Gene Symbol: AKAP12
Description: A-kinase anchoring protein 12
Alias: AKAP250, SSeCKS, A-kinase anchor protein 12, A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 12, A-kinase anchor protein, 250kDa, AKAP 250, Src-Suppressed C Kinase Substrate, kinase scaffold protein gravin, myasthenia gravis autoantigen gravin
Species: human
Products:     AKAP12

Top Publications

  1. Choi M, Jong H, Kim T, Song S, Lee D, Lee J, et al. AKAP12/Gravin is inactivated by epigenetic mechanism in human gastric carcinoma and shows growth suppressor activity. Oncogene. 2004;23:7095-103 pubmed
    b>AKAP12/Gravin, one of the A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), functions as a kinase scaffold protein and as a dynamic regulator of the beta2-adrenergic receptor complex...
  2. Guo L, Gao L, Rothschild J, Su B, Gelman I. Control of protein kinase C activity, phorbol ester-induced cytoskeletal remodeling, and cell survival signals by the scaffolding protein SSeCKS/GRAVIN/AKAP12. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:38356-66 pubmed publisher
    The product of the SSeCKS/GRAVIN/AKAP12 gene ("SSeCKS") is a major protein kinase (PK) C substrate that exhibits tumor- and metastasis-suppressing activity likely through its ability to scaffold multiple signaling mediators such ..
  3. Choi Y, Kim J, Kim W, Lee H, Park J, Lee S, et al. AKAP12 regulates human blood-retinal barrier formation by downregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. J Neurosci. 2007;27:4472-81 pubmed
    ..Here we show that A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) induces BRB formation by increasing angiopoietin-1 and decreasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ..
  4. Tao J, Wang H, Malbon C. Src docks to A-kinase anchoring protein gravin, regulating beta2-adrenergic receptor resensitization and recycling. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:6597-608 pubmed
    Gravin (AKAP12) is a membrane-associated scaffold that provides docking for protein kinases, phosphatases, and adaptor molecules obligate for resensitization and recycling of beta(2)-adrenergic receptors...
  5. Su B, Gao L, Meng F, Guo L, Rothschild J, Gelman I. Adhesion-mediated cytoskeletal remodeling is controlled by the direct scaffolding of Src from FAK complexes to lipid rafts by SSeCKS/AKAP12. Oncogene. 2013;32:2016-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Src-suppressed C-kinase substrate (SSeCKS, the rodent orthologue of human Gravin/AKAP12), whose expression is downregulated by oncogenic Src and in many ..
  6. Yan X, Walkiewicz M, Carlson J, Leiphon L, Grove B. Gravin dynamics regulates the subcellular distribution of PKA. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:1247-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Reports indicating that phorbol ester affects the distribution of SSeCKS, the rat orthologue of gravin, further suggest that PKC may also regulate the subcellular distribution of gravin, ..
  7. Choi Y, Kim K. AKAP12 in astrocytes induces barrier functions in human endothelial cells through protein kinase Czeta. FEBS J. 2008;275:2338-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Astrocyte-derived A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) influences BNB formation, but the mechanism of regulation of BNB functions by AKAP12 is not fully understood...
  8. Jin Z, Hamilton J, Yang J, Mori Y, Olaru A, Sato F, et al. Hypermethylation of the AKAP12 promoter is a biomarker of Barrett's-associated esophageal neoplastic progression. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:111-7 pubmed publisher
    The A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) is a kinase scaffold protein with known tumor suppressor activity. Recently, AKAP12 promoter hypermethylation was reported in gastric and colorectal cancers...
  9. Tao J, Shumay E, McLaughlin S, Wang H, Malbon C. Regulation of AKAP-membrane interactions by calcium. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:23932-44 pubmed
    ..Mutation of any two PCDs eliminates membrane association of the non-myristoylated gravin, the sensitivity to Ca2+/calmodulin, and the ability of this scaffold to catalyze receptor resensitization and recycling. ..

More Information


  1. Gordon T, Grove B, Loftus J, O TOOLE T, McMillan R, Lindstrom J, et al. Molecular cloning and preliminary characterization of a novel cytoplasmic antigen recognized by myasthenia gravis sera. J Clin Invest. 1992;90:992-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that gravin is an inducible, cell type-specific cytoplasmic protein and that auto-antibodies to gravin may be highly specific for MG. ..
  2. Su B, Bu Y, Engelberg D, Gelman I. SSeCKS/Gravin/AKAP12 inhibits cancer cell invasiveness and chemotaxis by suppressing a protein kinase C- Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4578-86 pubmed publisher
    b>SSeCKS/Gravin/AKAP12 ("SSeCKS") encodes a cytoskeletal protein that regulates G(1) --> S progression by scaffolding cyclins, protein kinase C (PKC) and PKA...
