Gene Symbol: AGT
Description: angiotensinogen
Alias: ANHU, SERPINA8, hFLT1, angiotensinogen, alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, fetal-liver predominant transporter 1, pre-angiotensinogen, serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, serpin A8, serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A, member 8
Species: human
Products:     AGT

Top Publications

  1. Wang T, Chen Z, Jin S, Su Q. Correlation between angiotensinogen gene and primary hypertension with cerebral infarction in the Li nationality of China. Neurosci Bull. 2007;23:287-92 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship of four single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotypes in the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene to the primary hypertension with or without cerebral infarction in the Li nationality of Hainan, China...
  2. Ghazali D, Rehman A, Rahman A. Candidate gene polymorphisms and their association with hypertension in Malays. Clin Chim Acta. 2008;388:46-50 pubmed
    ..A single nucleotide variant of the angiotensinogene gene (AGT M235T) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (eNOS G894T) have been associated with hypertension...
  3. Wu C, Luo J, Wu X, Tsai C, Lin J, Hwang J, et al. A propensity score-based case-control study of renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms and diastolic heart failure. Atherosclerosis. 2009;205:497-502 pubmed publisher
    ..gene insertion/deletion polymorphism; the T174M, M235T, G-6A, A-20C, G-152A and G-217A polymorphisms of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene; and the A1166C polymorphisms of the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) gene...
  4. Jiang X, Sheng H, Li J, Xun P, Cheng Y, Huang J, et al. Association between renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphism and essential hypertension: a community-based study. J Hum Hypertens. 2009;23:176-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined six polymorphisms in the main component genes of RAS: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (I/D), angiotensinogen (AGT) (A-6G, A-20C, G-217A and T174 M) and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) (A1166C)...
  5. Knyrim E, Muetze S, Eggermann T, Rudnik Schoeneborn S, Lindt R, Ortlepp J, et al. Genetic analysis of the angiotensinogen gene in pre-eclampsia: study of german women and review of the literature. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2008;66:203-8 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the influence of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene on the individual predisposition to pre-eclampsia, we screened the AGT gene for pathogenic mutations and an association of identified polymorphisms in German women with pre-..
  6. Zafarmand M, van der Schouw Y, Grobbee D, de Leeuw P, Bots M. The M235T polymorphism in the AGT gene and CHD risk: evidence of a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium violation and publication bias in a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2533 pubmed publisher
    The M235T polymorphism in the AGT gene has been related to an increased risk of hypertension. This finding may also suggest an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)...
  7. Ying C, Wang Y, Wu Z, Fang M, Wang J, Li Y, et al. Association of the renin gene polymorphism, three angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms and the haplotypes with essential hypertension in the Mongolian population. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2010;32:293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Angiotensinogen (AGT) is the precursor of potent vasoactive hormone angiotensin II and the AGT gene has been incriminated as ..
  8. Mehri S, Mahjoub S, Farhati A, Bousaada R, Ben Arab S, Baudin B, et al. Angiotensinogen gene polymorphism in acute myocardial infarction patients. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2011;12:42-7 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the study was to explore the role of a genetic variant of angiotensinogen (AGT), M235T, as an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to investigate the possible association with the severity of ..
  9. Zafarmand M, Franx A, Sabour S, van der Schouw Y, Grobbee D, de Leeuw P, et al. The M235T variant of the angiotensinogen gene is related to development of self-reported hypertension during pregnancy: the Prospect-EPIC cohort study. Hypertens Res. 2008;31:1299-305 pubmed publisher
    b>Angiotensinogen gene (AGT) M235T polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of hypertension. It is unknown whether this mutation also leads to an increased risk of development of high blood pressure (BP) in pregnancy...

