Gene Symbol: ADRB3
Description: adrenoceptor beta 3
Alias: BETA3AR, beta-3 adrenergic receptor, adrenergic, beta-3-, receptor, beta-3 adrenoceptor, beta-3 adrenoreceptor
Species: human
Products:     ADRB3

Top Publications

  1. Huang X, Hamajima N, Saito T, Matsuo K, Mizutani M, Iwata H, et al. Possible association of beta2- and beta3-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2001;3:264-9 pubmed
    The involvement of beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) and beta3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) in both adipocyte lipolysis and thermogenic activity suggests that polymorphisms in the encoding genes might be linked with interindividual ..
  2. Shiwaku K, Nogi A, Anuurad E, Kitajima K, Enkhmaa B, Shimono K, et al. Difficulty in losing weight by behavioral intervention for women with Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:1028-36 pubmed
  3. Rooyen J, Pretorius P, Britz M, Huisman H, Schutte A, Towers G, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of beta2- and beta3-adrenergic receptor genes associated with characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in black South African women. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2008;116:236-40 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variation in the beta2 (ADRB2) and beta3 (ADRB3) adrenergic receptor genes are associated with obesity and insulin resistance...
  4. Walston J, Andersen R, Seibert M, Hilfiker H, Beamer B, Blumenthal J, et al. Arg64 beta3-adrenoceptor variant and the components of energy expenditure. Obes Res. 2003;11:509-11 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the Arg64 beta(3)-adrenoceptor allele contributes significantly to the genetic variability in both RMR and TEF. ..
  5. Kahara T, Takamura T, Hayakawa T, Nagai Y, Yamaguchi H, Katsuki T, et al. Prediction of exercise-mediated changes in metabolic markers by gene polymorphism. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002;57:105-10 pubmed
    ..Polymorphisms of the beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3AR) and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) genes were analyzed with RFLP methods...
  6. Fujisawa T, Ikegami H, Yamato E, Takekawa K, Nakagawa Y, Hamada Y, et al. Association of Trp64Arg mutation of the beta3-adrenergic-receptor with NIDDM and body weight gain. Diabetologia. 1996;39:349-52 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the Trp64Arg mutation not only contributes to weight gain and age-at-onset of NIDDM but is also associated with susceptibility to NIDDM. ..
  7. Mirrakhimov A, Kerimkulova A, Lunegova O, Moldokeeva C, Zalesskaya Y, Abilova S, et al. An association between TRP64ARG polymorphism of the B3 adrenoreceptor gene and some metabolic disturbances. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011;10:89 pubmed publisher
    B3 adrenoreceptors (ADRB3) are abundant in adipose tissue and play the role in its metabolism and lipolysis...
  8. Oizumi T, Daimon M, Saitoh T, Kameda W, Yamaguchi H, Ohnuma H, et al. Genotype Arg/Arg, but not Trp/Arg, of the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in a large Japanese sample. Diabetes Care. 2001;24:1579-83 pubmed
    ..018), were higher in the genotype Arg/Arg than in the genotype Trp/Trp groups. Genotype Arg/Arg, but not Trp/Arg, of the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor was associated with both obesity and type 2 diabetes in a large Japanese sample. ..
  9. Strazzullo P, Iacone R, Siani A, Cappuccio F, Russo O, Barba G, et al. Relationship of the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenoceptor gene to central adiposity and high blood pressure: interaction with age. Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings of the Olivetti Prospective Heart Study. J Hypertens. 2001;19:399-406 pubmed
    ..6 versus 38.4%, P = 0.09) over 20 years. We conclude that the Trp64Arg variant of the beta3-AR receptor predicts a greater tendency to develop abdominal adiposity and high blood pressure with advancing age. ..

More Information


  1. Steinle J, Booz G, Meininger C, Day J, Granger H. Beta 3-adrenergic receptors regulate retinal endothelial cell migration and proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20681-6 pubmed
    ..These results support the hypothesis that beta3-adrenergic receptors play a role in proliferation and migration of cultured human retinal endothelial cells. ..
  2. Higashi K, Ishikawa T, Ito T, Yonemura A, Shige H, Nakamura H. Association of a genetic variation in the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene with coronary heart disease among Japanese. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;232:728-30 pubmed
    ..This mutation was associated with coronary heart disease and obesity but was not with glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in Japanese nationals. ..
