AKR1C4

Summary

Gene Symbol: AKR1C4
Description: aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4
Alias: 3-alpha-HSD, C11, CDR, CHDR, DD-4, DD4, HAKRA, aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4, 3-alpha-HSD1, chlordecone reductase; 3-alpha hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, type I; dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 4, dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isozyme DD4, type I 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
Species: human
Products:     AKR1C4

Top Publications

  1. Kume T, Iwasa H, Shiraishi H, Yokoi T, Nagashima K, Otsuka M, et al. Characterization of a novel variant (S145C/L311V) of 3alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase in human liver. Pharmacogenetics. 1999;9:763-71 pubmed
    ..The results substantiate the existence of polymorphic forms for human liver DD, and also suggest the importance of the residue at position 311 for substrate binding to the enzyme. ..
  2. Schule C, Romeo E, Uzunov D, Eser D, di Michele F, Baghai T, et al. Influence of mirtazapine on plasma concentrations of neuroactive steroids in major depression and on 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11:261-72 pubmed
    ..However, the changes in neuroactive steroid concentrations more likely reflect direct pharmacological effects of this antidepressant rather than clinical improvement in general. ..
  3. Shaban E, Switalska M, Wang L, Wang N, Xiu F, Hayashi I, et al. Synthesis and In Vitro Antiproliferative Activity of 11-Substituted Neocryptolepines with a Branched ?-Aminoalkylamino Chain. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..evaluation of several neocryptolepine analogues carrying a branched, functionalized dibasic side chain at C11. These 2-substituted 5-methyl-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives were prepared by nucleophilic aromatic ..
  4. Dufouil C, Dubois B, Vellas B, Pasquier F, Blanc F, Hugon J, et al. Cognitive and imaging markers in non-demented subjects attending a memory clinic: study design and baseline findings of the MEMENTO cohort. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2017;9:67 pubmed publisher
    ..5 SD below age, sex and education-level norms) while not demented (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] <1)...
  5. Entzminger K, Hyun J, Pantazes R, Patterson Orazem A, Qerqez A, Frye Z, et al. De novo design of antibody complementarity determining regions binding a FLAG tetra-peptide. Sci Rep. 2017;7:10295 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we employed de novo complementarity determining region (CDR) design to engineer targeted antibody-antigen interactions using previously described in silico methods...
  6. Davies N, Hayden R, Simpson P, Birtwistle J, Mayer K, Ride J, et al. AKR1C isoforms represent a novel cellular target for jasmonates alongside their mitochondrial-mediated effects. Cancer Res. 2009;69:4769-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we have identified AKR1C isoforms as a novel target of jasmonates in cancer cells and provide further evidence of the promise of these compounds, or derivatives thereof, as adjunctive therapies in the treatment of cancer. ..
  7. Ahmed S, Gull A, Alam M, Aqil M, Sultana Y. Ultrasonically tailored, chemically engineered and "QbD" enabled fabrication of agomelatine nanoemulsion; optimization, characterization, ex-vivo permeation and stability study. Ultrason Sonochem. 2018;41:213-226 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental values for dependent variables such as hydrodynamic diameter (nm), % transmittance and % CDR were found to be 73.72±2.53nm, 98.2±0.42%, 84.71±4.05% respectively...
  8. Boshkow J, Fischer S, Bailey A, Wolfrum S, Carreira E. Stereochemistry and biological activity of chlorinated lipids: a study of danicalipin A and selected diastereomers. Chem Sci. 2017;8:6904-6910 pubmed publisher
    ..diastereomer 2 showed similar behavior to natural (+)-danicalipin A (1), strikingly, the more flexible C11,C15-epimer 3 had no effect on permeability and proved equally or more toxic towards multiple cell lines.
  9. Perez Garcia O, Mankelow C, Chandran K, Villas Boas S, Singhal N. Modulation of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Accumulation by Primary Metabolites in Denitrifying Cultures Adapting to Changes in Environmental C and N. Environ Sci Technol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..028) N2O accumulation (8.5.3 ± 0.9% of the total nitrogen added), which was linked to the depletion of C11-C20 fatty acids...