More Information


  1. Smilde T, Zuurman M, Hillege H, van Veldhuisen D, van Gilst W, van der Steege G, et al. Renal function dependent association of AGTR1 polymorphism (A1166C) and electrocardiographic left-ventricular hypertrophy. Am J Hypertens. 2007;20:1097-103 pubmed
    ..II type-1 receptor (AGTR1 A1166C), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D), and angiotensinogen (AGT G-6A). The AGTR1 A1166C and ACE I/D polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium...
  2. Coto E, Palacín M, Martin M, Castro M, Reguero J, García C, et al. Functional polymorphisms in genes of the Angiotensin and Serotonin systems and risk of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: AT1R as a potential modifier. J Transl Med. 2010;8:64 pubmed publisher
    ..We genotyped five polymorphisms of the AGT, ACE, AT1R, 5-HT2A, and 5-HTT genes in 245 patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM; 205 without an ..
  3. Campbell C, Fang B, Guo X, Peralta C, Psaty B, Rich S, et al. Associations between genetic variants in the ACE, AGT, AGTR1 and AGTR2 genes and renal function in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Am J Nephrol. 2010;32:156-62 pubmed publisher
    Some studies suggest that polymorphisms in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II type I receptor (AGTR1) and angiotensin II type II receptor (AGTR2) genes may contribute to renal function variation...
  4. Garrido A, Griendling K. NADPH oxidases and angiotensin II receptor signaling. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;302:148-58 pubmed publisher
    ..many studies have demonstrated the importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by NADPH oxidases in angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling, as well as a role for ROS in the development of different diseases in which Ang II is a ..
  5. Motawi T, Shaker O, Taha M, Sedrak H, Nabil M. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase and angiotensinogen gene polymorphism in coronary artery diseases in Egypt. Angiology. 2011;62:191-7 pubmed publisher
    ..healthy individuals to assess the association of endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS) polymorphism (Glu298Asp) and angiotensinogen polymorphisms (M235T) and CAD in an Egyptian population...
  6. Pavkova Goldbergova M, Spinarova L, Spinar J, Parenica J, Sišková L, Groch L, et al. Difference in angiotensinogen haplotype frequencies between chronic heart failure and advanced atherosclerosis patients - new prognostic factor?. Physiol Res. 2011;60:55-64 pubmed
    Numerous association studies have been involved in studying the angiotensinogen (AGT) variants, AGT plasma levels and relations to cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease...
  7. Niu W, Qi Y, Cen W, Cui C, Zhuoma C, Cai D, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of angiotensinogen and essential hypertension in a Tibetan population. Hypertens Res. 2007;30:1129-37 pubmed publisher
    The human angiotensinogen gene (AGT) is a promising candidate for an essential hypertension-susceptibility gene...
  8. Masuyer G, Schwager S, Sturrock E, Isaac R, Acharya K. Molecular recognition and regulation of human angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) activity by natural inhibitory peptides. Sci Rep. 2012;2:717 pubmed publisher
    ..ACE is primarily known for its ability to cleave angiotensin I (Ang I) to the vasoactive octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II), but is also able to cleave a number of other substrates including the vasodilator bradykinin and N-..
  9. Kobori H, Alper A, Shenava R, Katsurada A, Saito T, Ohashi N, et al. Urinary angiotensinogen as a novel biomarker of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system status in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 2009;53:344-50 pubmed publisher
    We reported previously that urinary angiotensinogen (UAGT) levels provide a specific index of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) status in angiotensin II-dependent hypertensive rats...
  10. van den Born B, van Montfrans G, Uitterlinden A, Zwinderman A, Koopmans R. The M235T polymorphism in the angiotensinogen gene is associated with the risk of malignant hypertension in white patients. J Hypertens. 2007;25:2227-33 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we compared the allelic frequencies of the angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T, angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) and angiotensin II-type I receptor (..
  11. Konopka A, Szperl M, Piotrowski W, Roszczynko M, Stepinska J. Influence of renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms on the risk of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction and association with coronary artery disease risk factors. Mol Diagn Ther. 2011;15:167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) gene 1166A/C polymorphism and two polymorphisms of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene (Met235Thr and Thr174Met) in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who ..