  3. Kuriyama S, Shimazu T, Hozawa A, Kure S, Kurokawa N, Kakizaki M, et al. No effect of the Trp64Arg variant of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene on weight loss by diet and exercise intervention among Japanese adults. Metabolism. 2008;57:1570-5 pubmed publisher
    ..47 (95% CI, -1.97 to 1.02). These results suggest that the presence of the Trp64Arg variant of the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor gene may not play a major role as a hindrance to weight reduction. ..
  4. Sivenius K, Valve R, Lindi V, Niskanen L, Laakso M, Uusitupa M. Synergistic effect of polymorphisms in uncoupling protein 1 and beta3-adrenergic receptor genes on long-term body weight change in Finnish type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic control subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:514-9 pubmed
    To investigate the independent and combined effects of the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3AR) gene and the (-3826) A-->G polymorphism of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene on body weight change in type ..
  5. Terra S, McGorray S, Wu R, McNamara D, Cavallari L, Walker J, et al. Association between beta-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and their G-protein-coupled receptors with body mass index and obesity in women: a report from the NHLBI-sponsored WISE study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005;29:746-54 pubmed
    ..the association between obesity and polymorphisms in genes of the beta(1)AR (ADRB1), beta(2)AR (ADRB2), beta(3)AR (ADRB3), Gs protein alpha (GNAS1), to which all three beta-receptors couple and the G protein beta3 subunit (GNB3), to ..
  6. Wang X, Cui Y, Tong X, Ye H, Li S. Effects of the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene on insulin sensitivity in small for gestational age neonates. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:4981-5 pubmed
    ..SGA is an important factor that predisposes to insulin resistance, and the Trp64Arg beta3-AR gene polymorphism may contribute to insulin resistance associated with reduced fetal growth. ..
  7. Masuo K, Katsuya T, Fu Y, Rakugi H, Ogihara T, Tuck M. Beta2- and beta3-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms are related to the onset of weight gain and blood pressure elevation over 5 years. Circulation. 2005;111:3429-34 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms in association with a heightened sympathetic nerve activity could predict the future onset of obesity and hypertension, as shown in the 5-year longitudinal study. ..
  8. Stangl K, Cascorbi I, Laule M, Stangl V, Meisel C, Wernecke K, et al. The beta3-adrenergic receptor Trp64Arg mutation is not associated with coronary artery disease. Metabolism. 2001;50:184-8 pubmed
  9. Walston J, Silver K, Hilfiker H, Andersen R, Seibert M, Beamer B, et al. Insulin response to glucose is lower in individuals homozygous for the Arg 64 variant of the beta-3-adrenergic receptor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:4019-22 pubmed
  10. Katsumata K, Nishizawa K, Unno A, Fujita Y, Tokita A. Association of gene polymorphisms and bone density in Japanese girls. J Bone Miner Metab. 2002;20:164-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the Fok I polymorphism of the VDR gene and the Dra II polymorphism of the PTH gene are risk factors for low bone density in Japanese girls. ..
  11. Zhan S, Ho S. Meta-analysis of the association of the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3 adrenergic receptor with insulin resistance. Obes Res. 2005;13:1709-19 pubmed
    ..The current meta-analysis demonstrated the moderate effects of the Trp64Arg polymorphism on IR in the Asian population and in obese and diabetic subgroups. ..
  12. Zafarmand M, van der Schouw Y, Grobbee D, de Leeuw P, Bots M. T64A polymorphism in beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) and coronary heart disease: a case-cohort study and meta-analysis. J Intern Med. 2008;263:79-89 pubmed
    A missense mutation of the human ADRB3 gene replacing tryptophan with arginine at codon 64 (Trp64Arg) has been related to obesity, insulin resistance, earlier onset of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertension...
  13. Kawaguchi H, Masuo K, Katsuya T, Sugimoto K, Rakugi H, Ogihara T, et al. beta2- and beta3-Adrenoceptor polymorphisms relate to subsequent weight gain and blood pressure elevation in obese normotensive individuals. Hypertens Res. 2006;29:951-9 pubmed
    ..beta2- and beta3-adrenoceptor polymorphisms could predict the future BP elevation and further weight gain-induced BP elevation in originally obese subjects. ..
