Gene Symbol: ADRB2
Description: adrenoceptor beta 2
Alias: ADRB2R, ADRBR, B2AR, BAR, BETA2AR, beta-2 adrenergic receptor, adrenergic, beta-2-, receptor, surface, adrenoceptor beta 2 surface, beta-2 adrenoceptor, beta-2 adrenoreceptor, catecholamine receptor
Species: human
Products:     ADRB2

Top Publications

  1. Zou Y, Weis W, Kobilka B. N-terminal T4 lysozyme fusion facilitates crystallization of a G protein coupled receptor. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46039 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach adds to the protein engineering strategies that enable crystallographic studies of GPCRs alone or in complex with a signaling partner. ..
  2. Shenoy S, Xiao K, Venkataramanan V, Snyder P, Freedman N, Weissman A. Nedd4 mediates agonist-dependent ubiquitination, lysosomal targeting, and degradation of the beta2-adrenergic receptor. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:22166-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings indicate that the degradative fate of the beta(2)AR in the lysosomal compartments is dependent upon beta-arrestin2-mediated recruitment of Nedd4 to the activated receptor and Nedd4-catalyzed ubiquitination. ..
  3. Moore P, Williams S, Gebretsadik T, Jiang L, Minton P, Shintani A, et al. beta(2)-adrenergic receptor promoter haplotype influences spirometric response during an acute asthma exacerbation. Clin Transl Sci. 2008;1:155-61 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variants in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) coding block have been associated with different parameters of asthma severity, but there is no consensus on which variants are most important...
  4. Liang W, Hoang Q, Clark R, Fishman P. Accelerated dephosphorylation of the beta2-adrenergic receptor by mutation of the C-terminal lysines: effects on ubiquitination, intracellular trafficking, and degradation. Biochemistry. 2008;47:11750-62 pubmed publisher
  5. Al Rubaish A. ?2-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms in normal and asthmatic individuals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med. 2011;31:586-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, further study is required to ascertain the interactions of different haplotypes and the response of patients with different haplotypes to various treatments. ..
  6. Liu J, Horst R, KATRITCH V, Stevens R, Wuthrich K. Biased signaling pathways in ?2-adrenergic receptor characterized by 19F-NMR. Science. 2012;335:1106-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The selective effects of different ligands on the conformational equilibria involving helices VI and VII provide insights into the long-range structural plasticity of ?(2)AR in partial and biased agonist signaling...
  7. Ruiz J, Larrarte E, Margareto J, Ares R, Labayen I. Role of ??-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms on body weight and body composition response to energy restriction in obese women: preliminary results. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19:212-5 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the role of common ?2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) rs1042714 (Gln27Glu) and rs1042713 (Arg16Gly) polymorphisms on body weight and body composition response to 12-week energy-restricted diet in women...
  8. Zocher M, Fung J, Kobilka B, Muller D. Ligand-specific interactions modulate kinetic, energetic, and mechanical properties of the human ?2 adrenergic receptor. Structure. 2012;20:1391-402 pubmed publisher
    ..These interactions were specific to the efficacy profile of the ligands investigated and suggest that the functional modulation of GPCRs follows structurally well-defined interaction patterns. ..
  9. Torjussen T, Munthe Kaas M, Mowinckel P, Carlsen K, Undlien D, Lødrup Carlsen K. Childhood lung function and the association with ?2-adrenergic receptor haplotypes. Acta Paediatr. 2013;102:727-31 pubmed publisher
    To determine associations between ADRB2 polymorphisms and lung function through childhood, and possible modification by gender, pet keeping or tobacco smoke...

More Information


  1. Kahsai A, Xiao K, Rajagopal S, Ahn S, Shukla A, Sun J, et al. Multiple ligand-specific conformations of the ?2-adrenergic receptor. Nat Chem Biol. 2011;7:692-700 pubmed publisher
  2. Nygaard R, Zou Y, Dror R, Mildorf T, Arlow D, Manglik A, et al. The dynamic process of ?(2)-adrenergic receptor activation. Cell. 2013;152:532-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed heterogeneity may be important for ?(2)AR's ability to engage multiple signaling and regulatory proteins. ..