  3. Yoon D, Jeong C, Jun H, Chun K, Cha J, Seo J, et al. AKAP12 induces apoptotic cell death in human fibrosarcoma cells by regulating CDKI-cyclin D1 and caspase-3 activity. Cancer Lett. 2007;254:111-8 pubmed
    b>AKAP12 (A-Kinase anchoring protein 12) is a protein kinase C substrate and a potential tumor suppressor...
  4. Nauert J, Klauck T, Langeberg L, Scott J. Gravin, an autoantigen recognized by serum from myasthenia gravis patients, is a kinase scaffold protein. Curr Biol. 1997;7:52-62 pubmed
    ..We present biochemical evidence that gravin forms part of a signaling scaffold, and propose that protein kinases A and C may participate in the coordination of signal transduction events in the filopodia of human erythroleukemia cells. ..
  5. Liu W, Guan M, Su B, Ye C, Li J, Zhang X, et al. Quantitative assessment of AKAP12 promoter methylation in colorectal cancer using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting: Correlation with Duke's stage. Cancer Biol Ther. 2010;9:862-71 pubmed
    The expression of AKAP12 (A Kinase anchoring protein 12) is markedly reduced in a variety of cancers...
  6. Wang Z, Kambhampati S, Cheng Y, Ma K, Şimşek C, Tieu A, et al. Methylation Biomarker Panel Performance in EsophaCap Cytology Samples for Diagnosing Barrett's Esophagus: A Prospective Validation Study. Clin Cancer Res. 2019;25:2127-2135 pubmed publisher
    ..In the training set, five of eight candidate methylation biomarkers (p16, HPP1, NELL1, TAC1, and AKAP12) were significantly higher in Barrett's esophagus patients than in controls...
  7. Soh R, Lim J, Samy R, Chua P, Bay B. A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) inhibits cell migration in breast cancer. Exp Mol Pathol. 2018;105:364-370 pubmed publisher
    A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) also known as Gravin and SSeCKS, is a novel potent scaffold protein for many key signaling factors, such as protein kinase C (PKC), PKA, cyclins as well as F-actin...
  8. Weissmüller T, Glover L, Fennimore B, Curtis V, MacManus C, Ehrentraut S, et al. HIF-dependent regulation of AKAP12 (gravin) in the control of human vascular endothelial function. FASEB J. 2014;28:256-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide an important link between hypoxia and metabolic conditions associated with inflammation and angiogenesis. ..
  9. Liu Z, Liu W, Cui C, Gu L, Xing B, Deng D. [Association between A-kinase anchor proteins 12 methylation and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;51:848-852 pubmed publisher
    b>Objective: To study the association between the AKAP12 promoter methylation and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma...
  10. Mitra P, Basu N, Owens I. Src supports UDP-glucuronosyltransferase-2B7 detoxification of catechol estrogens associated with breast cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;382:651-6 pubmed publisher
    ..set of ER proteins with Src-homology binding-domains, including 2B7 and well-known multi-functional Src-engaged AKAP12 scaffold, supports Src-dependent phosphorylation of CE-metabolizing 2B7 enabling it to function as a tumor ..
  11. Bozdogan O, Yulug I, Vargel I, Cavusoglu T, Karabulut A, Karahan G, et al. Differential expression patterns of metastasis suppressor proteins in basal cell carcinoma. Int J Dermatol. 2015;54:905-15 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to detect the expression patterns of the NM23-H1, NDRG1, E-cadherin, RHOGDI2, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 metastasis suppressor proteins in BCCs...
  12. Han B, Poppinga W, Schmidt M. Scaffolding during the cell cycle by A-kinase anchoring proteins. Pflugers Arch. 2015;467:2401-11 pubmed publisher
    ..our recent knowledge of AKAPs linked to the regulation and progression of the cell cycle, with special focus on AKAP12, AKAP8, and Ezrin...
  13. Zhao P, Fu J, Yao B, Jia Y, Zhang H, Li X, et al. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of benzo(a)pyrene-transformed 16HBE cells serum-free culture supernatant and xenografted nude mice sera. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;245:39-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Three proteins neuropilin-2 (NRP2), clusterin (CLU) and A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) were up-regulated in the serum-free culture supernatant of T-16HBE-C1 cells...