  12. Mohana V, Swapna N, Surender R, Vishnupriya S, Padma T. Gender-related association of AGT gene variants (M235T and T174M) with essential hypertension--a case-control study. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2012;34:38-44 pubmed publisher
    The human angiotensinogen (AGT) is a promising candidate gene for evaluating susceptibility to essential hypertension (EH). We aimed to assess the association of the variants of AGT gene and the extent of risk involved in developing EH...
  13. Turgut S, Akin F, Akcılar R, Ayada C, Turgut G. Angiotensin converting enzyme I/D, angiotensinogen M235T and AT1-R A/C1166 gene polymorphisms in patients with acromegaly. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to investigate association between the frequencies of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) I/D, angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) A/C1166 gene polymorphisms and some clinical ..
  14. Ragia G, Nikolaidis E, Tavridou A, Arvanitidis K, Kanoni S, Dedoussis G, et al. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene polymorphisms in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2010;11:136-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the association of polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1) receptor) with severe CAD in CABG patients...
  15. Chen X, Wang S, Wang X, Lu M, Jin L. [Study on the association of predisposing genes with essential hypertension among Kazakhs ethnic group in Xinjiang]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2008;29:752-6 pubmed
    To investigate the association between M235T and G-6A polymorphism of AGT gene, insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of ACE gene, Gly460Trp polymorphism of ADD1 gene, C825T polymorphism of GNB3 gene and essential hypertension in ..
  16. Abboud N, Ghazouani L, Kaabi B, Ben Hadj Khalifa S, Addad F, Marwen M, et al. Evaluation of the contribution of renin angiotensin system polymorphisms to the risk of coronary artery disease among Tunisians. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2010;14:661-6 pubmed publisher
    ..between these polymorphisms (angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] insertion/deletion [Ins/Del]; the angiotensinogen T174M and M235T; and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor A1166C polymorphisms) and CAD in Tunisians...
  17. Mills K, Kobori H, Hamm L, Alper A, Khan I, Rahman M, et al. Increased urinary excretion of angiotensinogen is associated with risk of chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:3176-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the association between urinary angiotensinogen, a reliable biomarker of intrarenal RAS activity, and risk of CKD in 201 patients and 201 controls...
  18. Pereira T, Nunes A, Rudnicki M, Yamada Y, Pereira A, Krieger J. Meta-analysis of the association of 4 angiotensinogen polymorphisms with essential hypertension: a role beyond M235T?. Hypertension. 2008;51:778-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Angiotensinogen (AGT) gene polymorphisms have been linked to increased risk of hypertension, but the data remain controversial...
  19. Zakrzewski Jakubiak M, de Denus S, Dube M, Belanger F, White M, Turgeon J. Ten renin-angiotensin system-related gene polymorphisms in maximally treated Canadian Caucasian patients with heart failure. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2008;65:742-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the angiotensinogen (AGT) 235 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may be associated with heart failure in our population and ..
  20. Jain S, Tillinger A, Mopidevi B, Pandey V, Chauhan C, Fiering S, et al. Transgenic mice with -6A haplotype of the human angiotensinogen gene have increased blood pressure compared with -6G haplotype. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:41172-86 pubmed publisher
    Hypertension is a serious risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene locus is associated with human essential hypertension...
  21. Kamiyama M, Urushihara M, Morikawa T, Konishi Y, Imanishi M, Nishiyama A, et al. Oxidative stress/angiotensinogen/renin-angiotensin system axis in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:23045-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In rodent models, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important for intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) augmentation in the progression of diabetic nephropathy...