  3. Ahles A, Rochais F, Frambach T, Bünemann M, Engelhardt S. A polymorphism-specific "memory" mechanism in the ?(2)-adrenergic receptor. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest an intrinsic, polymorphism-specific property of the ?(2)AR that alters activation kinetics upon continued stimulation and that may account for individual drug responses. ..
  4. Berthouze M, Venkataramanan V, Li Y, Shenoy S. The deubiquitinases USP33 and USP20 coordinate beta2 adrenergic receptor recycling and resensitization. EMBO J. 2009;28:1684-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, USPs 20 and 33 serve as novel regulators that dictate both post-endocytic sorting as well as the intensity and extent of beta(2)AR signalling from the cell surface. ..
  5. Niu L, Liang Y, Xu M, Zhang Y, Zhang Y, He B. Effect of polymorphisms in the ?2-adrenergic receptor on the susceptibility and pulmonary function of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta analysis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2012;125:2213-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, a meta analysis was done to investigate the effect of polymorphisms in the ?2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene on the risk of COPD and lung function...
  6. Lou Y, Liu J, Huang Y, Liu J, Wang Z, Liu Y, et al. A46G and C79G polymorphisms in the ?2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) and essential hypertension risk: a meta-analysis. Hypertens Res. 2010;33:1114-23 pubmed publisher
    ..No association could be found in this study between the two polymorphisms and stage 2 hypertension. More studies stratified for different ethnicities and different stages of hypertension should be performed in the future. ..
  7. Cotarlan V, Brofferio A, Gerhard G, Chu X, Shirani J. Impact of ?(1)- and ?(2)-adrenergic receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms on heart rate response to metoprolol prior to coronary computed tomographic angiography. Am J Cardiol. 2013;111:661-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these data indicate that the selected SNPs of ?(1)-AR and ?(2)-AR genes influence HR response to metoprolol in patients who undergo coronary computed tomographic angiography...
  8. Zhao L, Yang F, Xu K, Cao H, Zheng G, Zhang Y, et al. Common genetic variants of the ?2-adrenergic receptor affect its translational efficiency and are associated with human longevity. Aging Cell. 2012;11:1094-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Sixteen SNPs from ADRB1, ADRB2, ADCY5, ADCY6, and MAPK1 were selected and genotyped...
  9. Carroll C, Sala K, Zucker A, Schramm C. ?2-adrenergic receptor haplotype linked to intubation and mechanical ventilation in children with asthma. J Asthma. 2012;49:563-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic factors may influence the development of a more severe asthma phenotype during acute exacerbations. ..
  10. Pullar C, Le Provost G, O Leary A, Evans S, Baier B, Isseroff R. β2AR antagonists and β2AR gene deletion both promote skin wound repair processes. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:2076-84 pubmed publisher
    ..2AR antagonism promoted wound repair processes in the early stages of wound repair, revealing a possible new avenue for therapeutic intervention. ..
  11. Kulminski A, Culminskaya I, Ukraintseva S, Arbeev K, Akushevich I, Land K, et al. Polymorphisms in the ACE and ADRB2 genes and risks of aging-associated phenotypes: the case of myocardial infarction. Rejuvenation Res. 2010;13:13-21 pubmed publisher
    Multiple functions of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes warrant studies of their associations with aging-related phenotypes...
  12. Sayers I, Hawley J, Stewart C, Billington C, Henry A, Leighton Davies J, et al. Pharmacogenetic characterization of indacaterol, a novel beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;158:277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..No marked genotype-dependent effects were observed for common variants; however, changes in I164 receptor activity were identified, which were dependent on the level of expression of beta(2)-adrenoceptors. ..
