoid synovial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;312:397-404 pubmed
  65. Peng J, Mo R, Ma J, Fan J. let-7b and let-7c are determinants of intrinsic chemoresistance in renal cell carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol. 2015;13:175 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot was used to detect the expression of Akt2 and caspase-7...
  66. Wang J, Wan W, Sun R, Liu Y, Sun X, Ma D, et al. Reduction of Akt2 expression inhibits chemotaxis signal transduction in human breast cancer cells. Cell Signal. 2008;20:1025-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In the research for its upstream regulator, we investigated the role of Akt2 in chemotaxis and metastasis of human breast cancer cells...
  67. Ling Q, Xie H, Li J, Liu J, Cao J, Yang F, et al. Donor Graft MicroRNAs: A Newly Identified Player in the Development of New-onset Diabetes After Liver Transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2017;17:255-264 pubmed publisher
    ..The predicted target genes (e.g. Irs2, Pik3r1, Akt2, and Gsk3b) were involved in glucose import and the insulin signaling pathway...
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