  14. Ellsworth D, Coady S, Chen W, Srinivasan S, Boerwinkle E, Berenson G. Interactive effects between polymorphisms in the beta-adrenergic receptors and longitudinal changes in obesity. Obes Res. 2005;13:519-26 pubmed
  15. Hao K, Peng S, Xing H, Yu Y, Huang A, Hong X, et al. beta(3) Adrenergic receptor polymorphism and obesity-related phenotypes in hypertensive patients. Obes Res. 2004;12:125-30 pubmed
    ..The beta(3) adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) is expressed in adipose tissue and plays a role in energy metabolism...
  16. Jaquet D, Tregouet D, Godefroy T, Nicaud V, Chevenne D, Tiret L, et al. Combined effects of genetic and environmental factors on insulin resistance associated with reduced fetal growth. Diabetes. 2002;51:3473-8 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha(G-308A), beta3 adrenoreceptor (ADRB3)(G+250C), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma2(Pro12Ala), key molecules of the adipose ..
  17. Miyaki K, Sutani S, Kikuchi H, Takei I, Murata M, Watanabe K, et al. Increased risk of obesity resulting from the interaction between high energy intake and the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene in healthy Japanese men. J Epidemiol. 2005;15:203-10 pubmed
    ..studies have investigated the interaction between the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) and environmental factors...
  18. Corella D, Guillen M, Portoles O, Sorli J, Alonso V, Folch J, et al. Gender specific associations of the Trp64Arg mutation in the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene with obesity-related phenotypes in a Mediterranean population: interaction with a common lipoprotein lipase gene variation. J Intern Med. 2001;250:348-60 pubmed
    To investigate the association between the Trp64Arg beta3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) mutation and obesity-related phenotypes in a Mediterranean Spanish population considering the effect of other genetic and environmental factors...
  19. Matsushita Y, Yokoyama T, Yoshiike N, Matsumura Y, Date C, Kawahara K, et al. The Trp(64)Arg polymorphism of the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor gene is not associated with body weight or body mass index in Japanese: a longitudinal analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:5914-20 pubmed
    The beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) is expressed mainly in visceral adipose tissue and is thought to contribute to lipolysis and the delivery of free fatty acids to the portal vein...
  20. Clement K, Vaisse C, Manning B, Basdevant A, Guy Grand B, Ruiz J, et al. Genetic variation in the beta 3-adrenergic receptor and an increased capacity to gain weight in patients with morbid obesity. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:352-4 pubmed
    ..02). People with the Trp64Arg mutation of the gene for the beta 3-adrenergic receptor may have an increased capacity to gain weight. ..
  21. Emorine L, Marullo S, Briend Sutren M, Patey G, Tate K, Delavier Klutchko C, et al. Molecular characterization of the human beta 3-adrenergic receptor. Science. 1989;245:1118-21 pubmed
    ..In particular, novel beta-AR agonists having high thermogenic, antiobesity, and antidiabetic activities in animal models are among the most potent stimulators of the beta 3-AR. ..
  22. Krief S, Lonnqvist F, Raimbault S, Baude B, van Spronsen A, Arner P, et al. Tissue distribution of beta 3-adrenergic receptor mRNA in man. J Clin Invest. 1993;91:344-9 pubmed
    ..beta 3-AR may thus be involved in the control of lipid metabolism, possibly from fat assimilation in the digestive tract, to triglyceride storage and mobilization in adipose tissues. ..
  23. McKean Cowdin R, Li X, Bernstein L, McTiernan A, Ballard Barbash R, Gauderman W, et al. The ADRB3 Trp64Arg variant and obesity in African-American breast cancer cases. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007;31:1110-8 pubmed
    To determine if a missense change at codon 64 of ADRB3 (Trp64Arg), a candidate obesity gene, is associated with obesity and levels of subcutaneous or visceral fat in African-American breast cancer cases...
  24. Oeveren van Dybicz A, Vonkeman H, Bon M, van den Bergh F, Vermes I. Beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism and type 2 diabetes in a Caucasian population. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2001;3:47-51 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the Trp64Arg mutation is not a major determinant of metabolic disorders (type 2 diabetes, obesity) and chronic complications of type 2 diabetes in a Dutch population. ..