  14. Ma H, Lu T, Zhang X, Li C, Xiong J, Huang L, et al. HSPA12B: a novel facilitator of lung tumor growth. Oncotarget. 2015;6:9924-36 pubmed
    ..Also, Tg tumors demonstrated upregulation of VEGF and angiopoietin-1, downregulation of AKAP12, and increased eNOS phosphorylation compared with WT tumors...
  15. Xu G, Zhang M, Zhu H, Xu J. A 15-gene signature for prediction of colon cancer recurrence and prognosis based on SVM. Gene. 2017;604:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..data confirmation, a 15-gene signature (HES5, ZNF417, GLRA2, OR8D2, HOXA7, FABP6, MUSK, HTR6, GRIP2, KLRK1, VEGFA, AKAP12, RHEB, NCRNA00152 and PMEPA1) were identified as a predictor of recurrence risk and prognosis for colon cancer ..
  16. Kim H, Kim J, Jeong J, Han S, Kim K. Akap12 is essential for the morphogenesis of muscles involved in zebrafish locomotion. Differentiation. 2014;88:106-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This study found that the zebrafish A-kinase anchoring protein (akap)12 isoforms akap12α and akap12β are required for muscle morphogenesis and locomotor activity...
  17. Jones D, Schmidt M, Suman S, Hobbing K, Barve S, Gobejishvili L, et al. Micro-RNA-186-5p inhibition attenuates proliferation, anchorage independent growth and invasion in metastatic prostate cancer cells. BMC Cancer. 2018;18:421 pubmed publisher
    ..b>AKAP12, a tumor suppressor target of miR-186-5p, was upregulated in PC-3 and MDA-PCa-2b cells transfected with a miR-186-..
  18. He P, Li K, Li S, Hu T, Guan M, Sun F, et al. Upregulation of AKAP12 with HDAC3 depletion suppresses the progression and migration of colorectal cancer. Int J Oncol. 2018;52:1305-1316 pubmed publisher
    A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12; also known as Gravin) functions as a tumor suppressor in several human primary cancers...
  19. Ćwiek P, Leni Z, Salm F, Dimitrova V, Styp Rekowska B, Chiriano G, et al. RNA interference screening identifies a novel role for PCTK1/CDK16 in medulloblastoma with c-Myc amplification. Oncotarget. 2015;6:116-29 pubmed
    ..of 5 genes that could be targeted to selectively impair the proliferation of c-Myc-overexpressing MB cell lines: AKAP12 (A-kinase anchor protein), CSNK1α1 (casein kinase 1, alpha 1), EPHA7 (EPH receptor A7) and PCTK1 (PCTAIRE ..
  20. Mardin W, Petrov K, Enns A, Senninger N, Haier J, Mees S. SERPINB5 and AKAP12 - expression and promoter methylation of metastasis suppressor genes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:549 pubmed publisher
    ..normal pancreatic RNA. Of the investigated metastasis suppressor genes, only higher AKAP12 mRNA expression was correlated with decreased metastasis (P < 0.05) and invasion scores (P < 0...
  21. Giannakou A, Sicko R, Zhang W, Romitti P, Browne M, Caggana M, et al. Copy number variants in Ebstein anomaly. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188168 pubmed publisher
    ..We also replicated a previous association of EA with CNVs at 1p34.1 and AKAP12. Finally, we identified four CNVs overlapping or in close proximity to the transcription factors HES3, TRIM71, ..
  22. Sun Y, Ye C, Guo X, Wen W, Long J, Gao Y, et al. Evaluation of potential regulatory function of breast cancer risk locus at 6q25.1. Carcinogenesis. 2016;37:163-168 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that rs2046210 had a statistically significant association with the expression levels of the AKAP12 and ESR1 genes in adjacent normal breast tissues...
  23. Marino N, Collins J, Shen C, Caplen N, Merchant A, Gökmen Polar Y, et al. Identification and validation of genes with expression patterns inverse to multiple metastasis suppressor genes in breast cancer cell lines. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2014;31:771-86 pubmed publisher
    ..of 19 validated MSGs (NME1, BRMS1, CD82, CDH1, CDH2, CDH11, CASP8, MAP2K4, MAP2K6, MAP2K7, MAPK14, GSN, ARHGDIB, AKAP12, DRG1, CD44, PEBP1, RRM1, KISS1), we identified genes whose expression was significantly opposite to at least five ..
  24. Kach J, Long T, Selman P, Tonsing Carter E, Bacalao M, Lastra R, et al. Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor Modulators (SGRMs) Delay Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer Growth. Mol Cancer Ther. 2017;16:1680-1692 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, GR-regulated proliferation-associated genes AKAP12, FKBP5, SGK1, CEBPD, and ZBTB16 are inhibited by CORT108297 treatment in vivo Together, these ..