  22. Polugari Prem Kumar Manohar Rao -, Munshi A, Mullapudi R, Potham Sampath Kumar -, Sharath A, Gundala Anil Krishna -, et al. The M235T polymorphism of the angiotensinogen gene in South Indian patients of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2011;12:238-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of the present study was to examine the association of the T704C polymorphism of exon 2 of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene with HCM in a South Indian population from Andhra Pradesh. Subjects and methods...
  23. Nishiyama A, Konishi Y, Ohashi N, Morikawa T, Urushihara M, Maeda I, et al. Urinary angiotensinogen reflects the activity of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system in patients with IgA nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:170-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was performed to test the hypothesis that urinary angiotensinogen provides a specific index of intrarenal RAS status in patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy...
  24. Desong Liu -, Fang Lu -, Songhui Zhai -, Liu Wei -, Shi Ma -, Xiuying Chen -, et al. Renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms in children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura in West China. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2010;11:248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..001; p(alleo) = .007, OR(alleo) = 1.533, respectively). We also found correlations between ACE-I/D and Agt T174M with multiple organ involvements, with significant differences in ACE-D in renal groups (p < 0...
  25. Lin J, Hu F, Qi L, Curhan G. Genetic polymorphisms of angiotensin-2 type 1 receptor and angiotensinogen and risk of renal dysfunction and coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. BMC Nephrol. 2009;10:9 pubmed publisher
    ..dysfunction, but limited data are available on associations between angiotensin type 1 receptor (AGT1R) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genotypes in type 2 diabetes...
  26. Fang Y, Deng H, Thomas G, Tzang C, Li C, Xu Z, et al. Linkage of angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms with hypertension in a sibling study of Hong Kong Chinese. J Hypertens. 2010;28:1203-9 pubmed publisher
    The angiotensinogen gene has been linked with human essential hypertension in whites but the relationship in Asian populations has been less consistent...
  27. Mehri S, Koubaa N, Hammami S, Mahjoub S, Chaaba R, Nakbi A, et al. Genotypic interactions of renin-angiotensin system genes with diabetes type 2 in a Tunisian population. Life Sci. 2010;87:49-54 pubmed publisher
    To explore the role of genetic variants of angiotensinogen (AGT M235T), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE I/D), and angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R A1166C) as predictors of diabetes risk and to examine their combined effects on type 2 ..
  28. Ji L, Zhang L, Shen P, Wang P, Zhang Y, Xing W, et al. Association of angiotensinogen gene M235T and angiotensin-converting enzyme gene I/D polymorphisms with essential hypertension in Han Chinese population: a meta-analysis. J Hypertens. 2010;28:419-28 pubmed publisher
    The polymorphisms of angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes have been linked to increased risk of essential hypertension in multiple populations, but the results were inconsistent...
  29. Ortlepp J, Lauscher J, Janssens U, Minkenberg R, Hanrath P, Hoffmann R. Analysis of several hundred genetic polymorphisms may improve assessment of the individual genetic burden for coronary artery disease. Eur J Intern Med. 2002;13:485-492 pubmed
    ..An analysis of multiple polymorphisms, some several hundred, each with a small impact, may allow improved assessment of the individual genetic burden for CAD. Larger studies are needed to prove this hypothesis. ..
  30. Sekuri C, Cam F, Ercan E, Tengiz I, Sagcan A, Eser E, et al. Renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms and premature coronary heart disease. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2005;6:38-42 pubmed
    ..Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor and angiotensinogen (AGT) gene polymorphisms were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length ..
  31. Liu Y, Qin W, Hou S, Shan G, Zhuo M, Chen Y, et al. A-6G variant of the angiotensinogen gene and essential hypertension in Han, Tibetan, and Yi populations. Hypertens Res. 2001;24:159-63 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship between the A-6G variant in the promoter of the angiotensinogen gene and essential hypertension in Han, Tibetan, and Yi populations. All patients with essential hypertension were selected by WHO criteria...