  25. Lelias J, Kaghad M, Rodriguez M, Chalon P, Bonnin J, Dupre I, et al. Molecular cloning of a human beta 3-adrenergic receptor cDNA. FEBS Lett. 1993;324:127-30 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, although a similar organization has been found in rodent genes, the rat beta 3-AR transcripts encode a receptor with an exon 2-derived C-terminus. ..
  26. Kurokawa N, Nakai K, Kameo S, Liu Z, Satoh H. Association of BMI with the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism in Japanese: meta-analysis. Obes Res. 2001;9:741-5 pubmed
    To assess the effect of the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) on body mass index (BMI) in the Japanese population...
  27. Dessy C, Moniotte S, Ghisdal P, Havaux X, Noirhomme P, Balligand J. Endothelial beta3-adrenoceptors mediate vasorelaxation of human coronary microarteries through nitric oxide and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization. Circulation. 2004;110:948-54 pubmed
    ..beta3-Adrenoceptors were recently shown to vasodilate animal vessels and are expressed in human hearts...
  28. Mei C, Gui L, Wang H, Tian W, Li Y, Zan L. Polymorphisms in adrenergic receptor genes in Qinchuan cattle show associations with selected carcass traits. Meat Sci. 2018;135:166-173 pubmed publisher
    The beta-adrenergic receptors coded by the ADRB1, ADRB2 and ADRB3 genes play important roles in mediating metabolic effects, especially lipolysis, insulin resistance and energy balance...
  29. Nahmias C, Blin N, Elalouf J, Mattei M, Strosberg A, Emorine L. Molecular characterization of the mouse beta 3-adrenergic receptor: relationship with the atypical receptor of adipocytes. EMBO J. 1991;10:3721-7 pubmed
  30. Kälin S, Becker M, Ott V, Serr I, Hosp F, Mollah M, et al. A Stat6/Pten Axis Links Regulatory T Cells with Adipose Tissue Function. Cell Metab. 2017;26:475-492.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that enhancing sympathetic tone by cold exposure, beta3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) stimulation or a short-term high-calorie diet enhances Treg induction in vitro and in vivo...
  31. Tain Y, Hsu C, Chan J, Huang L. Renal Transcriptome Analysis of Programmed Hypertension Induced by Maternal Nutritional Insults. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:17826-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified differential expressed genes (DEGs) that are related to the regulation of blood pressure included Adrb3, Alb, Apoe, Calca, Kng1, Adm2, Guca2b, Hba2, Hba-a2, and Ppara...
  32. Minushkina L, Nikitin A, Brazhnik V, Brovkin A, Nosikov V, Zateishchikov D. [Myocardial hypertrophy in patients with hypertensive disease: the role of genetic polymorphism of beta-adrenoreactive structures]. Kardiologiia. 2010;50:9-15 pubmed
    ..of polymorphic markers Gly389Arg and Ser49Gly of ADRB1 gene, Gly1l6Arg and Glu27Gln of ADRB2 gene, Trp64Arg of ADRB3 gene, and 825 of GNB3 gene with structural and functional peculiarities of the left ventricular (LV) myocardium in ..
  33. Porto P, Garcia S, Dieuzeide G, Gonzalez C, Landa M, Pirola C. Clinical features of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents: minor role of the Trp64Arg beta3-adrenergic receptor gene variant. Pediatr Res. 2004;55:836-41 pubmed
  34. Kawamura T, Egusa G, Fujikawa R, Okubo M. Beta(3)-adrenergic receptor gene variant is associated with upper body obesity only in obese Japanese-American men but not in women. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2001;54:49-55 pubmed
    ..However, in males, when obesity becomes obvious, the beta(3)-AR gene variant is considered to influence the enhancement of insulin resistance, in association with visceral obesity. ..
  35. Xie Z, Niu Y, Ma H, Yin Y, Liu Z, Li Z. Association of beta-adrenoceptor single nucleotide polymorphisms with resting heart rate. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2004;4:2948-51 pubmed
    ..The RHR was not only associated with R/G389 polymorphism of Beta1-adrenoceptor gene significantly, but also was associated with gender in Chinese. ..
  36. Iaccarino G, Trimarco V, Lanni F, Cipolletta E, Izzo R, Arcucci O, et al. beta-Blockade and increased dyslipidemia in patients bearing Glu27 variant of beta2 adrenergic receptor gene. Pharmacogenomics J. 2005;5:292-7 pubmed
    ..This result allows the identification of patients at high risk to develop metabolic complications to chronic beta-blockade treatment. ..
