Akt

Summary

Gene Symbol: Akt
Description: AKT serine/threonine kinase 1
Alias: AKT, CWS6, PKB, PKB-ALPHA, PRKBA, RAC, RAC-ALPHA, RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase, AKT1m, PKB alpha, RAC-PK-alpha, protein kinase B alpha, proto-oncogene c-Akt, rac protein kinase alpha, serine-threonine protein kinase, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1, v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene-like protein 1
Species: human
Products:     Akt

Top Publications

  1. del Peso L, Gonzalez Garcia M, Page C, Herrera R, Nunez G. Interleukin-3-induced phosphorylation of BAD through the protein kinase Akt. Science. 1997;278:687-9 pubmed
    ..b>Akt, a survival-promoting serine-threonine protein kinase, was activated by IL-3 in a PI 3-kinase-dependent manner...
  2. Zhou B, Liao Y, Xia W, Zou Y, Spohn B, Hung M. HER-2/neu induces p53 ubiquitination via Akt-mediated MDM2 phosphorylation. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:973-82 pubmed
    ..In this study, we show that HER-2/neu-mediated resistance to DNA-damaging agents requires the activation of Akt, which enhances MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of p53...
  3. Lindhurst M, Sapp J, Teer J, Johnston J, Finn E, Peters K, et al. A mosaic activating mutation in AKT1 associated with the Proteus syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:611-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We then assayed activation of the AKT protein in affected tissues, using phosphorylation-specific antibodies on Western blots...
  4. He Y, Council S, Feng L, Chignell C. UVA-induced cell cycle progression is mediated by a disintegrin and metalloprotease/epidermal growth factor receptor/AKT/Cyclin D1 pathways in keratinocytes. Cancer Res. 2008;68:3752-8 pubmed publisher
    ..UVA irradiation also induced AKT activation; when cells were incubated with phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/AKT inhibitor or infected with dominant-..
  5. Mayeenuddin L, Yu Y, Kang Z, Helman L, Cao L. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor antibody induces rhabdomyosarcoma cell death via a process involving AKT and Bcl-x(L). Oncogene. 2010;29:6367-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The antibody sensitive cells had greater dependence on AKT for maintaining downstream signaling and the expression of a constitutively active AKT, which restored AKT-..
  6. Gao X, Zhang J. Spatiotemporal analysis of differential Akt regulation in plasma membrane microdomains. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4366-73 pubmed publisher
    As a central kinase in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway, Akt has been the subject of extensive research; yet, spatiotemporal regulation of Akt in different membrane microdomains remains largely unknown...
  7. Pietiläinen O, Paunio T, Loukola A, Tuulio Henriksson A, Kieseppä T, Thompson P, et al. Association of AKT1 with verbal learning, verbal memory, and regional cortical gray matter density in twins. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009;150B:683-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The established association of the same allelic variant of AKT1 with both cognitive and neuroanatomical aberrations could suggest that AKT1 exerts its effect on verbal learning and memory via neural networks involving prefrontal cortex. ..
  8. Cicenas J. The potential role of Akt phosphorylation in human cancers. Int J Biol Markers. 2008;23:1-9 pubmed
    b>Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) is a serine/threonine kinase which is implicated in mediating a variety of biological responses including cell growth, proliferation and survival...
  9. García Martínez J, Moran J, Clarke R, Gray A, Cosulich S, Chresta C, et al. Ku-0063794 is a specific inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Biochem J. 2009;421:29-42 pubmed publisher
    ..and promoting activation of AGC (protein kinase A/protein kinase G/protein kinase C) family kinases such as Akt (protein kinase B), S6K (p70 ribosomal S6 kinase) and SGK (serum and glucocorticoid protein kinase)...

More Information

Publications359 found, 100 shown here

  1. Palumbo T, Faucz F, Azevedo M, Xekouki P, Iliopoulos D, Stratakis C. Functional screen analysis reveals miR-26b and miR-128 as central regulators of pituitary somatomammotrophic tumor growth through activation of the PTEN-AKT pathway. Oncogene. 2013;32:1651-9 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that miR-128 through BMI1 direct binding on the PTEN promoter affected PTEN expression levels and AKT activity in the pituitary tumor cells...
  2. Warfel N, Niederst M, Stevens M, Brennan P, Frame M, Newton A. Mislocalization of the E3 ligase, ?-transducin repeat-containing protein 1 (?-TrCP1), in glioblastoma uncouples negative feedback between the pleckstrin homology domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1) and Akt. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:19777-88 pubmed publisher
    ..role in controlling the amplitude of growth factor signaling by directly dephosphorylating and thereby inactivating Akt. The cellular levels of PHLPP1 have recently been shown to be enhanced by its substrate, activated Akt, via ..