  32. Buraczynska M, Pijanowski Z, Spasiewicz D, Nowicka T, Sodolski T, Widomska Czekajska T, et al. Renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms: assessment of the risk of coronary heart disease. Kardiol Pol. 2003;58:1-9 pubmed
    ..Angiotensinconverting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) gene polymorphisms are considered risk factors in coronary ..
  33. Brezniceanu M, Liu F, Wei C, Tran S, Sachetelli S, Zhang S, et al. Catalase overexpression attenuates angiotensinogen expression and apoptosis in diabetic mice. Kidney Int. 2007;71:912-23 pubmed
    ..Hyperglycemic conditions increase oxidative stress and angiotensinogen gene expression...
  34. Wierzbicki A, Lambert Hammill M, Lumb P, Crook M. Renin-angiotensin system polymorphisms and coronary events in familial hypercholesterolemia. Hypertension. 2000;36:808-12 pubmed
    ..Polymorphism frequencies for angiotensin-I-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D), angiotensinogen M235T, and angiotensin-II type I receptor (AG2R) A1166C were determined in 112 patients with FH and 72 ..
  35. Ward K, Hata A, Jeunemaitre X, Helin C, Nelson L, Namikawa C, et al. A molecular variant of angiotensinogen associated with preeclampsia. Nat Genet. 1993;4:59-61 pubmed
    ..hypertension, we have observed a significant association of preeclampsia with a molecular variant of angiotensinogen, T235, found previously to be associated with essential hypertension...
  36. Inoue I, Rohrwasser A, Helin C, Jeunemaitre X, Crain P, Bohlender J, et al. A mutation of angiotensinogen in a patient with preeclampsia leads to altered kinetics of the renin-angiotensin system. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:11430-6 pubmed
    b>Angiotensinogen exhibits genetic linkage to and association with essential hypertension and preeclampsia, a common hypertensive disorder of pregnancy; however, the polymorphisms detected thus far provide no functional clues...
  37. Buraczynska M, Ksiazek P, Łopatyński J, Spasiewicz D, Nowicka T, Ksiazek A. [Association of the renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphism with nephropathy in type II diabetes]. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2002;108:725-30 pubmed
    ..polymorphisms: insertion/deletion (I/D) of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE), M235T of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and A1166C of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (AT1R) were evaluated by polymerase chain ..
  38. Medica I, Kastrin A, Peterlin B. Genetic polymorphisms in vasoactive genes and preeclampsia: a meta-analysis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007;131:115-26 pubmed
    There are controversies in reports on the association of polymorphisms in endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensinogen, angiotensin receptor type 1 and angiotensin-converting enzyme genes with an increased risk of developing ..
  39. Kardia S, Bielak L, Lange L, Cheverud J, Boerwinkle E, Turner S, et al. Epistatic effects between two genes in the renin-angiotensin system and systolic blood pressure and coronary artery calcification. Med Sci Monit. 2006;12:CR150-8 pubmed
    ..polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and the -6 promoter polymorphism of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene...
  40. Lanz J, Pereira A, Lemos P, Martinez E, Krieger J. Angiotensinogen M235T polymorphism is associated with coronary artery disease severity. Clin Chim Acta. 2005;362:176-81 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study is to determine if there is an association between the M235T variant of the angiotensinogen gene and severity of coronary artery disease in patients with clinically suspected disease undergoing ..
  41. Su X, Lee L, Li X, Lv J, Hu Y, Zhan S, et al. Association between angiotensinogen, angiotensin II receptor genes, and blood pressure response to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Circulation. 2007;115:725-32 pubmed
    ..response to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin receptor 1 (AGTR1), and angiotensin receptor 2 (AGTR2) genes were evaluated for their ..
  42. Fradin S, Goulet Salmon B, Chantepie M, Grandhomme F, Morello R, Jauzac P, et al. Relationship between polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system and nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Metab. 2002;28:27-32 pubmed
    ..ID ACE polymorphism modulates ACE level whereas M235T AGT polymorphism is involved in arterial hypertension...