  10. Zeng M, Murphy S, Herzon S. Development of a Modular Synthetic Route to (+)-Pleuromutilin, (+)-12-epi-Mutilins, and Related Structures. J Am Chem Soc. 2017;139:16377-16388 pubmed publisher
    ..coupling reaction with an organolithium reagent derived from the alkyl iodides (R)- or (S)-30, which contain the C11-C13 atoms of the target, to provide diastereomeric diketones in 60% or 48% yield (for coupling with (R)- or (S)-30, ..

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Kume T, Iwasa H, Shiraishi H, Yokoi T, Nagashima K, Otsuka M, et al. Characterization of a novel variant (S145C/L311V) of 3alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase in human liver. Pharmacogenetics. 1999;9:763-71 pubmed
    ..The results substantiate the existence of polymorphic forms for human liver DD, and also suggest the importance of the residue at position 311 for substrate binding to the enzyme. ..
  2. Schule C, Romeo E, Uzunov D, Eser D, di Michele F, Baghai T, et al. Influence of mirtazapine on plasma concentrations of neuroactive steroids in major depression and on 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11:261-72 pubmed
    ..However, the changes in neuroactive steroid concentrations more likely reflect direct pharmacological effects of this antidepressant rather than clinical improvement in general. ..
  3. Shaban E, Switalska M, Wang L, Wang N, Xiu F, Hayashi I, et al. Synthesis and In Vitro Antiproliferative Activity of 11-Substituted Neocryptolepines with a Branched ?-Aminoalkylamino Chain. Molecules. 2017;22: pubmed publisher
    ..evaluation of several neocryptolepine analogues carrying a branched, functionalized dibasic side chain at C11. These 2-substituted 5-methyl-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives were prepared by nucleophilic aromatic ..
  4. Dufouil C, Dubois B, Vellas B, Pasquier F, Blanc F, Hugon J, et al. Cognitive and imaging markers in non-demented subjects attending a memory clinic: study design and baseline findings of the MEMENTO cohort. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2017;9:67 pubmed publisher
    ..5 SD below age, sex and education-level norms) while not demented (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR] <1)...
  5. Entzminger K, Hyun J, Pantazes R, Patterson Orazem A, Qerqez A, Frye Z, et al. De novo design of antibody complementarity determining regions binding a FLAG tetra-peptide. Sci Rep. 2017;7:10295 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we employed de novo complementarity determining region (CDR) design to engineer targeted antibody-antigen interactions using previously described in silico methods...
  6. Davies N, Hayden R, Simpson P, Birtwistle J, Mayer K, Ride J, et al. AKR1C isoforms represent a novel cellular target for jasmonates alongside their mitochondrial-mediated effects. Cancer Res. 2009;69:4769-75 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we have identified AKR1C isoforms as a novel target of jasmonates in cancer cells and provide further evidence of the promise of these compounds, or derivatives thereof, as adjunctive therapies in the treatment of cancer. ..
  7. Ahmed S, Gull A, Alam M, Aqil M, Sultana Y. Ultrasonically tailored, chemically engineered and "QbD" enabled fabrication of agomelatine nanoemulsion; optimization, characterization, ex-vivo permeation and stability study. Ultrason Sonochem. 2018;41:213-226 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental values for dependent variables such as hydrodynamic diameter (nm), % transmittance and % CDR were found to be 73.72±2.53nm, 98.2±0.42%, 84.71±4.05% respectively...
  8. Boshkow J, Fischer S, Bailey A, Wolfrum S, Carreira E. Stereochemistry and biological activity of chlorinated lipids: a study of danicalipin A and selected diastereomers. Chem Sci. 2017;8:6904-6910 pubmed publisher
    ..diastereomer 2 showed similar behavior to natural (+)-danicalipin A (1), strikingly, the more flexible C11,C15-epimer 3 had no effect on permeability and proved equally or more toxic towards multiple cell lines.
  9. Perez Garcia O, Mankelow C, Chandran K, Villas Boas S, Singhal N. Modulation of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Accumulation by Primary Metabolites in Denitrifying Cultures Adapting to Changes in Environmental C and N. Environ Sci Technol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..028) N2O accumulation (8.5.3 ± 0.9% of the total nitrogen added), which was linked to the depletion of C11-C20 fatty acids...