  37. Ishikawa N, Murata C, Mikurube H, Ito S, Higashiyama R, Komaki Y, et al. Change of components of the metabolic syndrome in a workers' health checkup after five years--relation with elevated liver enzymes, gene polymorphisms for ALDH 2, beta3-AR and lifestyle. Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi. 2005;52:979-86 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these findings indicate that ALDH2 genotyping as well as lifestyle habits may be important factors in causing metabolic syndrome with liver dysfunction. ..
  38. de Luis D, Aller R, Izaola O, Gonzalez Sagrado M, Conde R. Relation of Trp64Arg polymorphism of beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene to adipocytokines and fat distribution in obese patients. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52:267-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The patients of the mutant group (Trp64/Arg64) had higher body mass index, weight, waist circumference, fat mass, waist-to-hip ratio, and C-reactive protein values than those of the wild-type group. ..
  39. Santos J, Perez Bravo F, Martinez J, Montalvo D, Albala C, Carrasco E. No evidence for an association between genetic polymorphisms of beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenergic receptor genes with body mass index in Aymara natives from Chile. Nutrition. 2002;18:255-8 pubmed
    We assessed the association between Gln27Glu and Trp64Arg genetic polymorphisms of the beta(2) (ADRB2) and beta(3) (ADRB3) adrenergic receptor genes with body mass index and other cardiovascular risk factors...
  40. Xifra G, Castro A, Ortega F, Ricart W, Fernandez Real J. The Trp64Arg ?3-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism is associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. J Hum Hypertens. 2015;29:134-5 pubmed publisher
  41. Cortes Oliveira C, Nicoletti C, de Souza Pinhel M, de Oliveira B, Quinhoneiro D, Noronha N, et al. UCP2 expression is associated with weight loss after hypocaloric diet intervention. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017;71:402-406 pubmed publisher the development of obesity, and uncoupling proteins 1 and 2 (UCP1 and UCP2) and beta-3-adrenoceptor (ADRB3) have been implicated in the metabolic pathways that culminate in this condition...
  42. Erhardt E, Czako M, Csernus K, Molnar D, Kosztolányi G. The frequency of Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene in healthy and obese Hungarian children and its association with cardiovascular risk factors. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005;59:955-9 pubmed
    ..Although the prevalence of this polymorphism was similar in H and O children, the presence of Arg64 allele seems to be associated with increased adiposity, elevated systolic BP and higher fasting insulin levels. ..
  43. Baturin A, Sorokina E, Pogozheva A, Peskova E, Makurina O, Tutel ian V. [Regional features of obesity-associated gene polymorphism (rs9939609 FTO gene and gene Trp64Arg ADRB3) in Russian population]. Vopr Pitan. 2014;83:35-41 pubmed
    ..gene due to fat mass and obesity FTO in European and some Asian and African American populations Trp64Arg ADRB3 gene in several European populations...
  44. Feigelson H, Teras L, Diver W, Tang W, Patel A, Stevens V, et al. Genetic variation in candidate obesity genes ADRB2, ADRB3, GHRL, HSD11B1, IRS1, IRS2, and SHC1 and risk for breast cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II. Breast Cancer Res. 2008;10:R57 pubmed publisher
    ..selected to capture common variation across seven candidate genes that encode adipose-related proteins: ADRB2, ADRB3, GHRL, HSD11B1, IRS1, IRS2, and SHC1. Thirty-nine SNPs were genotyped in 648 cases and 659 controls...
  45. Mahmoudian M. The complex of human Gs protein with the beta 3 adrenergic receptor: a computer-aided molecular modeling study. J Mol Graph. 1994;12:22-8, 34 pubmed
    Three-dimensional (3D) models of the human Gs protein, the human beta 3 adrenergic receptor and their complex are constructed using computer-aided molecular modeling techniques...
  46. Kurokawa N, Young E, Oka Y, Satoh H, Wareham N, Sandhu M, et al. The ADRB3 Trp64Arg variant and BMI: a meta-analysis of 44 833 individuals. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32:1240-9 pubmed publisher
    The beta-3 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) is part of the adrenergic system, which is known to play a key role in energy metabolism...