  43. Hilgers K, Delles C, Veelken R, Schmieder R. Angiotensinogen gene core promoter variants and non-modulating hypertension. Hypertension. 2001;38:1250-4 pubmed
    ..We tested the hypothesis that functional polymorphisms of the core promoter of the angiotensinogen gene are associated with non-modulation...
  44. Rodriguez Perez J, Rodriguez Esparragon F, Hernández Perera O, Anabitarte A, Losada A, Medina A, et al. Association of angiotensinogen M235T and A(-6)G gene polymorphisms with coronary heart disease with independence of essential hypertension: the PROCAGENE study. Prospective Cardiac Gene. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;37:1536-42 pubmed
    We examined the relationship between the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene M235T polymorphism, the variant promoter of the AGT gene A(-6)G and the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism and coronary heart ..
  45. Berdeli A, Sekuri C, Sirri Cam F, Ercan E, Sagcan A, Tengiz I, et al. Association between the eNOS (Glu298Asp) and the RAS genes polymorphisms and premature coronary artery disease in a Turkish population. Clin Chim Acta. 2005;351:87-94 pubmed
    ..A total of 115 Turkish patients with premature CAD and 83 controls were included in the study. ACE I/D, AT1R A/C, AGT T/M and eNOS Glu298Asp gene polymorphisms were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment ..
  46. Cai S, Shi Y, Yu F, Xu G. [Association of angiotensinogen gene M235T variant with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2004;21:280-2 pubmed
    To evaluate the influence of the angiotensinogen(AGT) gene M235T variant on the prevalence and severity of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(HCM)...
  47. Sato N, Katsuya T, Nakagawa T, Ishikawa K, Fu Y, Asai T, et al. Nine polymorphisms of angiotensinogen gene in the susceptibility to essential hypertension. Life Sci. 2000;68:259-72 pubmed
    Even if the importance of angiotensinogen (AGT) gene has been known in gene targeting animals and humans genetic studies, its precise mechanism and the interaction among AGT gene variants, plasma AGT concentration and risk for ..
  48. Tsai C, Fallin D, Chiang F, Hwang J, Lai L, Hsu K, et al. Angiotensinogen gene haplotype and hypertension: interaction with ACE gene I allele. Hypertension. 2003;41:9-15 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we used haplotype analyses of the angiotensinogen gene with a new permutation-based hypothesis testing method to determine the association between multilocus ..
  49. Jurkovicova D, Sedlakova B, Riecansky I, Goncalvesova E, Penesova A, Kvetnansky R, et al. Cardiovascular diseases and molecular variants of the renin-angiotensin system components in Slovak population. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2007;26:27-32 pubmed
    ..We examined frequencies of the M235T variant of angiotensinogen gene and I/D polymorphism of gene for angiotensin-converting enzyme in Slovak population: in hypertensive ..
  50. Nguyen G, Delarue F, Burckle C, Bouzhir L, Giller T, Sraer J. Pivotal role of the renin/prorenin receptor in angiotensin II production and cellular responses to renin. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:1417-27 pubmed
    ..The binding of renin induced a fourfold increase of the catalytic efficiency of angiotensinogen conversion to angiotensin I and induced an intracellular signal with phosphorylation of serine and tyrosine ..
  51. Velez D, Guruju M, Vinukonda G, Prater A, Kumar A, Williams S. Angiotensinogen promoter sequence variants in essential hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2006;19:1278-85 pubmed
    Essential hypertension is a complex multifactorial disease caused by ill-defined genetic factors. The angiotensinogen (AGT) gene has been implicated as a risk factor in essential hypertension...
  52. Fabris B, Bortoletto M, Candido R, Barbone F, Cattin M, Calci M, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and renal insufficiency in essential hypertension. J Hypertens. 2005;23:309-16 pubmed
    ..Genotyping for insertion/deletion of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE I/D), angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) A1166C and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) -344C/T ..