  3. Lacey J, Yang H, Gaudet M, Dunning A, Lissowska J, Sherman M, et al. Endometrial cancer and genetic variation in PTEN, PIK3CA, AKT1, MLH1, and MSH2 within a population-based case-control study. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;120:167-73 pubmed publisher
    ..39, 95% CI, 1.00-1.93). All haplotype global p-values were null. Common genetic variation in PTEN, PIK3CA, AKT1, MLH1, or MSH2 was not statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer. ..
  4. Endersby R, Zhu X, Hay N, Ellison D, Baker S. Nonredundant functions for Akt isoforms in astrocyte growth and gliomagenesis in an orthotopic transplantation model. Cancer Res. 2011;71:4106-16 pubmed publisher
    The AKT family, comprising three highly homologous kinases, is an essential mediator of the PTEN/PI3K pathway, which is deregulated in many human cancers...
  5. Qiu W, Leibowitz B, Zhang L, Yu J. Growth factors protect intestinal stem cells from radiation-induced apoptosis by suppressing PUMA through the PI3K/AKT/p53 axis. Oncogene. 2010;29:1622-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the suppression of PUMA through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/p53 axis in the intestinal stem cells as a novel molecular mechanism of growth factor-mediated intestinal ..
  6. Duan X, Xie P, Ma Y, Tang S. Omentin inhibits osteoblastic differentiation of calcifying vascular smooth muscle cells through the PI3K/Akt pathway. Amino Acids. 2011;41:1223-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, omentin selectively activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) downstream effector Akt. Moreover, inhibition of PI3K or Akt activation reversed the effects of omentin on ALP activity and the matrix ..
  7. Virtakoivu R, Pellinen T, Rantala J, Perälä M, Ivaska J. Distinct roles of AKT isoforms in regulating ?1-integrin activity, migration, and invasion in prostate cancer. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3357-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Validation experiments investigating all three AKT isoforms demonstrated that, unlike in breast cancer, both AKT1 and AKT2 function as negative regulators of cell ..
  8. Boehme K, Kulikov R, Blattner C. p53 stabilization in response to DNA damage requires Akt/PKB and DNA-PK. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7785-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Mdm2 at sites where phosphorylation is critical for p53 degradation and to the phosphorylation and activation of Akt/PKB, a kinase that phosphorylates and inhibits GSK-3...
  9. Manning B, Tee A, Logsdon M, Blenis J, Cantley L. Identification of the tuberous sclerosis complex-2 tumor suppressor gene product tuberin as a target of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/akt pathway. Mol Cell. 2002;10:151-62 pubmed
    ..This approach identifies the tuberous sclerosis complex-2 gene product, tuberin, as a potential target of Akt/PKB...
  10. Gutierrez A, Sanda T, Grebliunaite R, Carracedo A, Salmena L, Ahn Y, et al. High frequency of PTEN, PI3K, and AKT abnormalities in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2009;114:647-50 pubmed publisher
    To more comprehensively assess the pathogenic contribution of the PTEN-PI3K-AKT pathway to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), we examined diagnostic DNA samples from children with T-ALL using array comparative genomic ..
  11. Kim A, Khursigara G, Sun X, Franke T, Chao M. Akt phosphorylates and negatively regulates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:893-901 pubmed
    The Akt family of serine/threonine-directed kinases promotes cellular survival in part by phosphorylating and inhibiting death-inducing proteins...
  12. Capodanno A, Camerini A, Orlandini C, Baldini E, Resta M, Bevilacqua G, et al. Dysregulated PI3K/Akt/PTEN pathway is a marker of a short disease-free survival in node-negative breast carcinoma. Hum Pathol. 2009;40:1408-17 pubmed publisher
    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of several human cancers...
  13. Cross D, Alessi D, Cohen P, Andjelkovich M, Hemmings B. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin mediated by protein kinase B. Nature. 1995;378:785-9 pubmed
    ..GSK3 under these conditions, and we demonstrate that it is the product of the proto-oncogene protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt/RAC)...
  14. Park H, Kim M, Huh S, Park J, Chung J, Kang S, et al. Akt (protein kinase B) negatively regulates SEK1 by means of protein phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:2573-8 pubmed
    The protein serine-threonine kinase Akt mediates cell survival signaling initiated by various growth-promoting factors such as insulin. Here we report that SEK1 is a target of Akt in intact cells...
  15. Tian Q, Feetham M, Tao W, He X, Li L, Aebersold R, et al. Proteomic analysis identifies that 14-3-3zeta interacts with beta-catenin and facilitates its activation by Akt. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:15370-5 pubmed
    ..More importantly, 14-3-3zeta facilitates activation of beta-catenin by the survival kinase Akt and colocalizes with activated Akt in intestinal stem cells...