  10. Zeng M, Murphy S, Herzon S. Development of a Modular Synthetic Route to (+)-Pleuromutilin, (+)-12-epi-Mutilins, and Related Structures. J Am Chem Soc. 2017;139:16377-16388 pubmed publisher
    ..coupling reaction with an organolithium reagent derived from the alkyl iodides (R)- or (S)-30, which contain the C11-C13 atoms of the target, to provide diastereomeric diketones in 60% or 48% yield (for coupling with (R)- or (S)-30, ..
  11. Ozeki T, Takahashi Y, Nakayama K, Funayama M, Nagashima K, Kodama T, et al. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha/gamma and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha as causal factors of interindividual difference in the expression of human dihydrodiol dehydrogenase 4 mRNA in human livers. Pharmacogenetics. 2003;13:49-53 pubmed
    ..factors, hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1 alpha, HNF-4 alpha and HNF-4 gamma were essential for the expression of DD4 mRNA, which is a major form of DDs...
  12. Zachariah S, Das S. Idiomarina andamanensis sp. nov., an alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from Andaman Sea water. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2017;110:1581-1592 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA G+C content was 46.7 mol%. Major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, iso-C17:1 ?9c, iso-C13:0 3OH, iso-C11:0 3OH and C16:0...
  13. Zhao Q, Buhr D, Gunter C, Frenette J, Ferguson M, Sanford E, et al. Rational library design by functional CDR resampling. N Biotechnol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicated that predefined CDR sequences with optimized CDR-framework compatibility could be a productive direction of functional library ..
  14. Dufort I, Labrie F, Luu The V. Human types 1 and 3 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases: differential lability and tissue distribution. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:841-6 pubmed
    ....
  15. Marr K, Lyons C, Rustad T, Bowden R, White T, Rustad T. Rapid, transient fluconazole resistance in Candida albicans is associated with increased mRNA levels of CDR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42:2584-9 pubmed
    ..the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway (ERG7, ERG9, and ERG11) and genes encoding efflux pumps (MDR1, ABC1, YCF, and CDR), revealed that azole resistance in this series is associated with increased mRNA levels for members of the ATP ..
  16. Toyoda Y, Takada T, Gomi T, Nakagawa H, Ishikawa T, Suzuki H. Clinical and Molecular Evidence of ABCC11 Protein Expression in Axillary Apocrine Glands of Patients with Axillary Osmidrosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..is governed by a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 538G>A in human ATP-binding cassette C11 (ABCC11) gene...
  17. Wang J, Muto M, Yatabe R, Onodera T, Tanaka M, Okochi M, et al. Rational Design of Peptide-Functionalized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor for Specific Detection of TNT Explosive. Sensors (Basel). 2017;17: pubmed publisher
    ..TNT) binding peptide derived from an amino acid sequence of the complementarity-determining region (CDR) of an anti-TNT monoclonal antibody was used for TNT detection based on a maleimide-functionalized surface plasmon ..
  18. Mizoguchi T, Isaji M, Yamano N, Harada J, Fujii R, Tamiaki H. Molecular Structures and Functions of Chlorophylls-a Esterified with Geranylgeranyl, Dihydrogeranylgeranyl, and Tetrahydrogeranylgeranyl Groups at the 17-Propionate Residue in a Diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans. Biochemistry. 2017;56:3682-3688 pubmed publisher
    ..DHGG was different from the previously determined DHGG of bacteriochlorophyll-a in purple bacteria (C2?C3, C10?C11, and C14?C15)...
  19. Butterfield J, KIM H, Knauer D, Nevala W, Markovic S. Identification of a peptide-peptide binding motif in the coating of nab-paclitaxel nanoparticles with clinical antibodies: bevacizumab, rituximab, and trastuzumab. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14476 pubmed publisher
    ..We furthermore show the complementary binding region on all three monoclonal antibodies to be the CDR H3 loop of the Fab region, and show that they all have nano to micromolar affinity for HSA Peptide 40 and nab-..