  53. Prasad P, Tiwari A, Kumar K, Ammini A, Gupta A, Gupta R, et al. Chronic renal insufficiency among Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes: I. Role of RAAS gene polymorphisms. BMC Med Genet. 2006;7:42 pubmed
    ..Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from six genes namely-renin (REN), angiotensinogen (ATG), angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) and aldosterone synthase (..
  54. Procopciuc L, Popescu T, Jebeleanu G, Pop D, Zdrenghea D. Essential arterial hypertension and polymorphism of angiotensinogen M235T gene. J Cell Mol Med. 2002;6:245-50 pubmed
    ..One of these candidate genes is the gene encoding for angiotensinogen (the most important gene of the RAS associated with essential hypertension in the most population, is the ..
  55. Zhu X, Chang Y, Yan D, Weder A, Cooper R, Luke A, et al. Associations between hypertension and genes in the renin-angiotensin system. Hypertension. 2003;41:1027-34 pubmed
    ..We genotyped 25 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system genes ACE, AGT, AGTR1, and REN...
  56. Kurland L, Liljedahl U, Karlsson J, Kahan T, Malmqvist K, Melhus H, et al. Angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms: relationship to blood pressure response to antihypertensive treatment. Results from the Swedish Irbesartan Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Investigation vs Atenolol (SILVHIA) trial. Am J Hypertens. 2004;17:8-13 pubmed
    ..The BP reductions were similar in the atenolol and the irbesartan groups. Presence of the angiotensinogen (AGT) -6A allele or the AGT 235T allele were both associated with the most pronounced systolic BP response to ..
  57. Renner W, Nauck M, Winkelmann B, Hoffmann M, Scharnagl H, Mayer V, et al. Association of angiotensinogen haplotypes with angiotensinogen levels but not with blood pressure or coronary artery disease: the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study. J Mol Med (Berl). 2005;83:235-9 pubmed
    b>Angiotensinogen and its cleaved forms angiotensin I and angiotensin II are important regulators of blood pressure...
  58. Kurland L, Melhus H, Karlsson J, Kahan T, Malmqvist K, Ohman P, et al. Polymorphisms in the angiotensinogen and angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene are related to change in left ventricular mass during antihypertensive treatment: results from the Swedish Irbesartan Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Investigation versus Ateno. J Hypertens. 2002;20:657-63 pubmed
    ..The angiotensinogen T174M and M235T, the angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D, the AT1-receptor A1166C and the aldosterone synthase (..
  59. Konoshita T, Miyagi K, Onoe T, Katano K, Mutoh H, Nomura H, et al. Effect of ACE gene polymorphism on age at renal death in polycystic kidney disease in Japan. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;37:113-118 pubmed
    ..with PKD were genotyped for several components of the RAS, ie, ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, angiotensinogen (AGT) M235T, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) A1166C. Seventy-six of the 103 patients (73...
  60. Gimenez Roqueplo A, Celerier J, Lucarelli G, Corvol P, Jeunemaitre X. Role of N-glycosylation in human angiotensinogen. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:21232-8 pubmed
    Human angiotensinogen, the specific substrate of renin, is a heterogeneous glycoprotein constitutively secreted by the liver. Different glycosylation levels may be responsible for its heterogeneity...
  61. Goldbergova M, Spinarova L, Spinar J, Toman J, Vasku A, Vacha J. Association of two angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms, M235T and G(-6)A, with chronic heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2003;89:267-72 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to focus on the relationship between the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene polymorphisms, M235T and promoter G(-6)A, and chronic heart failure in the Czech population...
  62. Rice G, Thomas D, Grant P, Turner A, Hooper N. Evaluation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), its homologue ACE2 and neprilysin in angiotensin peptide metabolism. Biochem J. 2004;383:45-51 pubmed
    ..system), Ang I (angiotensin I) is cleaved by ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) to form Ang II (angiotensin II), which has effects on blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte homoeostasis...