  16. Dey Guha I, Wolfer A, Yeh A, G Albeck J, Darp R, Leon E, et al. Asymmetric cancer cell division regulated by AKT. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12845-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Asymmetric cancer cell division results from asymmetric suppression of AKT/PKB kinase signaling in one daughter cell during telophase of mitosis...
  17. Meng Q, Xia C, Fang J, Rojanasakul Y, Jiang B. Role of PI3K and AKT specific isoforms in ovarian cancer cell migration, invasion and proliferation through the p70S6K1 pathway. Cell Signal. 2006;18:2262-71 pubmed
    ..PI3K transmits the mytogenic signal through AKT. AKT has three isoforms in the cells: AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3...
  18. Viglietto G, Motti M, Bruni P, Melillo R, D Alessio A, Califano D, et al. Cytoplasmic relocalization and inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) by PKB/Akt-mediated phosphorylation in breast cancer. Nat Med. 2002;8:1136-44 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the serine/threonine kinase Akt regulates cell proliferation in breast cancer cells by preventing p27(kip1)-mediated growth arrest...
  19. Altiok S, Batt D, Altiok N, Papautsky A, Downward J, Roberts T, et al. Heregulin induces phosphorylation of BRCA1 through phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/AKT in breast cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:32274-8 pubmed
    ..stimulation induced the phosphorylation of BRCA1 and concomitant activation of the serine/threonine kinase AKT in T47D human breast cancer cells...
  20. Cozzone D, Fröjdö S, Disse E, Debard C, Laville M, Pirola L, et al. Isoform-specific defects of insulin stimulation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) in skeletal muscle cells from type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 2008;51:512-21 pubmed publisher
    The serine/threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) is required for the metabolic actions of insulin. Controversial data have been reported regarding Akt defective activation in the muscle of type 2 diabetic patients...
  21. Campbell R, Bhat Nakshatri P, Patel N, Constantinidou D, Ali S, Nakshatri H. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT-mediated activation of estrogen receptor alpha: a new model for anti-estrogen resistance. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:9817-24 pubmed
    ..Here we show that phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and AKT activate ERalpha in the absence of estrogen...
  22. Qi X, Wildey G, Howe P. Evidence that Ser87 of BimEL is phosphorylated by Akt and regulates BimEL apoptotic function. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:813-23 pubmed
    ..The appearance of multiple, phosphorylated species of Bim(EL) correlated with Akt, and not ERK, activation...
  23. Ouyang W, Luo W, Zhang D, Jian J, Ma Q, Li J, et al. PI-3K/Akt pathway-dependent cyclin D1 expression is responsible for arsenite-induced human keratinocyte transformation. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term exposure of arsenite leads to human skin cancer. However, the exact mechanisms of arsenite-induced human skin carcinogenesis remain to be defined...
  24. Chou M, Hou W, Johnson J, Graham L, Lee M, Chen C, et al. Regulation of protein kinase C zeta by PI 3-kinase and PDK-1. Curr Biol. 1998;8:1069-77 pubmed
    ..Ptdins-3,4,5-P3), phosphorylates and potently activates two other PI 3-kinase targets, the protein kinases Akt/PKB and p70S6K. We therefore investigated whether PDK-1 is the kinase that activates PKC zeta...
  25. Laine J, Künstle G, Obata T, Sha M, Noguchi M. The protooncogene TCL1 is an Akt kinase coactivator. Mol Cell. 2000;6:395-407 pubmed
    ..In yeast two-hybrid screening, we found that TCL1 interacts with Akt. All TCL1 isoforms bind to the Akt pleckstrin homology domain...
  26. Kim J, Chae Y, Sohn S, Kang B, Moon J, Lee S, et al. Clinical significance of genetic variations in the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway in Korean patients with colorectal cancer. Oncology. 2010;79:278-82 pubmed publisher
    Signaling through the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway is responsible for balancing cell survival and apoptosis...
  27. Chen J, Halappanavar S, St Germain J, Tsang B, Li Q. Role of Akt/protein kinase B in the activity of transcriptional coactivator p300. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004;61:1675-83 pubmed
    b>Akt/protein kinase B is a downstream target of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and plays a critical role in promotion of cell survival...
  28. Barthwal M, Sathyanarayana P, Kundu C, Rana B, Pradeep A, Sharma C, et al. Negative regulation of mixed lineage kinase 3 by protein kinase B/AKT leads to cell survival. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:3897-902 pubmed
    ..By contrast, the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and AKT/protein kinase B (PKB) acts to suppress neuronal apoptosis...