  47. Evans D, Minouchehr S, Hagemann G, Mann W, Wendt D, Wolf A, et al. Frequency of and interaction between polymorphisms in the beta3-adrenergic receptor and in uncoupling proteins 1 and 2 and obesity in Germans. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:1239-45 pubmed
    ..However, they act synergistically to accelerate the development of obesity. The 45bp insertion in the 3 untranslated region of exon 8 in UCP-2 polymorphism is associated with obesity. ..
  48. Kim S, Oh S, Jung I, Lee J, Sim Y, Lee J, et al. Distribution of the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the ß 3-adrenergic receptor gene in athletes and its influence on cardiovascular function. Kardiol Pol. 2010;68:920-6 pubmed
    ..However, further studies of the precise mechanism behind these associations are needed. ..
  49. de Luis D, Ballesteros M, Ruiz E, Munoz C, Penacho A, Iglesias P, et al. Polymorphism Trp64Arg of beta 3 adrenoreceptor gene: allelic frequencies and influence on insulin resistance in a multicenter study of Castilla-León. Nutr Hosp. 2010;25:299-303 pubmed
    ..The beta 3 adrenoreceptor gene polymorphism(Trp64Arg) was genotyped. Two hundred and twenty six patients (77 males/149 females) (85...
  50. Genelhu V, Francischetti E, Duarte S, Celoria B, Oliveira R, Cabello P, et al. Beta3-adrenergic receptor polymorphism is related to cardiometabolic risk factors in obese Brazilian subjects. Genet Mol Res. 2010;9:1392-7 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Trp64/Trp64 carriers were at greater risk for dysmetabolic phenotypes (odds ratio = 2.88, P = 0.03). ..
  51. Ujike H, Nomura A, Morita Y, Morio A, Okahisa Y, Kotaka T, et al. Multiple genetic factors in olanzapine-induced weight gain in schizophrenia patients: a cohort study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69:1416-22 pubmed
    ..the 102T allele of HTR2A, the 825T allele of GNB3, the 23Cys allele of HTR2C, and the 64Arg/Arg genotype of ADRB3, were significantly associated with olanzapine-induced weight gain...
  52. Santiago C, Ruiz J, Buxens A, Artieda M, Arteta D, Gonzalez Freire M, et al. Trp64Arg polymorphism in ADRB3 gene is associated with elite endurance performance. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45:147-9 pubmed publisher
    ..genotype frequencies of the ADRB1 Arg389Gly (rs1801253), ADRB2 Gly16Arg (rs1042713) and Gln27Glu (rs1042714), and ADRB3 Trp64Arg (rs4994) variations were compared in the following three groups of Spanish (Caucasian) men: (1) world-..
  53. Iemitsu M, Fujie S, Murakami H, Sanada K, Kawano H, Gando Y, et al. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates the risk of atherosclerosis associated with ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphism. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2014;114:1421-8 pubmed publisher
    3-Adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) Trp64Arg polymorphism is associated with atherogenic risk factors that include weight gain, insulin resistance, and diabetes...
  54. Mattsson C, Csikasz R, Chernogubova E, Yamamoto D, Hogberg H, Amri E, et al. ??-Adrenergic receptors increase UCP1 in human MADS brown adipocytes and rescue cold-acclimated ??-adrenergic receptor-knockout mice via nonshivering thermogenesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;301:E1108-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in humans, ?(1)-adrenergic receptors could play an important role in regulating nonshivering thermogenesis. ..
  55. Yoneshiro T, Ogawa T, Okamoto N, Matsushita M, Aita S, Kameya T, et al. Impact of UCP1 and ?3AR gene polymorphisms on age-related changes in brown adipose tissue and adiposity in humans. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013;37:993-8 pubmed publisher
    ..05) in older subjects, but not in younger subjects. UCP1 -3826 A/G and ?3AR 64 Trp/Arg substitutions accelerate age-related decrease in BAT activity, and thereby may associate with visceral fat accumulation with age. ..
  56. Snitker S, Fujishima Y, Shen H, Ott S, Pi Sunyer X, Furuhata Y, et al. Effects of novel capsinoid treatment on fatness and energy metabolism in humans: possible pharmacogenetic implications. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:45-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Capsinoid ingestion was associated with an increase in fat oxidation that was nearly significant. We identified 2 common genetic variants that may be predictors of therapeutic response. ..