  63. Pereira A, Mota G, Cunha R, Herbenhoff F, Mill J, Krieger J. Angiotensinogen 235T allele "dosage" is associated with blood pressure phenotypes. Hypertension. 2003;41:25-30 pubmed
    ..the association of specific functional gene variants of the renin-angiotensin system, ACE (I/D) and angiotensinogen (M/T) genes, with blood pressure phenotypes (systolic, mean, diastolic, and pulse pressure), in an ethnically ..
  64. Ranjith N, Pegoraro R, Rom L, Lanning P, Naidoo D. Renin-angiotensin system and associated gene polymorphisms in myocardial infarction in young South African Indians. Cardiovasc J S Afr. 2004;15:22-6 pubmed
    ..system, such as the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene, angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor gene and angiotensinogen (AGT) gene, may cause a variety of adverse cardiovascular effects...
  65. Hu W, Fukuda N, Ikeda Y, Suzuki R, Tahira Y, Takagi H, et al. Human-derived vascular smooth muscle cells produce angiotensin II by changing to the synthetic phenotype. J Cell Physiol. 2003;196:284-92 pubmed
    ..These findings implicate a new mechanism for the pathogenesis of human vascular proliferative diseases. ..
  66. Araújo M, Goulart L, Cordeiro E, Gatti R, Menezes B, Lourenço C, et al. Genotypic interactions of renin-angiotensin system genes in myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol. 2005;103:27-32 pubmed
    ..Polymorphisms of the AGT (M235T), ACE (I/D) and AGTR1 (A1166C) genes in AMI patients and controls were analyzed using the polymerase chain ..
  67. Sethi A, Nordestgaard B, Tybjaerg Hansen A. Angiotensinogen gene polymorphism, plasma angiotensinogen, and risk of hypertension and ischemic heart disease: a meta-analysis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003;23:1269-75 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the M235T polymorphism in the angiotensinogen gene was associated with angiotensinogen levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, and risk of ischemic cardiovascular ..
  68. Jeunemaitre X, Soubrier F, Kotelevtsev Y, Lifton R, Williams C, Charru A, et al. Molecular basis of human hypertension: role of angiotensinogen. Cell. 1992;71:169-80 pubmed
    ..sibships from widely separated geographical areas, we obtained evidence of genetic linkage between the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and hypertension, demonstrated association of AGT molecular variants with the disease, and found ..
  69. Zychma M, Zukowska Szczechowska E, Lacka B, Grzeszczak W. Angiotensinogen M235T and chymase gene CMA/B polymorphisms are not associated with nephropathy in type II diabetes. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2000;15:1965-70 pubmed
    ..This study examines a possible association between angiotensinogen M235T and chymase gene CMA/B polymorphisms with the presence of nephropathy in type II diabetic Caucasians...
  70. Ott C, Schwarz T, Hilgers K, Kreutz R, Schlaich M, Schmieder R. Left-ventricular structure and function are influenced by angiotensinogen gene polymorphism (-20 A/C) in young male patients. Am J Hypertens. 2007;20:974-80 pubmed
    ..questioned whether left-ventricular (LV) structure and function are influenced by the -20 A/C variant of the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene in young normotensive or mildly hypertensive patients...
  71. Lovati E, Richard A, Frey B, Frey F, Ferrari P. Genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int. 2001;60:46-54 pubmed
    ..Genes encoding for angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) are candidates for abnormal ..
  72. Sethi A, Nordestgaard B, Agerholm Larsen B, Frandsen E, Jensen G, Tybjaerg Hansen A. Angiotensinogen polymorphisms and elevated blood pressure in the general population: the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Hypertension. 2001;37:875-81 pubmed
    ..Homozygosity for both Thr235 and Thr174 was associated with a 10% increase in plasma angiotensinogen levels in both genders compared with homozygosity for Met235 and Thr174; however, systolic and diastolic ..