  25. Li Y, Yu Q, Chu Y, Wu W, Song J, Zhu X, et al. Blockage of AKAP12 accelerates angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac injury in mice by regulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;499:128-135 pubmed publisher
    ..A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) is a scaffolding protein that has multiple functions in various biological events, including the regulation of ..
  26. Peixoto P, Blomme A, Costanza B, Ronca R, Rezzola S, Palacios A, et al. HDAC7 inhibition resets STAT3 tumorigenic activity in human glioblastoma independently of EGFR and PTEN: new opportunities for selected targeted therapies. Oncogene. 2016;35:4481-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of HDAC7 in a range of GBM cells induced the expression of tyrosine kinase JAK1 and the tumor suppressor AKAP12. Both proteins synergistically sustained the activity of STAT3 by inducing its phosphorylation (JAK1) and protein ..
  27. Wilhelm T, Lipka D, Witte T, Wierzbinska J, Fluhr S, Helf M, et al. Epigenetic silencing of AKAP12 in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Epigenetics. 2016;11:110-9 pubmed publisher
    A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) is a regulator of protein kinase A and protein kinase C signaling, acting downstream of RAS...
  28. Ramani K, Tomasi M, Berlind J, Mavila N, Sun Z. Role of A-Kinase Anchoring Protein Phosphorylation in Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury and Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation. Am J Pathol. 2018;188:640-655 pubmed publisher
    Alcoholic liver injury is associated with hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation. A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) scaffolds protein kinase C and cyclin-D1, which is regulated by its phosphorylation, and spatiotemporally controls ..
  29. Kang J, Kim W, Lee S, Kwon D, Chun J, Son B, et al. TFAP2C promotes lung tumorigenesis and aggressiveness through miR-183- and miR-33a-mediated cell cycle regulation. Oncogene. 2017;36:1585-1596 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, TFAP2C blocked AKAP12-mediated cyclin D1 inhibition by inducing the overexpression of oncogenic microRNA (miRNA)-183 and simultaneously ..
  30. Bozdogan O, Vargel I, Cavusoglu T, Karabulut A, Karahan G, Sayar N, et al. Metastasis suppressor proteins in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Pathol Res Pract. 2016;212:608-15 pubmed publisher
    ..the importance of seven well-defined MSPs including NDRG1, NM23-H1, RhoGDI2, E-cadherin, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 in cSCCs...
  31. Schott M, Gonowolo F, Maliske B, Grove B. FRET biosensors reveal AKAP-mediated shaping of subcellular PKA activity and a novel mode of Ca(2+)/PKA crosstalk. Cell Signal. 2016;28:294-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Gravin (AKAP12), a multivalent scaffold, anchors PKA and other enzymes to the plasma membrane under basal conditions, but upon [..
  32. Kim D, Lee S, Won H, Kim S, Kim M, Kim H, et al. A genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with susceptibility to chronic myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2011;117:6906-11 pubmed publisher
    ..4 × 10?? and 1.3 × 10?¹², respectively. Candidate genes in those regions include RMND1, AKAP12, ZBTB2, and WSB1. The locus 6q25.1 was validated in both Korean and European cohorts, whereas 17p11...
  33. Yang J, Lee H, Seo J, Park J, Gelman I, Lo E, et al. Structural environment built by AKAP12+ colon mesenchymal cells drives M2 macrophages during inflammation recovery. Sci Rep. 2017;7:42723 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we observed that the extracellular matrix (ECM) constructed by AKAP12+ colon mesenchymal cells (CMCs) generated M2 macrophages by regulating their shape during recovery...
  34. Mostafa M, Yahia R, Abd El Messih H, El Sisy E, El Ghannam D. Gravin gene expression in acute myeloid leukemia. Med Oncol. 2013;30:548 pubmed publisher
    ..Gravin gene expression was found to be decreased in acute myeloid leukemia, and the degree of its decreased expression has been found to be correlated with poor prognosis. ..
  35. Parada C, Osbun J, Kaur S, Yakkioui Y, Shi M, Pan C, et al. Kinome and phosphoproteome of high-grade meningiomas reveal AKAP12 as a central regulator of aggressiveness and its possible role in progression. Sci Rep. 2018;8:2098 pubmed publisher
    ..In the discovery set of fresh-frozen tissue specimens (14), the A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) protein was found downregulated across the grades...