  20. Yu H, Russell A, Mulholland J, Huang Z. Using cell phone location to assess misclassification errors in air pollution exposure estimation. Environ Pollut. 2018;233:261-266 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used detailed cell phone location data, the call detail record (CDR), to account for the impact of spatiotemporal subject mobility on estimates of ambient air pollutant exposure...
  21. Rahbarnia L, Farajnia S, Babaei H, Majidi J, Dariushnejad H, Hosseini M. Isolation and characterization of a novel human scFv inhibiting EGFR vIII expressing cancers. Immunol Lett. 2016;180:31-38 pubmed publisher
    ..in silico analysis between scFv and EGFRvIII sequences confirmed specific binding of desired scFv to EGFRvIII in CDR regions...
  22. Bass A, Fields K, Goto R, Turissini G, Dey S, Russell L. Clinical Decision Rules for Pulmonary Embolism in Hospitalized Patients: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-analysis. Thromb Haemost. 2017;117: pubmed publisher
    ..We selected prospective studies of symptomatic hospitalized patients in which a CDR was used to estimate the likelihood of PE...
  23. Frolich L, Peters O, Lewczuk P, Gruber O, Teipel S, Gertz H, et al. Incremental value of biomarker combinations to predict progression of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's dementia. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2017;9:84 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated which combination of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR)-sum-of-boxes, the word list delayed free recall from the Consortium to Establish a Registry of Dementia (CERAD) ..
  24. Yang Y, Wu M, Chou P, Su H, Lin S, Sung P. Longitudinal Neuropsychological Outcome in Taiwanese Alzheimer's Disease patients treated with medication. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..2± 0.9 years. The patients' severity of AD ranged from very mild (clinical dementia rating (CDR) scales = 0.5) to moderate (CDR = 2.0)...
  25. Wang B, Niu Y, Miao L, Cao R, Yan P, Guo H, et al. Decreased Complexity in Alzheimer's Disease: Resting-State fMRI Evidence of Brain Entropy Mapping. Front Aging Neurosci. 2017;9:378 pubmed publisher
    ..negatively correlated with Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ) scores and global Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores in the patient groups...
  26. Winters C, Molowa D, Guzelian P. Isolation and characterization of cloned cDNAs encoding human liver chlordecone reductase. Biochemistry. 1990;29:1080-7 pubmed
    ..This reaction is controlled by a cytosolic enzyme, chlordecone reductase (CDR), which may be of the aldo-keto reductase family of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes [Molowa et al. (1986) J. Biol...
  27. Khanna M, Qin K, Cheng K. Distribution of 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rat brain and molecular cloning of multiple cDNAs encoding structurally related proteins in humans. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1995;53:41-6 pubmed
    ..We are currently investigating the functional relationship between the enzymes encoded by these human cDNAs and 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. ..
  28. Perneczky R, Wagenpfeil S, Komossa K, Grimmer T, Diehl J, Kurz A. Mapping scores onto stages: mini-mental state examination and clinical dementia rating. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006;14:139-44 pubmed
    ..The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) has demonstrated high validity and reliability for this purpose, but it requires a considerable amount of data to ..
  29. Wischnewski F, Pantel K, Schwarzenbach H. Promoter demethylation and histone acetylation mediate gene expression of MAGE-A1, -A2, -A3, and -A12 in human cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2006;4:339-49 pubmed
    ..In the current study, we have examined the influence of the DNA methylase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) together with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A on the expression of MAGE-A1, -A2, -A3, and -A12 ..
  30. Nishimura K, Sakaguchi T, Nanba Y, Suganuma Y, Morita M, Hong S, et al. Stereoselective Total Synthesis of Macrophage-produced Prohealing 14,21-Dihydroxydocosahexaenoic Acids. J Org Chem. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Reduction of the nitrile with DIBAL afforded the key aldehyde corresponding to the C11-C22 moiety...
  31. Lee W, Lukacik P, Guo K, Ugochukwu E, Kavanagh K, Marsden B, et al. Structure-activity relationships of human AKR-type oxidoreductases involved in bile acid synthesis: AKR1D1 and AKR1C4. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;301:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..participate in the biosynthesis of bile acids by catalyzing the NADP(H) dependent reduction of 3-keto groups (AKR1C4) and Delta4 double bonds (AKR1D1) of oxysterol precursors...