  29. Longo P, Laurenti L, Gobessi S, Sica S, Leone G, Efremov D. The Akt/Mcl-1 pathway plays a prominent role in mediating antiapoptotic signals downstream of the B-cell receptor in chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells. Blood. 2008;111:846-55 pubmed
    ..The antiapoptotic BCR signal has been associated with prolonged activation of the PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathways, which are key regulators of survival and proliferation in various cell types...
  30. Tan H, Nicodemus K, Chen Q, Li Z, Brooke J, Honea R, et al. Genetic variation in AKT1 is linked to dopamine-associated prefrontal cortical structure and function in humans. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2200-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data implicate AKT1 in modulating human prefrontal-striatal structure and function and suggest that the mechanism of this effect may be coupled to dopaminergic signaling and relevant to the expression of psychosis. ..
  31. Miller S, Lou D, Seldin D, Lane W, Neel B. Direct identification of PTEN phosphorylation sites. FEBS Lett. 2002;528:145-53 pubmed
    ..Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of CK2 activity leads to decreased Akt activation in PTEN+/+ but not PTEN-/- fibroblasts...
  32. Rane M, Coxon P, Powell D, Webster R, Klein J, Pierce W, et al. p38 Kinase-dependent MAPKAPK-2 activation functions as 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-2 for Akt in human neutrophils. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:3517-23 pubmed
    b>Akt activation requires phosphorylation of Thr(308) and Ser(473) by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 and 2 (PDK1 and PDK2), respectively. While PDK1 has been cloned and sequenced, PDK2 has yet to be identified...
  33. Liao Y, Grobholz R, Abel U, Trojan L, Michel M, Angel P, et al. Increase of AKT/PKB expression correlates with gleason pattern in human prostate cancer. Int J Cancer. 2003;107:676-80 pubmed
    b>AKT/PKB is a central signaling molecule related to stimulation of cell proliferation and inhibition of apoptosis. Perturbations of AKT expression and function play an important role in tumor development and progression...
  34. Vandermoere F, El Yazidi Belkoura I, Adriaenssens E, Lemoine J, Hondermarck H. The antiapoptotic effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 is mediated through nuclear factor-kappaB activation induced via interaction between Akt and IkappaB kinase-beta in breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2005;24:5482-91 pubmed
    ..IkappaBm, p110(PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase))*DeltaK, AktND) or small interfering RNA targeted against Akt indicated that PI3K/Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), but not p42/p44 MAP-kinases, were required to ..
  35. Gallay N, Dos Santos C, Cuzin L, Bousquet M, Simmonet Gouy V, Chaussade C, et al. The level of AKT phosphorylation on threonine 308 but not on serine 473 is associated with high-risk cytogenetics and predicts poor overall survival in acute myeloid leukaemia. Leukemia. 2009;23:1029-38 pubmed publisher
    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway is an important signalling pathway governing cell survival and proliferation in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)...
  36. Zampetaki A, Zeng L, Margariti A, Xiao Q, Li H, Zhang Z, et al. Histone deacetylase 3 is critical in endothelial survival and atherosclerosis development in response to disturbed flow. Circulation. 2010;121:132-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that HDAC3 and Akt form a complex...
  37. Irie H, Pearline R, Grueneberg D, Hsia M, Ravichandran P, Kothari N, et al. Distinct roles of Akt1 and Akt2 in regulating cell migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:1023-34 pubmed
    The Akt family of kinases are activated by growth factors and regulate pleiotropic cellular activities...
  38. Wen W, Ding J, Sun W, Fu J, Chen Y, Wu K, et al. Cyclin G1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling facilitates liver cancer progression. Hepatology. 2012;55:1787-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Cyclin G1 overexpression enhanced Akt activation through interaction with p85 (regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase [PI3K]), which led to ..
  39. Norton N, Williams H, Dwyer S, Carroll L, Peirce T, Moskvina V, et al. Association analysis of AKT1 and schizophrenia in a UK case control sample. Schizophr Res. 2007;93:58-65 pubmed
    AKT1 (V-akt murine thyoma viral oncogene homolog 1) is involved in intracellular signalling pathways postulated as of aetiological importance in schizophrenia...
  40. Zhu X, Zhou F, Qin D, Zeng Y, Lv Z, Yao S, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induces lytic cycle replication of Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus: role of Ras/c-Raf/MEK1/2, PI3K/AKT, and NF-?B signaling pathways. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:1035-51 pubmed publisher
    ..cellular signaling proteins and found that HIV-1 infection of BCBL-1 cells activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT (also called protein kinase B, PKB) pathway and inactivated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ..