  36. Selvaraju V, Suresh S, Thirunavukkarasu M, Mannu J, Foye J, Mathur P, et al. Regulation of A-Kinase-Anchoring Protein 12 by Heat Shock Protein A12B to Prevent Ventricular Dysfunction Following Acute Myocardial Infarction in Diabetic Rats. J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2017;10:209-220 pubmed publisher
    ..along with decreased expression of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) and A kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) in the DMI-AdHSPA12B compared to DMI-AdLacZ group...
  37. Barzago C, Lum J, Cavalcante P, Srinivasan K, Faggiani E, Camera G, et al. A novel infection- and inflammation-associated molecular signature in peripheral blood of myasthenia gravis patients. Immunobiology. 2016;221:1227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that miR-612, miR-3654, and miR-3651 were increased, whereas miR-612-putative AKAp12 and HRH4 targets and the miR-3651-putative CRISP3 target were downregulated in AChR-EOMG, also suggesting altered ..
  38. Schott M, Grove B. Receptor-mediated Ca2+ and PKC signaling triggers the loss of cortical PKA compartmentalization through the redistribution of gravin. Cell Signal. 2013;25:2125-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that gravin redistribution regulates cross-talk between PKA-dependent signaling and receptor-mediated events involving Ca(2+) and PKC. ..
  39. Hehnly H, Canton D, Bucko P, Langeberg L, Ogier L, Gelman I, et al. A mitotic kinase scaffold depleted in testicular seminomas impacts spindle orientation in germ line stem cells. elife. 2015;4:e09384 pubmed publisher
    ..We discover a macromolecular complex between the scaffolding protein Gravin/AKAP12 and the mitotic kinases, Aurora A and Plk1, that is down regulated in human seminoma...
  40. Finger E, Castellini L, Rankin E, Vilalta M, Krieg A, Jiang D, et al. Hypoxic induction of AKAP12 variant 2 shifts PKA-mediated protein phosphorylation to enhance migration and metastasis of melanoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:4441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of solid tumors harboring low oxygen levels, regulates expression of a specific variant of the scaffold protein AKAP12 (A-kinase anchor protein 12), AKAP12v2, in metastatic melanoma...
  41. Willoughby D, Wong W, Schaack J, Scott J, Cooper D. An anchored PKA and PDE4 complex regulates subplasmalemmal cAMP dynamics. EMBO J. 2006;25:2051-61 pubmed
    ..Knockdown of specific membrane-associated AKAPs using RNAi identified gravin (AKAP250) as the central organizer of the PDE4 complex...
  42. Grove B, Bruchey A. Intracellular distribution of gravin, a PKA and PKC binding protein, in vascular endothelial cells. J Vasc Res. 2001;38:163-75 pubmed
  43. Drago A, Cocchi E, Crisafulli C, Serretti A. A molecular pathway analysis of the glutamatergic-monoaminergic interplay serves to investigate the number of depressive records during citalopram treatment. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2015;122:465-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The best associated results are relative to two signle SNPs, (rs7744492 in AKAP12 p = 0.0004 and rs17046113 in CAMK2D p = 0.0006) and a molecular pathway (cAMP biosynthetic process p = 0.005)...
  44. Fan G, Shumay E, Wang H, Malbon C. The scaffold protein gravin (cAMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein 250) binds the beta 2-adrenergic receptor via the receptor cytoplasmic Arg-329 to Leu-413 domain and provides a mobile scaffold during desensitization. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:24005-14 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of an AKAP scaffold protein translocating with its receptor, in this case a G-protein-coupled receptor. ..
  45. Lee S, Jung K, Jeong C, Seo J, Yoon D, Suh J, et al. Inhibition of endothelial cell migration through the down?regulation of MMP-9 by A-kinase anchoring protein 12. Mol Med Rep. 2011;4:145-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) has been identified as a potential tumor suppressor...
  46. Lin F, Wang H, Malbon C. Gravin-mediated formation of signaling complexes in beta 2-adrenergic receptor desensitization and resensitization. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:19025-34 pubmed
    ..The dynamic composition of the signaling complexes and the role of the scaffold protein AKAP250 (gravin) in agonist-induced attenuation and recovery of beta-adrenergic receptors were explored by co-..
  47. Wang P, Fan X, Wang Y, Fan Y, Liu Y, Zhang S, et al. Target sequencing of 307 deafness genes identifies candidate genes implicated in microtia. Oncotarget. 2017;8:63324-63332 pubmed publisher
    ..variants association study was used and highlighted several strong candidate genes MUC4, MUC6, COL4A4, MYO7A, AKAP12, COL11A1, DSPP, ESPN, GPR98, PCDH15, BSN, CACNA1D, TPRN, and USH1C for microtia (P = 2...