  32. Johansson A, Nikamo P, Schalling M, Landen M. Polymorphisms in AKR1C4 and HSD3B2 and differences in serum DHEAS and progesterone are associated with paranoid ideation during mania or hypomania in bipolar disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012;22:632-40 pubmed publisher
    ..its endogenous antagonist DHEAS and polymorphisms of the genes coding for certain steroidogenetic enzymes (AKR1C4, HSD3B2, and SRD5A1) in 64 males and 96 females with bipolar 1 or 2 disorder with or without paranoid ideation ..
  33. Rawson N. Health technology assessment of new drugs for rare disorders in Canada: impact of disease prevalence and cost. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2017;12:59 pubmed publisher
    ..Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) presented an analysis of submissions to the Common Drug Review (CDR) between 2004 and February 3, 2016 for drugs for rare disorders (disorders with a prevalence of <50 per 100,000)...
  34. DiPrete O, Lourenco A, Baird G, Mainiero M. Screening Digital Mammography Recall Rate: Does It Change with Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Experience?. Radiology. 2017;:170517 pubmed publisher
    Purpose To compare screening mammography recall rate, cancer detection rate (CDR), and positive predictive values (PPVs) for digital mammography before and after radiologist experience with digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT)...
  35. Zhao S, Wu H, Cao M, Han D. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor, attenuates hyperoxia-induced lung fibrosis via re-expression of P16 in neonatal rats. Pediatr Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-CdR) is a major methyltransferase-specific inhibitor...
  36. Mao S, Wang X, Ge Z, Su A, Zhang L, Li Y, et al. Microbial Hydroxylation of 16?, 17?-Epoxyprogesterone by Penicillium Decumbens. Iran J Pharm Res. 2017;16:1161-1166 pubmed
    ..The two novel metabolic products 2 and 3 were reported for the first time. Moreover, the identified C7?- and C11-?hydroxylation is a novel reaction of microbial transformation of steroids by P.decumbens.
  37. Sun L, Kono N, Shimizu T, Toh H, Xue H, Numata O, et al. Distorted antibody repertoire developed in the absence of pre-B cell receptor formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;495:1411-1417 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the CDR-H3 amino acid sequences of ?-chain repertoires revealed that certain bone marrow B cells with particular CDR-H3 ..
  38. Gaillard C, Sørensen M, Vestergaard M, Weisbjerg M, Basar A, Larsen M, et al. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2017;100:8928-8938 pubmed publisher
    ..DDGS had a slightly higher content of linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA 9-11), and lower content of C11 to C17 fatty acids than cows fed diets with the soybean-canola mixture...
  39. Safdari Y. Engineering of single chain antibodies for solubility. Int Immunopharmacol. 2017;55:86-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Summarily, CDR loops are grafted on framework regions derived from intrinsically soluble subclass 3 (VH3 and VL3) human germline ..
  40. Rawat N, Kumar B, Albrecht U, Du D, Huang M, Yu Q, et al. Genome resequencing and transcriptome profiling reveal structural diversity and expression patterns of constitutive disease resistance genes in Huanglongbing-tolerant Poncirus trifoliata and its hybrids. Hortic Res. 2017;4:17064 pubmed publisher
    ..trifoliata but recent studies have shown that constitutive disease resistance (CDR) genes were expressed at much higher levels in HLB-tolerant Poncirus hybrids and the expression of ..
  41. d Oleire Uquillas F, Jacobs H, Hanseeuw B, Marshall G, Properzi M, Schultz A, et al. Interactive versus additive relationships between regional cortical thinning and amyloid burden in predicting clinical decline in mild AD and MCI individuals. Neuroimage Clin. 2018;17:388-396 pubmed publisher
    ..and medial temporal and parietal cortices was related to higher baseline Clinical Dementia Rating Sum-of-Boxes (CDR-SB). Baseline A?-associated cortical thinning also predicted CDR-SB over time...