  13. Mansur A, Fontes R, Canzi R, Nishimura R, Alencar A, de Lima A, et al. Beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms Gln27Glu, Arg16Gly in patients with heart failure. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2009;9:50 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, Gln27Glu polymorphism may have a potential predictive value in older individuals. ..
  14. Bokoch M, Zou Y, Rasmussen S, Liu C, Nygaard R, Rosenbaum D, et al. Ligand-specific regulation of the extracellular surface of a G-protein-coupled receptor. Nature. 2010;463:108-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, these studies provide a new insight into the dynamic behaviour of GPCRs not addressable by static, inactive-state crystal structures. ..
  15. Coureuil M, Lecuyer H, Scott M, Boularan C, Enslen H, Soyer M, et al. Meningococcus Hijacks a ?2-adrenoceptor/?-Arrestin pathway to cross brain microvasculature endothelium. Cell. 2010;143:1149-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of the mechanism used for hijacking host cell signaling machineries opens perspectives for treatment and prevention of meningococcal infection...
  16. West G, Chien E, KATRITCH V, Gatchalian J, Chalmers M, Stevens R, et al. Ligand-dependent perturbation of the conformational ensemble for the GPCR ?2 adrenergic receptor revealed by HDX. Structure. 2011;19:1424-32 pubmed publisher
  17. Park H, Shin E, Lee J. Genotypes and haplotypes of beta2-adrenergic receptor and parameters of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents. Metabolism. 2008;57:1064-70 pubmed publisher
    ..the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotype of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene and parameters of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adolescents...
  18. Thomsen M, Nordestgaard B, Sethi A, Tybjærg Hansen A, Dahl M. ?2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms, asthma and COPD: two large population-based studies. Eur Respir J. 2012;39:558-66 pubmed publisher
    The ?(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) is an important regulator of airway smooth muscle tone...
  19. Nabhan J, Pan H, Lu Q. Arrestin domain-containing protein 3 recruits the NEDD4 E3 ligase to mediate ubiquitination of the beta2-adrenergic receptor. EMBO Rep. 2010;11:605-11 pubmed publisher
    Prolonged stimulation of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) leads to receptor ubiquitination and downregulation...
  20. Yu J, Tan L, Ou J, Zhu J, Liu K, Song J, et al. Polymorphisms at the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene influence Alzheimer's disease susceptibility. Brain Res. 2008;1210:216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..004). Our results suggest that variations in the beta2-AR gene play an important role in the pathogenesis of sporadic LOAD, and interact with the epsilon4 allele to markedly increase the LOAD risk. ..
  21. Llanes E, Quiralte J, Lopez E, Sastre B, Chacártegui M, del Pozo V, et al. Analysis of polymorphisms in olive pollen allergy: IL13, IL4RA, IL5 and ADRB2 genes. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2009;148:228-38 pubmed publisher
    ..described as asthma susceptibility genes: IL13 (C-1112T and R130Q), IL4RA (I50V, Q551R), IL5 (C-746T) and ADRB2 (Q27E and R16G) in specific olive pollen allergic sensitization...
  22. Isaza C, Sepúlveda Arias J, Agudelo B, Arciniegas W, Henao J, Porras G, et al. ?(2) -adrenoreceptor polymorphisms in asthmatic and non-asthmatic schoolchildren from Colombia and their relationship to treatment response. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2012;47:848-55 pubmed publisher
    ..was to establish the relationship between the Gln27Glu and Arg16Gly alleles of the ?(2) -adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene with respect to the susceptibility to and severity of asthma, as well as the response to treatment in ..
  23. Sehnert A, Daniels S, Elashoff M, Wingrove J, Burrow C, Horne B, et al. Lack of association between adrenergic receptor genotypes and survival in heart failure patients treated with carvedilol or metoprolol. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:644-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the role of adrenergic receptor genetics on transplant-free survival in heart failure (HF)...