  48. Li Z, Singh S, Suryavanshi S, Ding W, Shen X, Wijaya C, et al. Force development and intracellular Ca2+ in intact cardiac muscles from gravin mutant mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2017;807:117-126 pubmed publisher
    Gravin (AKAP12) is an A-kinase-anchoring-protein that scaffolds protein kinase A (PKA), ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2-AR), protein phosphatase 2B and protein kinase C...
  49. Jo U, Whang Y, Sung J, Kim Y. Methylation of AKAP12{alpha} promoter in lung cancer. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:4595-600 pubmed
    b>AKAP12? plays an important role in tumour growth suppression by inducing apoptosis. This study investigated whether the promoter methylation of AKAP12? is associated with lung cancer...
  50. Canton D, Keene C, Swinney K, Langeberg L, Nguyen V, Pelletier L, et al. Gravin is a transitory effector of polo-like kinase 1 during cell division. Mol Cell. 2012;48:547-59 pubmed publisher
    ..In situ detection of phospho-T766 Gravin in biopsy sections of human glioblastomas suggests that this phosphorylation event might identify malignant neoplasms. ..
  51. Goeppert B, Schmidt C, Geiselhart L, Dutruel C, Capper D, Renner M, et al. Differential expression of the tumor suppressor A-kinase anchor protein 12 in human diffuse and pilocytic astrocytomas is regulated by promoter methylation. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2013;72:933-41 pubmed publisher
    The scaffold protein A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) exerts tumor suppressor activity and is downregulated in several tumor entities...
  52. Ko H, Guo L, Su B, Gao L, Gelman I. Suppression of chemotaxis by SSeCKS via scaffolding of phosphoinositol phosphates and the recruitment of the Cdc42 GEF, Frabin, to the leading edge. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e111534 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated how the metastasis suppressor, SSeCKS, attenuates chemotaxis...
  53. Jarrett S, Carter K, Shelton B, D Orazio J. The melanocortin signaling cAMP axis accelerates repair and reduces mutagenesis of platinum-induced DNA damage. Sci Rep. 2017;7:11708 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of a non-phosphorylatable ATR-S435A construct or deletion of A kinase-anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) impeded platinum adduct clearance and prevented cAMP-mediated enhancement of ATR and XPA's associations with ..
  54. Shih M, Lin F, Scott J, Wang H, Malbon C. Dynamic complexes of beta2-adrenergic receptors with protein kinases and phosphatases and the role of gravin. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:1588-95 pubmed
    ..kinase A and co-immunoprecipitations reveal proteins of the A kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAP) family, including AKAP250 also known as gravin, associated with the beta-adrenergic receptor...
  55. Sasaki H, Kunimatsu M, Fujii Y, Yamakawa Y, Fukai I, Kiriyama M, et al. Autoantibody to gravin is expressed more strongly in younger and nonthymomatous patients with myasthenia gravis. Surg Today. 2001;31:1036-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that antigravin antibody activities could be a useful prognostic factor and that the gravin antibody of MG may have a function which prevents the protein A-kinase binding pathway. ..
  56. Suren D, Yildirim M, Alikanoglu A, Kaya V, Yildiz M, Dilli U, et al. Lack of relation of AKAP12 with p53 and Bcl-2 in colorectal carcinoma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15:3415-8 pubmed
    b>AKAP12 inhibits oncogenic proliferation, invasion, chemotaxis and neovascularization. Bcl-2 and p53 are two important apoptotic markers that play roles in apoptotic processes...
  57. Goeppert B, Schmezer P, Dutruel C, Oakes C, Renner M, Breinig M, et al. Down-regulation of tumor suppressor A kinase anchor protein 12 in human hepatocarcinogenesis by epigenetic mechanisms. Hepatology. 2010;52:2023-33 pubmed publisher
    The A kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) is a central mediator of protein kinase A and protein kinase C signaling...
  58. Liu W, Gong J, Hu J, Hu T, Sun Y, Du J, et al. Quantitative assessment of AKAP12 promoter methylation in human prostate cancer using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting: correlation with Gleason score. Urology. 2011;77:1006.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    To quantitatively investigate the A kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) gene promoter methylation and its association with clinicopathologic variables in human prostate cancer (PCa)...
  59. Turtoi A, Mottet D, Matheus N, Dumont B, Peixoto P, Hennequière V, et al. The angiogenesis suppressor gene AKAP12 is under the epigenetic control of HDAC7 in endothelial cells. Angiogenesis. 2012;15:543-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Among several proteins, A-kinase anchor protein 12 (AKAP12) was the most reproducibly up-regulated protein following HDAC7 depletion...