  41. Debnath J, Walker S, Brugge J. Akt activation disrupts mammary acinar architecture and enhances proliferation in an mTOR-dependent manner. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:315-26 pubmed
    Activation of the serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB positively impacts on three cellular processes relevant to tumor progression: proliferation, survival, and cell size/growth...
  42. Cinar B, Fang P, Lutchman M, Di Vizio D, Adam R, Pavlova N, et al. The pro-apoptotic kinase Mst1 and its caspase cleavage products are direct inhibitors of Akt1. EMBO J. 2007;26:4523-34 pubmed
    b>Akt kinases mediate cell growth and survival. Here, we report that a pro-apoptotic kinase, Mst1/STK4, is a physiological Akt1 interaction partner...
  43. Thiselton D, Vladimirov V, Kuo P, McClay J, Wormley B, Fanous A, et al. AKT1 is associated with schizophrenia across multiple symptom dimensions in the Irish study of high density schizophrenia families. Biol Psychiatry. 2008;63:449-57 pubmed
    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signal transduction pathway is critical to cell growth and survival...
  44. Cheng C, Huang C. Activation of PI3-kinase stimulates endocytosis of ROMK via Akt1/SGK1-dependent phosphorylation of WNK1. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:460-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that PI3K-activating hormones inhibit ROMK by enhancing its endocytosis via a mechanism that involves phosphorylation of WNK1 by Akt1 and SGK1. ..
  45. Pei Y, Zhu P, Dang Y, Wu J, Yang X, Wan B, et al. Nuclear export of NF90 to stabilize IL-2 mRNA is mediated by AKT-dependent phosphorylation at Ser647 in response to CD28 costimulation. J Immunol. 2008;180:222-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that AKT phosphorylates NF90 on Ser647 upon CD28 costimulation...
  46. Tokunaga E, Oki E, Kimura Y, Yamanaka T, Egashira A, Nishida K, et al. Coexistence of the loss of heterozygosity at the PTEN locus and HER2 overexpression enhances the Akt activity thus leading to a negative progesterone receptor expression in breast carcinoma. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007;101:249-57 pubmed
    Serine/threonine kinase Akt/PKB is known to regulate divergent cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism...
  47. Frost P, Shi Y, Hoang B, Lichtenstein A. AKT activity regulates the ability of mTOR inhibitors to prevent angiogenesis and VEGF expression in multiple myeloma cells. Oncogene. 2007;26:2255-62 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, myeloma tumors with heightened AKT activation were particularly sensitive to a CCI-779-induced antitumor response...
  48. Adam R, Mukhopadhyay N, Kim J, Di Vizio D, Cinar B, Boucher K, et al. Cholesterol sensitivity of endogenous and myristoylated Akt. Cancer Res. 2007;67:6238-46 pubmed
    The serine-threonine kinase, Akt, has been linked to cholesterol-sensitive signaling mechanisms, suggesting a possible means whereby cholesterol might affect tumor cell growth and survival...
  49. Yin P, Zhao C, Li Z, Mei C, Yao W, Liu Y, et al. Sp1 is involved in regulation of cystathionine ?-lyase gene expression and biological function by PI3K/Akt pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Cell Signal. 2012;24:1229-40 pubmed publisher
    ..that cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) gene, catalyzed H(2)S production in trans-sulfuration pathway, was upregulated in Akt stably transformed mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, the mechanisms that elevated CSE expression by PI3K/Akt ..
  50. Stemke Hale K, Gonzalez Angulo A, Lluch A, Neve R, Kuo W, Davies M, et al. An integrative genomic and proteomic analysis of PIK3CA, PTEN, and AKT mutations in breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2008;68:6084-91 pubmed publisher
    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway aberrations are common in cancer...
  51. Han Z, Hong L, Han Y, Wu K, Han S, Shen H, et al. Phospho Akt mediates multidrug resistance of gastric cancer cells through regulation of P-gp, Bcl-2 and Bax. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2007;26:261-8 pubmed
    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway is an important intracellular pathway that is frequently activated in cancer cells...
  52. Yu J, Zhang S, Saito K, Williams S, Arimura Y, Ma Y, et al. PTEN regulation by Akt-EGR1-ARF-PTEN axis. EMBO J. 2009;28:21-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe a novel Akt-EGR1-alternate reading frame (ARF)-PTEN axis, in which PTEN activation in vivo requires p14ARF-mediated sumoylation ..