  24. Qiu Y, Zhang X, Qin Y, Yin K, Zhang D. Beta(2)-adrenergic receptor haplotype/polymorphisms and asthma susceptibility and clinical phenotype in a Chinese Han population. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2010;31:91-7 pubmed publisher
    ..022) and homozygotic haplotype -47 T/-20 T/46 A/79 C/252 G (p < 0.0001). These results indicate that the manifestation of asthma might be affected by either an individual beta?AR SNPs or beta?AR haplotype. ..
  25. Angeli C, Kimura L, Auricchio M, Vicente J, Mattevi V, Zembrzuski V, et al. Multilocus analyses of seven candidate genes suggest interacting pathways for obesity-related traits in Brazilian populations. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19:1244-51 pubmed publisher
    ..implicated in the susceptibility of obesity-related phenotypes were investigated: ?2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) (Arg16Gly), insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2) (rs7566605), leptin (LEP) (A19G), LEP receptor (LEPR) (Gln223Arg), ..
  26. Pereira T, Mingroni Netto R, Yamada Y. ADRB2 and LEPR gene polymorphisms: synergistic effects on the risk of obesity in Japanese. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19:1523-7 pubmed publisher
    ..synergistic effect between variants located in the leptin receptor (LEPR) gene and in the ?-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene on the risk of overweight/obesity...
  27. Malysheva O, Pierer M, Wahle M, Wagner U, Baerwald C. Association between beta2 adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and rheumatoid arthritis in conjunction with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 shared epitope. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008;67:1759-64 pubmed publisher
    In the present work, the frequency of inherited polymorphisms of the beta2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) gene and their association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 alleles was examined...
  28. Wang D, Govindaiah G, Liu R, De Arcangelis V, Cox C, Xiang Y. Binding of amyloid beta peptide to beta2 adrenergic receptor induces PKA-dependent AMPA receptor hyperactivity. FASEB J. 2010;24:3511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study reveals that non-neurotransmitter Abeta has a binding capacity to beta(2)AR and induces PKA-dependent hyperactivity in AMPA receptors. ..
  29. Misono M, Maeda S, Iemitsu M, Nakata Y, Otsuki T, Sugawara J, et al. Combination of polymorphisms in the beta2-adrenergic receptor and nitric oxide synthase 3 genes increases the risk for hypertension. J Hypertens. 2009;27:1377-83 pubmed publisher
    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Polymorphism in the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) and nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) genes is associated with clinical cardiovascular phenotypes...
  30. Finkelstein Y, Bournissen F, Hutson J, Shannon M. Polymorphism of the ADRB2 gene and response to inhaled beta- agonists in children with asthma: a meta-analysis. J Asthma. 2009;46:900-5 pubmed publisher
    ..failure of inhaled beta-agonists is associated with polymorphisms of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2); specifically, mutations leading to amino acid changes at positions 16 and 27, which alter down-regulation of the ..
  31. Gjesing A, Sparsø T, Borch Johnsen K, Jørgensen T, Pedersen O, Hansen T, et al. No consistent effect of ADRB2 haplotypes on obesity, hypertension and quantitative traits of body fatness and blood pressure among 6,514 adult Danes. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7206 pubmed publisher
    Evidence regarding the association of variation within ADRB2, the gene encoding the beta-adrenergic receptor 2 (ADRB2) with obesity and hypertension is exceedingly ambiguous...
  32. Hanson M, Cherezov V, Griffith M, Roth C, Jaakola V, Chien E, et al. A specific cholesterol binding site is established by the 2.8 A structure of the human beta2-adrenergic receptor. Structure. 2008;16:897-905 pubmed publisher
  33. Ye Y, Kang Y, Kim S, Lee H, Kim C, Park C, et al. Probable role of Beta 2-adrenergic receptor gene haplotype in toluene diisocyanate-induced asthma. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2010;2:260-6 pubmed publisher
    ..controls (AEC), and 263 unexposed healthy controls (NC) in order to identify beta 2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) polymorphisms and the possible association with TDI-induced asthma...