  60. Yang X. Identification of risk genes associated with myocardial infarction based on the recursive feature elimination algorithm and support vector machine classifier. Mol Med Rep. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..9278 and an average false positive of 0.2361. A?kinase?anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) and glycine receptor ?2 (GLRA2) were two risk genes in the SVM classifier...
  61. Michel J, Scott J. AKAP mediated signal transduction. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2002;42:235-57 pubmed
    ..This review details the most recent advances in our understanding of the various biological functions dependent upon AKAP-anchored signaling complexes. ..
  62. Tao J, Wang H, Malbon C. Protein kinase A regulates AKAP250 (gravin) scaffold binding to the beta2-adrenergic receptor. EMBO J. 2003;22:6419-29 pubmed
    A-kinase-anchoring protein 250 (AKAP250; gravin) acts as a scaffold that binds protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C and protein phosphatases, associating reversibly with the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor...
  63. Poppinga W, Heijink I, Holtzer L, Skroblin P, Klussmann E, Halayko A, et al. A-kinase-anchoring proteins coordinate inflammatory responses to cigarette smoke in airway smooth muscle. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;308:L766-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that CSE exposure of ASM cells decreases AKAP5 and AKAP12, both capable of interacting with β2-adrenoceptors...
  64. Li X, Huang J, Yuan D, Cheng C, Shen A, Zhang D, et al. HSPA12B regulates SSeCKS-mediated astrocyte inflammatory activation in neuroinflammation. Exp Cell Res. 2015;339:310-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, it was reported that Src-Suppressed-C Kinase Substrate (SSeCKS) was detected in heat shock protein A12B (HSPA12B) interacting proteins using a yeast 2-hybrid system...
  65. Chen M, Malbon C. G-protein-coupled receptor-associated A-kinase anchoring proteins AKAP5 and AKAP12: differential trafficking and distribution. Cell Signal. 2009;21:136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..AKAP5 and AKAP12 are multivalent (with respect to protein kinases and phosphatases) and display the ability to associate with the ..
  66. Jarrett S, Wolf Horrell E, D Orazio J. AKAP12 mediates PKA-induced phosphorylation of ATR to enhance nucleotide excision repair. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:10711-10726 pubmed
    ..response for sensing and responding to UV-induced DNA damage regulated by A-kinase-anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12)...
  67. Sato N, Kokame K, Shimokado K, Kato H, Miyata T. Changes of gene expression by lysophosphatidylcholine in vascular endothelial cells: 12 up-regulated distinct genes including 5 cell growth-related, 3 thrombosis-related, and 4 others. J Biochem. 1998;123:1119-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, lysoPC apparently accelerates atherosclerosis by regulating the expression of a wide variety of genes. Our data suggest the involvement in atherogenesis of the genes hitherto regarded as atherosclerosis-unrelated. ..
  68. Chen Y, Chang W, Hsu Y, Chen C, Kuo P. Deduction of Novel Genes Potentially Involved in Osteoblasts of Rheumatoid Arthritis Using Next-Generation Sequencing and Bioinformatic Approaches. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Two genes of interest identified from RA osteoblasts, A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) and leucin rich repeat containing 15 (LRRC15), were found to express more consistently in the related ..
  69. Lester L, Scott J. Anchoring and scaffold proteins for kinases and phosphatases. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1997;52:409-29; discussion 429-30 pubmed
    ..In addition, multivalent binding proteins such as AKAP79 and AKAP250 have been characterized and appear to serve as platforms for the assembly of kinase/phosphatase signaling ..
  70. Xie W, Su W, Zhang L, Shang Q, Su B. SSeCKS/AKAP12 induces repulsion between human prostate cancer and microvessel endothelial cells through the activation of Semaphorin 3F. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1394-1398 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that SSeCKS/AKAP12 induced repulsion between human prostate cancer and microvessel endothelial cells, which was mediated by an ..
  71. Bateman N, Jaworski E, Ao W, Wang G, Litzi T, Dubil E, et al. Elevated AKAP12 in paclitaxel-resistant serous ovarian cancer cells is prognostic and predictive of poor survival in patients. J Proteome Res. 2015;14:1900-10 pubmed publisher
    ..05) from paclitaxel-sensitive vs -resistant HGSOC cell secretomes, AKAP12 was verified to be elevated in all models of paclitaxel-resistant HGSOC...