  53. Dunlap J, Le C, Shukla A, Patterson J, Presnell A, Heinrich M, et al. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and AKT1 mutations occur early in breast carcinoma. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;120:409-18 pubmed publisher
  54. Lauring J, Cosgrove D, Fontana S, Gustin J, Konishi H, Abukhdeir A, et al. Knock in of the AKT1 E17K mutation in human breast epithelial cells does not recapitulate oncogenic PIK3CA mutations. Oncogene. 2010;29:2337-45 pubmed publisher
  55. Dasari V, Kaur K, Velpula K, Gujrati M, Fassett D, Klopfenstein J, et al. Upregulation of PTEN in glioma cells by cord blood mesenchymal stem cells inhibits migration via downregulation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10350 pubmed publisher
    ..PTEN is a major negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway...
  56. Grille S, Bellacosa A, Upson J, Klein Szanto A, van Roy F, Lee Kwon W, et al. The protein kinase Akt induces epithelial mesenchymal transition and promotes enhanced motility and invasiveness of squamous cell carcinoma lines. Cancer Res. 2003;63:2172-8 pubmed
    ..Squamous cell carcinoma lines engineered to express constitutively active Akt underwent EMT, characterized by down-regulation of the epithelial markers desmoplakin, E-cadherin, and beta-catenin ..
  57. Chan T, Rittenhouse S, Tsichlis P. AKT/PKB and other D3 phosphoinositide-regulated kinases: kinase activation by phosphoinositide-dependent phosphorylation. Annu Rev Biochem. 1999;68:965-1014 pubmed
    The protein kinase Akt/PKB is activated via a multistep process by a variety of signals...
  58. Liao Y, Hung M. Regulation of the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase by Akt in cancer and adenoviral protein E1A-mediated sensitization to apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6836-48 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that E1A-mediated sensitization to apoptosis by the inactivation of a key survival factor Akt and the activation of a pro-apoptotic factor p38...
  59. Lal M, Bae D, Camilli T, Patierno S, Ceryak S. AKT1 mediates bypass of the G1/S checkpoint after genotoxic stress in normal human cells. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:1589-602 pubmed
    ..The potential for Akt to bypass G(1)/S checkpoint arrest in the face of genotoxic damage could increase genomic instability, which is a ..
  60. Troxell M, Levine J, Beadling C, Warrick A, Dunlap J, Presnell A, et al. High prevalence of PIK3CA/AKT pathway mutations in papillary neoplasms of the breast. Mod Pathol. 2010;23:27-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that approximately two-thirds of papillomas are driven by mutations in the PI3CA/AKT pathway. Some papillary carcinomas may arise from these lesions, but others may have different molecular origins.
  61. Jang S, Yang S, Srinivasan S, Ye K. Akt phosphorylates MstI and prevents its proteolytic activation, blocking FOXO3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30836-44 pubmed
    ..MstI kinase activation requires autophosphorylation and proteolytic degradation by caspases. The role of Akt in regulating MstI activity has not been previously examined...
  62. Huynh N, Liu K, Baldwin G, He H. P21-activated kinase 1 stimulates colon cancer cell growth and migration/invasion via ERK- and AKT-dependent pathways. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:1106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..transformation through facilitating the ERK/MAPK pathway and enhances cell migration and survival by stimulating AKT. PAK1 expression increases with the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC)...
  63. Pelloski C, Lin E, Zhang L, Yung W, Colman H, Liu J, et al. Prognostic associations of activated mitogen-activated protein kinase and Akt pathways in glioblastoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:3935-41 pubmed
    Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and members of the Akt pathway have been shown to promote cell proliferation, survival, and resistance to radiation...
  64. Hellyer N, Kim M, Koland J. Heregulin-dependent activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt via the ErbB2/ErbB3 co-receptor. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:42153-61 pubmed
    ..The necessity of ErbB3 association with PI 3-kinase for downstream signaling to the effector kinase Akt was also investigated...
  65. Badve S, Collins N, Bhat Nakshatri P, Turbin D, Leung S, Thorat M, et al. Subcellular localization of activated AKT in estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-expressing breast cancers: potential clinical implications. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:2139-49 pubmed publisher
    Activated v-AKT murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT)/protein kinase B (PKB) kinase (pAKT) is localized to the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and/or nucleus in 50% of cancers...
  66. Luo M, Langlais P, Yi Z, Lefort N, De Filippis E, Hwang H, et al. Phosphorylation of human insulin receptor substrate-1 at Serine 629 plays a positive role in insulin signaling. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4895-905 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis surrounding Ser(629) revealed conformity to the consensus phosphorylation sequence recognized by Akt. Phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser(629) in cells was decreased upon treatment with either an Akt inhibitor or by ..
  67. Li X, Liu J, Gao T. beta-TrCP-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of PHLPP1 are negatively regulated by Akt. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:6192-205 pubmed publisher
    ..belongs to a novel family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases that serve as tumor suppressors by negatively regulating Akt signaling...