  34. Schürks M, Kurth T, Ridker P, Buring J, Zee R. Association between polymorphisms in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene with myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke in women. Thromb Haemost. 2009;101:351-8 pubmed
    Results from studies investigating the association between polymorphisms in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are controversial...
  35. Nobles K, Xiao K, Ahn S, Shukla A, Lam C, Rajagopal S, et al. Distinct phosphorylation sites on the ?(2)-adrenergic receptor establish a barcode that encodes differential functions of ?-arrestin. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra51 pubmed publisher
  36. Rosenbaum D, Zhang C, Lyons J, Holl R, Aragao D, Arlow D, et al. Structure and function of an irreversible agonist-?(2) adrenoceptor complex. Nature. 2011;469:236-40 pubmed publisher
  37. Rasmussen S, DeVree B, Zou Y, Kruse A, Chung K, Kobilka T, et al. Crystal structure of the β2 adrenergic receptor-Gs protein complex. Nature. 2011;477:549-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The most surprising observation is a major displacement of the α-helical domain of Gαs relative to the Ras-like GTPase domain. This crystal structure represents the first high-resolution view of transmembrane signalling by a GPCR. ..
  38. Dror R, Arlow D, Maragakis P, Mildorf T, Pan A, Xu H, et al. Activation mechanism of the ?2-adrenergic receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18684-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By capturing this fundamental signaling process in atomic detail, our results may provide a foundation for the design of drugs that control receptor signaling more precisely by stabilizing specific receptor conformations. ..
  39. Manoharan A, Anderson W, Lipworth B. Influence of ?(2)-adrenergic receptor polymorphism on methacholine hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic patients. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013;110:161-4 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that the ?(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) polymorphism had no effect on bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine in asthmatic patients...
  40. Fu W, Zhao Z, Zhong L, Sun C, Fang L, Liu L, et al. Relationship between polymorphisms in the 5' leader cistron, positions 16 and 27 of the adrenergic ?2 receptor gene and asthma in a Han population from southwest China. Respirology. 2011;16:1221-7 pubmed publisher
    Adrenergic ?2 receptors (ADRB2) play an important role in regulating pulmonary function...
  41. Rasmussen S, Choi H, Fung J, Pardon E, Casarosa P, Chae P, et al. Structure of a nanobody-stabilized active state of the β(2) adrenoceptor. Nature. 2011;469:175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This structure provides insights into the process of agonist binding and activation. ..
  42. Kohyama K, Abe S, Kodaira K, Yukawa T, Hozawa S, Morioka J, et al. Arg16Gly ?2-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism in Japanese patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;156:405-11 pubmed publisher
    There has been no report that investigated ?(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene polymorphism in patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD)...
  43. Kumar A, Prasad K, Tripathi M, Padma Srivastava M, Vivekanadhan S. Association of genetic polymorphisms at beta-adrenergic receptor with risk of intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in North Indian population: a case control study. Neurol India. 2014;62:183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Large prospective studies with large sample size are required to confirm these findings. ..
  44. Patwari P, Emilsson V, Schadt E, Chutkow W, Lee S, Marsili A, et al. The arrestin domain-containing 3 protein regulates body mass and energy expenditure. Cell Metab. 2011;14:671-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that ARRDC3 is a gender-sensitive regulator of obesity and energy expenditure and reveal a surprising diversity for arrestin family protein functions. ..
  45. Yu S, Zhou W, Jiang K, Gu G, Wang S. Job stress, gene polymorphism of beta2-AR, and prevalence of hypertension. Biomed Environ Sci. 2008;21:239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..01 or 0.05). High job stress and polymorphism of beta2-AR-16 have an interactive effect on the prevalence of hypertension in male workers. ..
  46. Wang J, Liou Y, Wu Y, Hsiao Y, Wu L. An association study of 13 SNPs from seven candidate genes with pediatric asthma and a preliminary study for genetic testing by multiple variants in Taiwanese population. J Clin Immunol. 2009;29:205-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provided a genotype synergistic method for studying gene-gene interaction on polymorphism basis and genetic testing using multiple polymorphisms. ..