  42. Hara A, Endo S, Matsunaga T, Soda M, Yashiro K, El Kabbani O. Long-chain fatty acids inhibit human members of the aldo-keto reductase 1C subfamily. J Biochem. 2017;162:371-379 pubmed publisher
    Four human hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily, AKR1C1-AKR1C4, are involved in the metabolism of steroids and other carbonyl compounds including drugs, and altered expression of AKRs (1C1, 1C2 and/or ..
  43. Ozeki T, Takahashi Y, Kume T, Nakayama K, Yokoi T, Nunoya K, et al. Co-operative regulation of the transcription of human dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD)4/aldo-keto reductase (AKR)1C4 gene by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha/gamma and HNF-1alpha. Biochem J. 2001;355:537-44 pubmed
    ..To investigate the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of the human DD4 gene, the 5'-flanking region of the gene was fused to the luciferase gene...
  44. Turriziani O, Schuetz J, Focher F, Scagnolari C, Sampath J, Adachi M, et al. Impaired 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine accumulation in T-lymphoblastoid cells as a mechanism of acquired resistance independent of multidrug resistant protein 4 with a possible role for ATP-binding cassette C11. Biochem J. 2002;368:325-32 pubmed
    ..Finally, an increased expression of the MRP5 homologue, ATP-binding cassette C11 (ABCC11) was observed in the CEM 3TC cells...
  45. Guo H, Chen H, Zhu Q, Yu X, Rong R, Merugu S, et al. A humanized monoclonal antibody targeting secreted anterior gradient 2 effectively inhibits the xenograft tumor growth. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;475:57-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe an anti-tumor humanized antibody blocking secreted AGR2 activity. We employed the CDR grafting technique and deimmunization analysis to construct humanized antibody variants of 18A4, and 18A4Hu I was ..
  46. Hou X, Liu J, Zhang Z, Zhai Y, Wang Y, Wang Z, et al. Effects of cytochalasin B on DNA methylation and histone modification in parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos. Reproduction. 2016;152:519-27 pubmed publisher
    ..When combined with Scriptaid and 5-Aza-Cdr, CB further improved the embryonic development competence and decreased the expression of BCL-XL, BAX and CASP3 In ..
  47. Xiang Z, Xiao S, Wang F, Qin Y, Wu J, Ma H, et al. Cloning, characterization and comparative analysis of four death receptorTNFRs from the oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;59:288-297 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis showed that the ChDR proteins clustered into three distinct groups, indicating that these subfamilies had common ancestors...
  48. Moore P, Gorman J, Doria Rose N, Morris L. Ontogeny-based immunogens for the induction of V2-directed HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies. Immunol Rev. 2017;275:217-229 pubmed publisher
    ..V2-apex bNAbs are derived from rare precursors with long anionic CDR H3s that are often deleted in the B cell repertoire...
  49. Abdelraheem A, Liu F, Song M, Zhang J. A meta-analysis of quantitative trait loci for abiotic and biotic stress resistance in tetraploid cotton. Mol Genet Genomics. 2017;292:1221-1235 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-three QTL clusters were found on 15 chromosomes (c3, c4, c5, c6, c7, c11, c14, c15, c16, c19, c20, c23, c24, c25, and c26)...
  50. Chen C, Ma Z, Zhang H, Liu X, Yu Z. Krüppel-Like Factor 4 Enhances Sensitivity of Cisplatin to Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) Cells. Med Sci Monit. 2017;23:3353-3359 pubmed
    ..5-Azacytidine-2'-deoxycytidine (5'-Aza-CdR) treatment and methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) were used to detect the methylation status for KLF4...
  51. Bai G, Chu J, Eli M, Bao Y, Wen H. PAQR3 overexpression suppresses the aggressive phenotype of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells via inhibition of ERK signaling. Biomed Pharmacother. 2017;94:813-819 pubmed publisher
    ..of PAQR3 in ESCC cell lines was measured after treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR)...
  52. Binstock J, Iyer R, Hamby C, Fried V, Schwartz I, Weinstein B, et al. Human hepatic 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: possible identity with human hepatic chlordecone reductase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;187:760-6 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the natural substrates for chlordecone reductase are 3-keto-5-dihydrosteroids and that these two proteins may be identical. ..