  68. Staal S. Molecular cloning of the akt oncogene and its human homologues AKT1 and AKT2: amplification of AKT1 in a primary human gastric adenocarcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:5034-7 pubmed
    ..virus genome contains both viral and nonviral, cell-related sequences; the nonviral sequence has been designated v-akt, the presumed viral oncogene of the AKT8 virus. This gene lacks homology to the 16 other oncogenes tested...
  69. Dan H, Cooper M, Cogswell P, Duncan J, Ting J, Baldwin A. Akt-dependent regulation of NF-{kappa}B is controlled by mTOR and Raptor in association with IKK. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1490-500 pubmed publisher
    ..A key oncoprotein in a variety of cancers is the serine-threonine kinase Akt, which can be activated by mutations in PI3K, by loss of expression/activity of PTEN, or through signaling induced ..
  70. Xu M, Xing Q, Zheng Y, Li S, Gao J, He G, et al. Association of AKT1 gene polymorphisms with risk of schizophrenia and with response to antipsychotics in the Chinese population. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68:1358-67 pubmed
    A number of studies have pointed to the involvement of AKT signaling pathways in the etiology of schizophrenia...
  71. Tokunaga E, Kimura Y, Oki E, Ueda N, Futatsugi M, Mashino K, et al. Akt is frequently activated in HER2/neu-positive breast cancers and associated with poor prognosis among hormone-treated patients. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:284-9 pubmed
    b>Akt/PKB is a serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in survival when cells are exposed to different apoptotic stimuli...
  72. Borgatti P, Zauli G, Colamussi M, Gibellini D, Previati M, Cantley L, et al. Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein activates phosphatidylinositol 3- and Akt/PKB kinases in CD4+ T lymphoblastoid Jurkat cells. Eur J Immunol. 1997;27:2805-11 pubmed
    ..Extracellular Tat also stimulated the catalytic activity of the Akt/PKB kinase, a major target of PI 3-K lipid products...
  73. Kops G, De Ruiter N, de Vries Smits A, Powell D, Bos J, Burgering B. Direct control of the Forkhead transcription factor AFX by protein kinase B. Nature. 1999;398:630-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, phosphorylation of AFX by protein kinase B inhibits its transcriptional activity. Together, these results delineate a pathway for PI(3)K-dependent signalling to the nucleus. ..
  74. Wang S, Basson M. Identification of functional domains in AKT responsible for distinct roles of AKT isoforms in pressure-stimulated cancer cell adhesion. Exp Cell Res. 2008;314:286-96 pubmed
    ..To identify the determinants of this AKT isoform specificity, we exchanged the pleckstrin homology (PH) domains and/or hinge regions of AKT1 and AKT2...
  75. Sugatani T, Hruska K. Akt1/Akt2 and mammalian target of rapamycin/Bim play critical roles in osteoclast differentiation and survival, respectively, whereas Akt is dispensable for cell survival in isolated osteoclast precursors. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3583-9 pubmed
    b>Akt, also known as protein kinase B, is a serine/threonine protein kinase with antiapoptotic activities; also, it is a downstream target of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase...
  76. Marchi S, Rimessi A, Giorgi C, Baldini C, Ferroni L, Rizzuto R, et al. Akt kinase reducing endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release protects cells from Ca2+-dependent apoptotic stimuli. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;375:501-5 pubmed publisher
    The proto-oncogene Akt is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis, and it is activated in many human cancers...
  77. Ericson K, Gan C, Cheong I, Rago C, Samuels Y, Velculescu V, et al. Genetic inactivation of AKT1, AKT2, and PDPK1 in human colorectal cancer cells clarifies their roles in tumor growth regulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2598-603 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that the PI3K signaling pathway is wired differently in human cancer cells than in other cell types or organisms, which has important implications for the design and testing of drugs that target this pathway. ..
  78. Benesch C, Schneider C, Voelker H, Kapp M, Caffier H, Krockenberger M, et al. The clinicopathological and prognostic relevance of pyruvate kinase M2 and pAkt expression in breast cancer. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:1689-94 pubmed
    Cancer cell growth has been described to depend on glucose utilization. Activation of Akt and up-regulation of pyruvate kinase M2 (M2-PK) are attributes of tumour glycolysis...
  79. Oussaief L, Hippocrate A, Ramirez V, Rampanou A, Zhang W, Meyers D, et al. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway targets acetylation of Smad3 through Smad3/CREB-binding protein interaction: contribution to transforming growth factor beta1-induced Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:23912-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that Akt, activated downstream from ERK 1/2, was required for TGF-beta1-induced ZEBRA expression and enabled Smad3, a ..