  47. Carroll C, Stoltz P, Schramm C, Zucker A. Beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms affect response to treatment in children with severe asthma exacerbations. Chest. 2009;135:1186-1192 pubmed publisher
    ..The beta(2)-AR genotype appears to influence the response to therapy in this population. ..
  48. Jalba M, Rhoads G, Demissie K. Association of codon 16 and codon 27 beta 2-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms with obesity: a meta-analysis. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:2096-106 pubmed
    ..the Glu27Gln (rs1042714; B27) and the Arg16Gly (rs1042713; B16) polymorphisms of the beta 2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene and obesity...
  49. Wechsler M, Kunselman S, Chinchilli V, Bleecker E, Boushey H, Calhoun W, et al. Effect of beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism on response to longacting beta2 agonist in asthma (LARGE trial): a genotype-stratified, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Lancet. 2009;374:1754-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation is needed to establish the importance of the genotype-specific difference in responsiveness to methacholine. National Institutes of Health. ..
  50. Powe D, Voss M, Habashy H, Zanker K, Green A, Ellis I, et al. Alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) protein expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in breast cancer: an immunohistochemical study. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;130:457-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a possible role for targeted therapy using adrenoceptor antagonists. ..
  51. Lemaitre R, Heckbert S, Sotoodehnia N, Bis J, Smith N, Marciante K, et al. beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptor gene variation, beta-blocker use and risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Am J Hypertens. 2008;21:290-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, which require replication, suggest genetic variants in the beta1-AR gene may determine whether to use beta-blockers in hypertension for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. ..
  52. Chiang C, Lin M, Chung M, Yang U. The association between the IL-4, ADRβ2 and ADAM 33 gene polymorphisms and asthma in the Taiwanese population. J Chin Med Assoc. 2012;75:635-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Asthma is a complex polygenic disease, and combinations of polymorphisms of various genes have an additive effect on the risk of asthma. ..
  53. Xiao K, Shenoy S. Beta2-adrenergic receptor lysosomal trafficking is regulated by ubiquitination of lysyl residues in two distinct receptor domains. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12785-95 pubmed publisher
  54. Wang W, Mihlbachler K, Brunnett A, Liggett S. Targeted transgenesis reveals discrete attenuator functions of GRK and PKA in airway beta2-adrenergic receptor physiologic signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15007-12 pubmed publisher protein kinase A (PKA) and G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) desensitize beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) signaling, and these are thought to be mechanisms involved with cell and organ homeostasis and tolerance to ..
  55. Chou Y, Tsai C, Lee Y, Pei J. Association of adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms with adolescent obesity in Taiwan. Pediatr Int. 2012;54:111-6 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms of ?2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) and ?3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) have been reported to be associated with obesity in adults and adolescents, although study results have been controversial...
  56. Kim S, Ye Y, Hur G, Lee H, Jee Y, Lee S, et al. Effect of beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism in asthma control of patients receiving combination treatment. Yonsei Med J. 2009;50:182-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluated the effect of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) polymorphism on lung function and asthma control with regular use of combination treatment of an inhaled ICS plus ..
  57. Wang T, Duan Y. Ligand entry and exit pathways in the beta2-adrenergic receptor. J Mol Biol. 2009;392:1102-15 pubmed publisher
  58. Kim W, Oh Y, Sung J, Kim T, Huh J, Jung H, et al. Lung function response to 12-week treatment with combined inhalation of long-acting beta2 agonist and glucocorticoid according to ADRB2 polymorphism in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lung. 2008;186:381-6 pubmed publisher
    Recent reports suggest that beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) genotypes are associated with therapeutic responses to beta(2) agonists in asthmatics...