  57. Phares D, Halverstadt A, Shuldiner A, Ferrell R, Douglass L, Ryan A, et al. Association between body fat response to exercise training and multilocus ADR genotypes. Obes Res. 2004;12:807-15 pubmed
    ..The body fat response to exercise training in older adults is associated with the combined effects of the Glu12/Glu9 alpha2b-, Trp64Arg beta3-, and Gln27Glu beta2-ADR gene variants and their gene-gene interactions. ..
  58. Kumar S, Mishra A, Srivastava A, Mittal T, Garg N, Mittal B. Significant role of ADRB3 rs4994 towards the development of coronary artery disease. Coron Artery Dis. 2014;25:29-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to explore the association of genetic variants in ADRB3 (C190T or Trp64Arg) ADRB1 (C1165G or Arg389Gly), and ADRA2A (C-1291G) with CAD...
  59. Karasaki Y, Kashiwazaki H. Polymorphism of Trp64Arg in beta3-adrenergic receptor gene among Bolivian people in rural areas at high and low altitudes. Ann Clin Biochem. 2004;41:57-60 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that the altitude-related lifestyle of a population has had little influence on the frequency of Trp64Arg polymorphism and obesity in Bolivian natives. ..
  60. Zhang L, Yao W, He Q, Wang Y, Ren B, Lin Y. [Polymorphisms in the beta2 and beta3 adrenergic receptor genes in obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2005;44:333-6 pubmed
    ..On the contrary, beta(2)-ADR polymorphism may not be correlated with central obesity and OSAHS in the population. ..
  61. Breit A, Lagacé M, Bouvier M. Hetero-oligomerization between beta2- and beta3-adrenergic receptors generates a beta-adrenergic signaling unit with distinct functional properties. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28756-65 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that hetero-oligomerization between beta(2)AR and beta(3)AR forms a beta-adrenergic signaling unit that possesses unique functional properties. ..
  62. Verdi H, Tulgar Kınık S, Yılmaz Yalçın Y, Muratoğlu Şahin N, Yazıcı A, Ataç F. β-3AR W64R Polymorphism and 30-Minute Post-Challenge Plasma Glucose Levels in Obese Children. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2015;7:7-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Although there were no relationships between the genotypes and lipid, glucose/insulin levels or HOMA-IR, the presence of W64R variant seemed to have an unfavorable influence on early glucose excursion after glucose loading. ..
  63. Zhu L, Liu K, Wang R, Hou J. [Investigation and comparison of the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor gene Trp64Arg mutation in simple obesity and metabolic syndrome]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2002;41:224-8 pubmed
    ..71% vs 20.16%, P < 0.05). Trp64Arg mutation of beta(3)-AR gene may be used as a genetic marker for MS in male. ..
  64. Koumanis D, Christou N, Wang X, Gilfix B. Pilot study examining the frequency of several gene polymorphisms in a morbidly obese population. Obes Surg. 2002;12:759-64 pubmed
    ..polymorphisms have been associated with lipid metabolism and obesity: PPAR-gamma2-Pro115Gln, PPARgamma2-Pro12Ala, beta3AR-Trp64Arg and SR-BI IVS5 C > T...
  65. Tasler S, Baumgartner R, Behr Roussel D, Oger Roussel S, Gorny D, Giuliano F, et al. An aryloxypropanolamine h?3-adrenoceptor agonist as bladder smooth muscle relaxant. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2012;46:381-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A ranking of h?3-AR agonists by relative efficacy resulted in the closest analogy to the order of relaxation potential, with only the relaxant effect of mirabegron not reflecting its excellent relative efficacy as such. ..
  66. Tsai S, Yu Y, Lin C, Wang Y, Chen J, Hong C. Association study of adrenergic beta3 receptor (Trp64Arg) and G-protein beta3 subunit gene (C825T) polymorphisms and weight change during clozapine treatment. Neuropsychobiology. 2004;50:37-40 pubmed
    ..aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between genetic variants of the adrenergic beta3 receptor (ADRB3) and the G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) and clozapine-induced body weight change (BWC)...
