Gene Symbol: AKAP4
Description: A-kinase anchoring protein 4
Alias: AKAP 82, AKAP-4, AKAP82, CT99, FSC1, PRKA4, hAKAP82, p82, A-kinase anchor protein 4, A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 4, A-kinase anchor protein 82 kDa, cancer/testis antigen 99, major sperm fibrous sheath protein, protein kinase A anchoring protein 4, testis-specific gene HI
Species: human
Products:     AKAP4

Top Publications

  1. Lester L, Scott J. Anchoring and scaffold proteins for kinases and phosphatases. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1997;52:409-29; discussion 429-30 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these studies suggest that the AKAPs represent a growing family of regulatory proteins that provide a molecular architecture that organizes the intracellular location of a single or multiple multifunctional kinase. ..
  2. Mohapatra B, Verma S, Shankar S, Suri A. Molecular cloning of human testis mRNA specifically expressed in haploid germ cells, having structural homology with the A-kinase anchoring proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;244:540-5 pubmed
    ..0 kb in testis and not in any other somatic tissues. Expression of hi transcript was observed only in round spermatids indicating post meiotic haploid gene expression. ..
  3. Chiriva Internati M, Yu Y, Mirandola L, D Cunha N, Hardwicke F, Cannon M, et al. Identification of AKAP-4 as a new cancer/testis antigen for detection and immunotherapy of prostate cancer. Prostate. 2012;72:12-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate the aberrant expression of AKAP-4 in PC, which will potentially be developed as a biomarker in PC. We provide evidence that AKAP-4 is a potential target for PC adoptive immunotherapy or anti-tumor vaccination. ..
  4. Blommaert D, Sergeant N, Delehedde M, Jouy N, Mitchell V, Franck T, et al. Expression, localization, and concentration of A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) and its precursor (proAKAP4) in equine semen: Promising marker correlated to the total and progressive motility in thawed spermatozoa. Theriogenology. 2019;131:52-60 pubmed publisher
    A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) is playing a central role in flagellar structure, chemotaxis, capacitation and sperm motility. In mammals, AKAP4 is expressed during spermatogenesis...
  5. Wu H, Li W, He X, Liu C, Fang Y, Zhu F, et al. NovelCFAP43 andCFAP44 mutations cause male infertility with multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF). Reprod Biomed Online. 2019;38:769-778 pubmed publisher
    ..Several pathogenic genes (e.g. AKAP4, DNAH1, CFAP43 and CFAP44) are associated with MMAF but the pathogenic mechanisms have not been elucidated...
  6. Singh R, Junghare V, Hazra S, Singh U, Sengar G, Raja T, et al. Database on spermatozoa transcriptogram of catagorised Frieswal crossbred (Holstein Friesian X Sahiwal) bulls. Theriogenology. 2019;129:130-145 pubmed publisher
    ..Wet laboratory validation of the top five selected transcripts (AKAP4, PRM1, ATP2B4, TRIM71 and SLC9B2) illustrated the significant (p < 0...
  7. Moretti E, Pascarelli N, Belmonte G, Renieri T, Collodel G. Sperm with fibrous sheath dysplasia and anomalies in head-neck junction: focus on centriole and centrin 1. Andrologia. 2017;49: pubmed publisher
    ..electron microscopy (SEM, TEM); immunocytochemistry was performed for tubulin, A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) and centrin 1...
  8. Stanescu Segall D, Birke K, Wenzel A, Grimm C, Orgul S, Fischer J, et al. PAX6 Expression and Retinal Cell Death in a Transgenic Mouse Model for Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2015;24:426-32 pubmed publisher
    ..CLR(SMαA) mice examined between p22 and p82 exhibited increased intraocular pressure and a progressive decrease in cell number including PAX6-expressing cells ..
  9. Hashemitabar M, Sabbagh S, Orazizadeh M, Ghadiri A, Bahmanzadeh M. A proteomic analysis on human sperm tail: comparison between normozoospermia and asthenozoospermia. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2015;32:853-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These proteins might be used as markers for the better diagnosis of sperm dysfunctions, targets for male contraceptive development, and to predict embryo quality. ..

More Information


  1. Chen X, Liu X, Ren X, Li X, Wang L, Zang W. Discovery of human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) immunocontraceptive epitopes and their effects on fertility in male and female mice. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2016;28:416-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We biopanned and analysed the chemical properties of four epitope peptides, named P82, Sa6, Sa37 and Sa76. Synthetic peptides were made and coupled to either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or ovalbumin...