  59. Bleecker E, Nelson H, Kraft M, Corren J, Meyers D, Yancey S, et al. Beta2-receptor polymorphisms in patients receiving salmeterol with or without fluticasone propionate. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181:676-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed no evidence of a pharmacogenetic effect of beta-receptor variation on salmeterol response. Clinical trial registered with (NCT 00102882). ..
  60. Birbian N, Singh J, Jindal S, Singla N. Association of ?(2)-adrenergic receptor polymorphisms with asthma in a North Indian population. Lung. 2012;190:497-504 pubmed
    ..86, 95 % CI = 0.69-1.07, and P = 0.163. The ?(2)AR-16 polymorphism confers a decreased risk toward asthma while the ?(2)AR-27 polymorphism is not associated with asthma in the studied North Indian population. ..
  61. Chan I, Tang N, Leung T, Huang W, Lam Y, Li C, et al. Study of gene-gene interactions for endophenotypic quantitative traits in Chinese asthmatic children. Allergy. 2008;63:1031-9 pubmed publisher
  62. Panebra A, Wang W, Malone M, Pitter D, Weiss S, Hawkins G, et al. Common ADRB2 haplotypes derived from 26 polymorphic sites direct beta2-adrenergic receptor expression and regulation phenotypes. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11819 pubmed publisher
    The beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) is expressed on numerous cell-types including airway smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes...
  63. Saadi A, Gupta H, Angural A, Dhanya S, Mony S, Oberoi D, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ADRB2 gene and their association with susceptibility for Plasmodium falciparum malaria and asthma in an Indian population. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;20:140-7 pubmed publisher the clinical treatment for asthma patients also depend on polymorphisms in the ?2-adrenoreceptor gene (ADRB2)...
  64. Bravo Calderón D, Oliveira D, Marana A, Nonogaki S, Carvalho A, Kowalski L. Prognostic significance of beta-2 adrenergic receptor in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Biomark. 2011;10:51-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the strong malignant cell ?2-AR expression is a favorable prognostic factor for OSCC patients and could be used as a target for new anti-neoplastic pharmacological strategies. ..
  65. Kulminski A, Culminskaya I, Ukraintseva S, Arbeev K, Land K, Yashin A. Beta2-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms as systemic determinants of healthy aging in an evolutionary context. Mech Ageing Dev. 2010;131:338-45 pubmed publisher
    The Gln(27)Glu polymorphism but not the Arg(16)Gly polymorphism of the beta2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene appears to be associated with a broad range of aging-associated phenotypes, including cancers at different sites, myocardial ..
  66. Yilmaz A, Kaya M, Merdanoglu U, Ergun M, Cengel A, Menevse S. Association of beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms with myocardial infarction. J Clin Lab Anal. 2009;23:237-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Some specific polymorphisms in the beta(1)- and beta(2)-AR genes, named ADRB1 and ADRB2, respectively, have been implicated in several cardiovascular and noncardiovascular phenotypes...
  67. Szczepankiewicz A, Breborowicz A, Sobkowiak P, Kramer L, Popiel A. Role of ADRB2 gene polymorphism in asthma and response to beta(2)-agonists in Polish children. J Appl Genet. 2009;50:275-81 pubmed
    ..aims of this study were: (1) to find associations of asthma with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the ADRB2 gene: Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu, -1023 G/A, -367 T/C, -47 C/T ; (2) to define linkage disequilibrium in the gene region, ..
  68. Shi M, Liu D, Duan H, Qian L, Wang L, Niu L, et al. The ?2-adrenergic receptor and Her2 comprise a positive feedback loop in human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;125:351-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The data support a model where ?2-AR and Her2 comprise a positive feedback loop in human breast cancer cells. ..
  69. Chu X, Dong Y, Shen M, Sun L, Dong C, Wang Y, et al. Polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene and Graves disease: a case-control study and a meta-analysis of available evidence. BMC Med Genet. 2009;10:26 pubmed publisher
    The beta-2-Adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene on chromosome 5q33.1 is an important immunoregulatory factor...