  80. Fabi A, Metro G, Di Benedetto A, Nistico C, Vici P, Melucci E, et al. Clinical significance of PTEN and p-Akt co-expression in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab-based therapies. Oncology. 2010;78:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..cells by antagonizing the function of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K), which, in turn, results in decreased Akt activity...
  81. Feng J, Park J, Cron P, Hess D, Hemmings B. Identification of a PKB/Akt hydrophobic motif Ser-473 kinase as DNA-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:41189-96 pubmed
    Full activation of protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt requires phosphorylation on Thr-308 and Ser-473 by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) and Ser-473 kinase (S473K), respectively...
  82. Ayala G, Thompson T, Yang G, Frolov A, Li R, Scardino P, et al. High levels of phosphorylated form of Akt-1 in prostate cancer and non-neoplastic prostate tissues are strong predictors of biochemical recurrence. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:6572-8 pubmed
    b>Akt is a serine-threonine-kinase that phosphorylates proteins in several pathways regulating aspects of metabolism, apoptosis, and proliferation...
  83. Thamilselvan V, Craig D, Basson M. FAK association with multiple signal proteins mediates pressure-induced colon cancer cell adhesion via a Src-dependent PI3K/Akt pathway. FASEB J. 2007;21:1730-41 pubmed
    ..PI 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin), Akt inhibitors, or Akt1 siRNA blocked adhesion stimulated by 15 mmHg pressure in SW620 or primary human malignant ..
  84. Park S, Kim S. Activated Akt signaling pathway in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: correlation with HER2 overexpression. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:139-43 pubmed
    Akt/PKB is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a crucial role in cell survival and apoptosis. Aberrant activation of pAkt is associated with various malignant human cancers, including breast carcinoma...
  85. De Santis G, Miotti S, Mazzi M, Canevari S, Tomassetti A. E-cadherin directly contributes to PI3K/AKT activation by engaging the PI3K-p85 regulatory subunit to adherens junctions of ovarian carcinoma cells. Oncogene. 2009;28:1206-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examined the potential role of cell-cell contacts in EOCs through E-cadh homophilic interactions in PI3K/AKT activation whose altered signaling has been implicated in EOC pathogenesis...
  86. Tibes R, Kornblau S, Qiu Y, Mousses S, Robbins C, Moses T, et al. PI3K/AKT pathway activation in acute myeloid leukaemias is not associated with AKT1 pleckstrin homology domain mutation. Br J Haematol. 2008;140:344-7 pubmed
    Despite its' central role, the precise mechanisms of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K)/Akt pathway activation in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) have not been elucidated...
  87. Ozes O, Mayo L, Gustin J, Pfeffer S, Pfeffer L, Donner D. NF-kappaB activation by tumour necrosis factor requires the Akt serine-threonine kinase. Nature. 1999;401:82-5 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the Akt serine-threonine kinase is involved in the activation of NF-kappaB by tumour necrosis factor (TNF)...
  88. Yamamoto S, Tomita Y, Hoshida Y, Morooka T, Nagano H, Dono K, et al. Prognostic significance of activated Akt expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:2846-50 pubmed
    b>Akt is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in tumorigenesis. Among the members of Akt family, Akt2 is associated with the development of human cancers...
  89. Balendran A, Casamayor A, Deak M, Paterson A, Gaffney P, Currie R, et al. PDK1 acquires PDK2 activity in the presence of a synthetic peptide derived from the carboxyl terminus of PRK2. Curr Biol. 1999;9:393-404 pubmed
    Protein kinase B (PKB) is activated by phosphorylation of Thr308 and of Ser473...
  90. Bedolla R, Prihoda T, Kreisberg J, Malik S, Krishnegowda N, Troyer D, et al. Determining risk of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer by immunohistochemical detection of PTEN expression and Akt activation. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:3860-7 pubmed
    ..and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and the phosphorylated form of the cell survival protein Akt (pAkt) predicts biochemical recurrence...
  91. Zhuang J, Hawkins S, Glenn M, Lin K, Johnson G, Carter A, et al. Akt is activated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and delivers a pro-survival signal: the therapeutic potential of Akt inhibition. Haematologica. 2010;95:110-8 pubmed publisher
    The aims of the present study were to ascertain the activation status of Akt in the primary cells of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to investigate the effects of specific Akt inhibition on chronic lymphocytic leukemia-cell survival...
  92. Mikami I, Zhang F, Hirata T, Okamoto J, Koizumi K, Shimizu K, et al. Inhibition of activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway in malignant pleural mesothelioma leads to G1 cell cycle arrest. Oncol Rep. 2010;24:1677-81 pubmed
    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway plays pivotal roles in fundamental cellular functions including cell proliferation and cell survival. Its deregulation has been implicated in many types of human malignancies...