  72. Yildirim M, Suren D, Yildiz M, Sezgin Alikanoglu A, Eryilmaz R, Goktas S, et al. AKAP12/Gravin gene expression in colorectal cancer: clinical importance and review of the literature. J BUON. 2013;18:635-40 pubmed
    ..A-kinase-anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) plays a role in cell proliferation, angiogenesis and cytoskeletal remodeling...
  73. Yildirim M, Paydas S, Tanriverdi K, Seydaoglu G, Disel U, Yavuz S. Gravin gene expression in acute leukaemias: clinical importance and review of the literature. Leuk Lymphoma. 2007;48:1167-72 pubmed
    ..Because of paradoxical results, there is a need for more studies exploring gravin isoforms and other related gene expressions. ..
  74. Streb J, Miano J. AKAP12alpha, an atypical serum response factor-dependent target gene. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4125-34 pubmed
    We recently identified three AKAP12 isoforms that are differentially regulated by distinct promoters...
  75. Xia W, Ni J, Zhuang J, Qian L, Wang P, Wang J. MiR-103 regulates hepatocellular carcinoma growth by targeting AKAP12. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016;71:1-11 pubmed publisher
    AKAP12/Gravin (A kinase anchor protein 12) belongs to the group of A-kinase scaffold proteins and functions as a tumor suppressor in some human primary cancers...
  76. Cha J, Wee H, Seo J, Ahn B, Park J, Yang J, et al. Prompt meningeal reconstruction mediated by oxygen-sensitive AKAP12 scaffolding protein after central nervous system injury. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4952 pubmed publisher
    ..b>AKAP12 is an effector of this mechanism, and its expression in meningeal cells is regulated by integrated upstream ..
  77. Radeva M, Kugelmann D, Spindler V, Waschke J. PKA compartmentalization via AKAP220 and AKAP12 contributes to endothelial barrier regulation. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e106733 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, membrane localization of AKAP220 was also reduced. In addition, depletion of either AKAP12 or AKAP220 significantly impaired endothelial barrier function and AKAP12 was also shown to interfere with cAMP-..
  78. Liu W, Guan M, Hu T, Gu X, Lu Y. Re-expression of AKAP12 inhibits progression and metastasis potential of colorectal carcinoma in vivo and in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24015 pubmed publisher
    AKAP12/Gravin (A kinase anchor protein 12) is one of the A-kinase scaffold proteins and a potential tumor suppressor gene in human primary cancers...
  79. Piontek J, Brandt R. Differential and regulated binding of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C isoenzymes to gravin in human model neurons: Evidence that gravin provides a dynamic platform for the localization for kinases during neuronal development. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38970-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together the data suggest that gravin provides a dynamic platform to localize kinases in an isoenzyme-specific and activation-dependent manner at specific sites in neurons. ..
  80. Rhim J, Jang I, Yeo E, Song K, Park S. Role of protein kinase C-dependent A-kinase anchoring proteins in lysophosphatidic acid-induced cAMP signaling in human diploid fibroblasts. Aging Cell. 2006;5:451-61 pubmed
  81. Muramatsu M, Gao L, Peresie J, Balderman B, Akakura S, Gelman I. SSeCKS/AKAP12 scaffolding functions suppress B16F10-induced peritoneal metastasis by attenuating CXCL9/10 secretion by resident fibroblasts. Oncotarget. 2017;8:70281-70298 pubmed publisher
    SSeCKS/Gravin/AKAP12 (SSeCKS) is a kinase scaffolding protein known to suppress metastasis by attenuating tumor-intrinsic PKC- and Src-mediated signaling pathways [1]...
  82. Choi M, Lee Y, Kim S, Lee J, Park J, Streb J, et al. Overexpression of A-kinase anchoring protein 12A activates sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 and enhances cholesterol efflux in hepatic cells. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:2534-43 pubmed publisher
    A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) is known to function as a scaffold protein and as a putative tumor suppressor. However, little is known about the biological role of AKAP12 in hepatic cells...
  83. Choi M, Lee Y, Kim S, Park J, Kim H, Oh D, et al. A-kinase anchoring protein 12 regulates the completion of cytokinesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;373:85-9 pubmed publisher
    A-kinase anchoring protein 12 (AKAP12) gene is frequently inactivated in human gastric cancer and in several other cancers due to promoter hypermethylation...
  84. Streb J, Miano J. Cross-species sequence analysis reveals multiple charged residue-rich domains that regulate nuclear/cytoplasmic partitioning and membrane localization of a kinase anchoring protein 12 (SSeCKS/Gravin). J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28007-14 pubmed
    ..sequence analysis and deletion mapping to facilitate the identification of the targeting determinants of AKAP12 (also known as SSeCKS or Gravin)...