  2. Silva J, Yoon S, De Bock P, Goltsev A, Gevaert K, Mendes J, et al. Construction and analysis of a human testis/sperm-enriched interaction network: Unraveling the PPP1CC2 interactome. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017;1861:375-385 pubmed publisher
    ..One of the most intriguing interactors was A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4), a testis-specific protein related to infertility phenotypes and involved in all major motility-related ..
  3. Rahamim Ben Navi L, Almog T, Yao Z, Seger R, Naor Z. A-Kinase Anchoring Protein 4 (AKAP4) is an ERK1/2 substrate and a switch molecule between cAMP/PKA and PKC/ERK1/2 in human spermatozoa. Sci Rep. 2016;6:37922 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, AKAP4 is localized to the spermatozoa principal piece and is relocated to the mid-piece and the postacrosomal region by ..
  4. Xu Y, Fan Y, Fan W, Jing J, Xue K, Zhang X, et al. RNASET2 impairs the sperm motility via PKA/PI3K/calcium signal pathways. Reproduction. 2018;155:383-392 pubmed publisher
    ..b>AKAP4, a protein regulating PKA activity, coimmunoprecipated with RNASET2 and they colocalized with one another in the ..
  5. Dobrynin P, Liu S, Tamazian G, Xiong Z, Yurchenko A, Krasheninnikova K, et al. Genomic legacy of the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus. Genome Biol. 2015;16:277 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant excess of non-synonymous mutations in AKAP4 (p<0...
  6. Ying Y, Xie J, Wang H, Mao P, Zhou W, Yang Z, et al. Whole genome sequencing identified new somatic mutations for chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016;20:278-84 pubmed
    ..novel variants which have not been reported in known databases and successfully validated three missense SNVs in AKAP4, COL2A1, and MAML1, respectively...
  7. Newburn L, White K. Atypical RNA Elements Modulate Translational Readthrough in Tobacco Necrosis Virus D. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..the genus Betanecrovirus and family Tombusviridae The production of its RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, p82, is achieved by translational readthrough...
  8. Sarkar H, Arya S, Rai U, Majumdar S. A Study of Differential Expression of Testicular Genes in Various Reproductive Phases of Hemidactylus flaviviridis (Wall Lizard) to Derive Their Association with Onset of Spermatogenesis and Its Relevance to Mammals. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0151150 pubmed publisher
    ..Six important genes, Hk1, Nme5, Akap4, Arih1, Rassf7 and Tubb4b were found to be strictly associated with active spermatogenesis in both mouse and ..
  9. Saini S, Jagadish N, Gupta A, Bhatnagar A, Suri A. A novel cancer testis antigen, A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) is a potential biomarker for breast cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57095 pubmed publisher
    ..In this context, we investigated an association of cancer testis antigen, A-Kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) with breast carcinoma...
  10. Saini S, Agarwal S, Sinha A, Verma A, Parashar D, Gupta N, et al. Gene silencing of A-kinase anchor protein 4 inhibits cervical cancer growth in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Gene Ther. 2013;20:413-20 pubmed publisher
    Earlier, we reported an association of A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) expression in cervical cancer patient specimens, indicating its implications as an immunotherapeutic target...
  11. Turner R, Foster J, Gerton G, Moss S, Patrizio P. Molecular evaluation of two major human sperm fibrous sheath proteins, pro-hAKAP82 and hAKAP82, in stump tail sperm. Fertil Steril. 2001;76:267-74 pubmed
    To determine whether mutations in the pro-hAKAP82 gene and the resulting pro-hAKAP82 and hAKAP82 proteins were associated with the infertility seen in a patient with stump tail sperm. Case report...
  12. Gumireddy K, Li A, Chang D, Liu Q, Kossenkov A, Yan J, et al. AKAP4 is a circulating biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer. Oncotarget. 2015;6:17637-47 pubmed
    ..cancer (NSCLC) patients, we assayed for the expression of 116 CTAs in PBMC RNA in a discovery set and identified AKAP4 as a potential NSCLC biomarker...
  13. Jagadish N, Parashar D, Gupta N, Agarwal S, Purohit S, Kumar V, et al. A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) a promising therapeutic target of colorectal cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015;34:142 pubmed publisher
    ..A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) gene and protein expression was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), reverse transcription ..