  53. Aldous A, Castel A, Parenti D. Prevalence and trends in transmitted and acquired antiretroviral drug resistance, Washington, DC, 1999-2014. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10:474 pubmed publisher
    ..We measured cumulative drug resistance (CDR) among participants with any genotype between 1999 and 2014 (n = 3411), transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in ART-..
  54. Chaudhary D, Lee S, Kim J. Lysobacter olei sp. nov., isolated from oil-contaminated soil. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2017;67:4660-4666 pubmed publisher
    ..9 (iso-C17?:?1 ?9c and/or C16?:?0 10-methyl), summed feature 3 (C16?:?1 ?7c and/or C16?:?1 ?6c), iso-C14?:?0, C11?:?0iso 3-OH, C15?:?1iso F and C16?:?0. The genomic DNA G+C?content of this novel strain was 68.7?mol%...
  55. Roper C, Chubb L, Cambal L, Tunno B, Clougherty J, Fattman C, et al. Association of IL-6 with PM2.5 Components: Importance of Characterizing Filter-Based PM2.5 Following Extraction. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2017;228: pubmed publisher
    ..5 was performed. Alveolar macrophages (AMJ2-C11) were exposed (3, 24, and 48 h) to PM2...
  56. Høglund R, Lossius A, Johansen J, Homan J, Benth J, Robins H, et al. In Silico Prediction Analysis of Idiotope-Driven T-B Cell Collaboration in Multiple Sclerosis. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1255 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that idiotopes from the complementarity determining region (CDR) 3 of MS patients on average have high predicted affinities for disease associated HLA-DRB1*15:01 molecules and are ..
  57. Miller S, Thapa S, Robin A, Niziol L, Ramulu P, Woodward M, et al. Glaucoma Screening in Nepal: Cup-to-Disc Estimate With Standard Mydriatic Fundus Camera Compared to Portable Nonmydriatic Camera. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;182:99-106 pubmed publisher
    To compare cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) measurements from images taken with a portable, 45-degree nonmydriatic fundus camera to images from a traditional tabletop mydriatic fundus camera...
  58. Maneh N, Ayena K, Vonor K, Nonon Saa K, Amedome K, Dzidzinyo K, et al. [OCT topographic characteristics of the optic nerve in patients clinically suspected to have large optic disc cupping in Togo]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2017;40:588-591 pubmed publisher
    ..We included records of patients with large cupping - CDR (cup-to-disc ratio) ? 0.4 -clinically observed and having undergone OCT-optic disc analysis...
  59. Rosa I, Henriques A, Wiltfang J, da Cruz e Silva O. Putative Dementia Cases Fluctuate as a Function of Mini-Mental State Examination Cut-Off Points. J Alzheimers Dis. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Many cognitive tests are available; among those commonly used are the Cognitive Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE)...
  60. Apgar J, Mader M, Agostinelli R, Benard S, Bialek P, Johnson M, et al. Beyond CDR-grafting: Structure-guided humanization of framework and CDR regions of an anti-myostatin antibody. MAbs. 2016;8:1302-1318 pubmed
    ..limitation to development, has been partially overcome by humanization through complementarity-determining region (CDR) grafting onto human acceptor frameworks...
  61. Tempfer C, Huber C, Huber J, Schneeberger C, Bentz E, Hefler L. An estrogen metabolism-related polymorphism of the 17-alpha HSD gene is associated with perimenopausal body mass index. Fertil Steril. 2007;87:1494-6 pubmed
    ..23.5 +/- 4.2 kg/m(2); P<.001), and obesity was more frequent among mutant allele carriers (P=.06; odds ratio 1.38; 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.95), providing evidence of 17-alpha HSD as a candidate gene of perimenopausal obesity. ..
  62. Unnikrishnan A, Quynh A, Pickford R, Raftery M, Nunez A, Verma A, et al. AZA-MS: A novel multiparameter mass spectrometry method to determine the intracellular dynamics of azacitidine therapy in vivo. Leukemia. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..AZA-MS, we have accurately quantified the abundance of the ribonucleoside (5-AZA-cR) and deoxyribonucleoside (5-AZA-CdR) forms of AZA in RNA, DNA and the cytoplasm within the same sample using nanogram quantities of input material...