  67. Terajima S, Waga C, Yoshihara E, Iwahashi K. [Relationship between of carotid ultrasonography in Japanese hypertensive subjects for intima-media thickness and plaque, and candidate gene polymorphism--possibility of early detection of arteriosclerotic disease]. Rinsho Byori. 2005;53:290-6 pubmed
  68. Kim O, Cho E, Park H, Jang Y, Lee J. Additive effect of the mutations in the beta3-adrenoceptor gene and UCP3 gene promoter on body fat distribution and glycemic control after weight reduction in overweight subjects with CAD or metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28:434-41 pubmed
    ..In addition, these effects were less beneficial in carriers with beta3-AR gene variant than with UCP3 gene promoter variant. ..
  69. Shaat N, Lernmark A, Karlsson E, Ivarsson S, Parikh H, Berntorp K, et al. A variant in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene is associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetologia. 2007;50:972-9 pubmed
    ..1 alpha (PPARGC1A Gly482Ser), forkhead box C2 (FOXC2 -512C > T) and beta3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3 Trp64Arg) polymorphisms using TaqMan allelic discrimination assay or RFLP...
  70. Morcillo S, Cardona F, Rojo Martinez G, Almaraz M, Esteva I, Ruiz de Adana M, et al. Effect of the combination of the variants -75G/A APOA1 and Trp64Arg ADRB3 on the risk of type 2 diabetes (DM2). Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;68:102-7 pubmed
    ..We searched for a possible interaction between two polymorphisms (Trp64Arg of ADRB3 gene and -75G/A of APOA1gene) and the risk for DM2 in a population from southern Spain...
  71. Kurabayashi T, Yahata T, Quan J, Tanaka K. Association of polymorphisms in the beta2 and beta3 adrenoceptor gene with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Reprod Med. 2006;51:389-93 pubmed
    ..The polymorphism in codon 27 (Gln27Glu) of BAR-2 is linked to the expression of PCOS in Japanese women. ..
  72. Yoshihara A, Sugita N, Iwasaki M, Miyazaki H, Nakamura K. The interaction between beta-3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism and obesity to periodontal disease in community-dwelling elderly Japanese. J Clin Periodontol. 2014;41:460-6 pubmed publisher
    ..0 and increased markedly with BMI. The PRR in subjects with BMI?30 was 3.10 (p < 0.0001). This study indicates a positive association between periodontal disease and the beta-3 adrenergic receptor genotype in obese individuals. ..
  73. Lwow F, Dunajska K, Tworowska U, Jedrzejuk D, Laczmanski L, Milewicz A, et al. Post-exercise oxidative stress and obesity in postmenopausal women: the role of beta3-adrenergic receptor polymorphism. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007;23:597-603 pubmed
    Some studies indicate that the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the gene encoding the beta3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and earlier onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  74. Nagano T, Matsuda Y, Tanioka T, Yoshioka T, Hiroi T, Yoshikawa K, et al. No association of the Trp 64 Arg mutation of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. J Med Invest. 2005;52:57-64 pubmed
    ..019). The 64 Arg allelic mutation is not associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, lipid metabolism dysfunction, or hypertension in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. ..
  75. Li Q, Zhan S, Lv J, Qin Y, Guo X, Cao W, et al. [A twin study of association of beta3AR Trp64Arg polymorphisms with insulin sensitivity]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2004;36:505-9 pubmed
    To investigate the influences of beta3 adrenergic receptor(beta3AR) Trp64Arg polymorphism on insulin resistance. The insulin sensitivity was estimated with logarithm transformed homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)...
  76. Hallman D, Srinivasan S, Chen W, Boerwinkle E, Berenson G. The beta(2)-adrenergic receptor Arg16-gly polymorphism and interactions involving beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms are associated with variations in longitudinal serum lipid profiles: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Metabolism. 2004;53:1184-91 pubmed
  77. Hoffstedt J, Poirier O, Thorne A, Lonnqvist F, Herrmann S, Cambien F, et al. Polymorphism of the human beta3-adrenoceptor gene forms a well-conserved haplotype that is associated with moderate obesity and altered receptor function. Diabetes. 1999;48:203-5 pubmed
  78. Nonen S, Yamamoto I, Liu J, Maeda M, Motomura T, Igarashi T, et al. Adrenergic beta1 receptor polymorphism (Ser49Gly) is associated with obesity in type II diabetic patients. Biol Pharm Bull. 2008;31:295-8 pubmed
    ..Genotyping for beta(1)Ser49Gly polymorphism in type II diabetic patients may have clinical benefit to predict obesity, thereby contributing to the prevention of insulin resistance. ..