  14. Turner R, Johnson L, Haig Ladewig L, Gerton G, Moss S. An X-linked gene encodes a major human sperm fibrous sheath protein, hAKAP82. Genomic organization, protein kinase A-RII binding, and distribution of the precursor in the sperm tail. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:32135-41 pubmed
    ..We have characterized a major human sperm fibrous sheath AKAP, hAKAP82, and its precursor, pro-hAKAP82, the homologues of the mouse fibrous sheath proteins mAKAP82 and pro-mAKAP82...
  15. Anastassov I, Wang W, Dunn F. Synaptogenesis and synaptic protein localization in the postnatal development of rod bipolar cell dendrites in mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2019;527:52-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of tips at P21, P30, and P82 exceeds the previously reported rod convergence ratios, and the majority of these tips are proximal to a ..
  16. Michel J, Scott J. AKAP mediated signal transduction. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2002;42:235-57 pubmed
    ..This review details the most recent advances in our understanding of the various biological functions dependent upon AKAP-anchored signaling complexes. ..
  17. Agarwal S, Saini S, Parashar D, Verma A, Jagadish N, Batra A, et al. Expression and humoral response of A-kinase anchor protein 4 in cervical cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2013;23:650-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, novel CT antigen A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) expression and humoral response were investigated in patients with cervical cancer...
  18. Moretti E, Scapigliati G, Pascarelli N, Baccetti B, Collodel G. Localization of AKAP4 and tubulin proteins in sperm with reduced motility. Asian J Androl. 2007;9:641-9 pubmed
    To perform screening, related to A-kinase anchoring proteins 4 (AKAP4) and tubulin proteins, in spermatozoa with absent or severely reduced motility in order to detect the status of the fibrous sheath and the axonemal structure...
  19. Lefievre L, Chen Y, Conner S, Scott J, Publicover S, Ford W, et al. Human spermatozoa contain multiple targets for protein S-nitrosylation: an alternative mechanism of the modulation of sperm function by nitric oxide?. Proteomics. 2007;7:3066-84 pubmed
    ..Potential targets for S-nitrosylation in human sperm include physiologically significant proteins not previously reported in other cells. Their identification will provide novel insight into the mechanism of action of NO in spermatozoa. ..
  20. Brown P, Miki K, Harper D, Eddy E. A-kinase anchoring protein 4 binding proteins in the fibrous sheath of the sperm flagellum. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:2241-8 pubmed
    ..cytoplasmic domains by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), and the most abundant protein in the fibrous sheath is AKAP4. Several other fibrous sheath proteins have been identified, but how the fibrous sheath assembles is not ..
  21. Mirandola L, Figueroa J, Phan T, Grizzi F, Kim M, Rahman R, et al. Novel antigens in non-small cell lung cancer: SP17, AKAP4, and PTTG1 are potential immunotherapeutic targets. Oncotarget. 2015;6:2812-26 pubmed
    ..we investigated the expression and immunogenicity of the CTAs, Sperm Protein 17 (SP17), A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4) and Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 (PTTG1) in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and ..
  22. Han J, Gao W, Su D, Liu Y. Silencing of A-Kinase Anchor Protein 4 (AKAP4) Inhibits Proliferation and Progression of Thyroid Cancer. Oncol Res. 2017;25:873-878 pubmed publisher
    A-kinase anchor protein 4 (AKAP4), a member of the A-kinase anchor family of proteins, plays a role in tumor development and progression. However, its expression pattern and function in human thyroid cancer remain obscure...
  23. Miki K, Eddy E. Identification of tethering domains for protein kinase A type Ialpha regulatory subunits on sperm fibrous sheath protein FSC1. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34384-90 pubmed
    The fibrous sheath is a unique cytoskeletal structure in the sperm flagellum believed to modulate sperm motility. FSC1 is the major structural protein of the fibrous sheath...
  24. Ficarro S, Chertihin O, Westbrook V, White F, Jayes F, Kalab P, et al. Phosphoproteome analysis of capacitated human sperm. Evidence of tyrosine phosphorylation of a kinase-anchoring protein 3 and valosin-containing protein/p97 during capacitation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11579-89 pubmed
    ..Immunolocalization of VCP showed fluorescent staining in the neck of noncapacitated sperm. However, after capacitation, staining in the neck decreased, and most of the sperm showed fluorescent staining in the anterior head. ..