Gene Symbol: ADH1C
Description: alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (class I), gamma polypeptide
Alias: ADH3, alcohol dehydrogenase 1C, ADH, gamma subunit, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (class I), gamma polypeptide, aldehyde reductase
Species: human
Products:     ADH1C

Top Publications

  1. Tolstrup J, Nordestgaard B, Rasmussen S, Tybjaerg Hansen A, Grønbaek M. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes. Pharmacogenomics J. 2008;8:220-7 pubmed
    ..dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism...
  2. Kuo P, Kalsi G, Prescott C, Hodgkinson C, Goldman D, van den Oord E, et al. Association of ADH and ALDH genes with alcohol dependence in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of alcohol dependence (IASPSAD) sample. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008;32:785-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Numerous SNPs in ADH genes showed association with AD, including one marker in the coding region of ADH1C (rs1693482 in exon6, Ile271Gln)...
  3. Linneberg A, Gonzalez Quintela A, Vidal C, Jørgensen T, Fenger M, Hansen T, et al. Genetic determinants of both ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism influence alcohol hypersensitivity and drinking behaviour among Scandinavians. Clin Exp Allergy. 2010;40:123-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we present the first report of a clinically significant SNP within the acetaldehyde-metabolizing system in a Caucasian population. ..
  4. Li D, Dandara C, Walther G, Parker M. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol metabolising enzymes: their role in susceptibility to oesophageal cancer. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008;46:323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The ADH3*2/*2 genotype was significantly associated with increased risk for oesophageal cancer amongst Black subjects (odds ..
  5. Hines L, Stampfer M, Ma J, Gaziano J, Ridker P, Hankinson S, et al. Genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase and the beneficial effect of moderate alcohol consumption on myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2001;344:549-55 pubmed
    A polymorphism in the gene for alcohol dehydrogenase type 3 (ADH3) alters the rate of alcohol metabolism...
  6. Asakage T, Yokoyama A, Haneda T, Yamazaki M, Muto M, Yokoyama T, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, and drinking, smoking and diet in Japanese men with oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:865-74 pubmed
    ..polymorphisms of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B, previously called ADH2), and ADH1C (previously called ADH3) affect the metabolism of alcohol...
  7. Chao Y, Wang L, Hsieh T, Chu C, Chang F, Chu H. Chinese alcoholic patients with esophageal cancer are genetically different from alcoholics with acute pancreatitis and liver cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95:2958-64 pubmed
    ..with esophageal cancer, acute pancreatitis, and liver cirrhosis by studying the genetic polymorphisms of ADH2, ADH3, ALDH2, and P4502E1...
  8. Mohelnikova Duchonova B, Vrana D, Holcatova I, Ryska M, Smerhovsky Z, Soucek P. CYP2A13, ADH1B, and ADH1C gene polymorphisms and pancreatic cancer risk. Pancreas. 2010;39:144-8 pubmed publisher
    ..tobacco carcinogen-metabolizing gene CYP2A13 (Arg101Stop) and the alcohol-metabolizing genes ADH1B (Arg48His) and ADH1C (Ile350Val) with pancreatic cancer risk. Polymorphisms were studied by allelic discrimination...
  9. van der Logt E, Bergevoet S, Roelofs H, Te Morsche R, Dijk Y, Wobbes T, et al. Role of epoxide hydrolase, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, cytochrome P450 2E1 or alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes in susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Mutat Res. 2006;593:39-49 pubmed
    ..hydrolase (EPHX1), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH3) predispose to the development of CRC...

More Information


  1. Zavras A, Wu T, Laskaris G, Wang Y, Cartsos V, Segas J, et al. Interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase 3 gene, alcohol consumption and oral cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 2002;97:526-30 pubmed
    ..cancer (OC) risk of an interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) gene and alcohol consumption levels using a hospital-based study of 93 cases and 99 controls conducted in Athens, ..
  2. Younis J, Cooper J, Miller G, Humphries S, Talmud P. Genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase 1C and the beneficial effect of alcohol intake on coronary heart disease risk in the Second Northwick Park Heart Study. Atherosclerosis. 2005;180:225-32 pubmed
    b>Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C or ADH3) genotype reportedly modifies the association between alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, as well as influencing plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels [Hines LM, ..
  3. Luo X, Kranzler H, Zuo L, Wang S, Schork N, Gelernter J. Diplotype trend regression analysis of the ADH gene cluster and the ALDH2 gene: multiple significant associations with alcohol dependence. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;78:973-87 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we genotyped 16 markers within the ADH gene cluster (including the ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH1C, ADH5, ADH6, and ADH7 genes), 4 markers within the ALDH2 gene, and 38 unlinked ancestry-informative markers in a ..
  4. Djousse L, Levy D, Herbert A, Wilson P, D Agostino R, Cupples L, et al. Influence of alcohol dehydrogenase 1C polymorphism on the alcohol-cardiovascular disease association (from the Framingham Offspring Study). Am J Cardiol. 2005;96:227-32 pubmed associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), little is known of the effects of alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) polymorphism on the association between alcohol and CVD...
  5. Wang D, Ritchie J, Smith E, Zhang Z, Turek L, Haugen T. Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 and risk of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:626-32 pubmed
    In order to examine the association between alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) genotypes and risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), we conducted a hospital based case-control study including 348 cases and 330 controls...
  6. Yokoyama A, Tsutsumi E, Imazeki H, Suwa Y, Nakamura C, Yokoyama T. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations of Japanese alcoholic men. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010;34:1246-56 pubmed publisher
  7. Zhang F, Hou L, Terry M, Lissowska J, Morabia A, Chen J, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism, alcohol intake and the risk of stomach cancer in Warsaw, Poland. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:2060-4 pubmed alcohol metabolizing genes, including ADH1B (Ex9+5C>T, Ex3+23A>G, Ex3+58A>T and Ex9+77A>G), ADH1C (Ex8-56A>G and Ex6-14G>A) and ALDH2 (Ex1+82A>G), on levels of alcohol drinking and susceptibility of ..
  8. Whitfield J, O Brien M, Nightingale B, Zhu G, Heath A, Martin N. ADH genotype does not modify the effects of alcohol on high-density lipoprotein. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003;27:509-14 pubmed
    ..It has been proposed that ADH3 genotype modifies the relationships between alcohol intake and cardiovascular disease by altering the HDL response ..
  9. Tolstrup J, Grønbaek M, Tybjaerg Hansen A, Nordestgaard B. Alcohol intake, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes, and liver damage and disease in the Danish general population. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:2182-8 pubmed publisher
    We tested the hypothesis that alcohol, alone and in combination with alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1B and ADH1C genotypes, affects liver damage and disease in the general population...
  10. Beulens J, Rimm E, Hendriks H, Hu F, Manson J, Hunter D, et al. Alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes: influence of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase. Diabetes. 2007;56:2388-94 pubmed
    We sought to investigate whether a polymorphism in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1c (ADH1C) gene modifies the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes...
  11. Yin G, Kono S, Toyomura K, Moore M, Nagano J, Mizoue T, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms and colorectal cancer: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study. Cancer Sci. 2007;98:1248-53 pubmed
    ..The present case-control study was conducted to determine the influence of ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 polymorphisms in Fukuoka, Japan, with 685 incident cases of histologically confirmed colorectal ..
  12. Solomon P, Selvam G, Shanmugam G. Polymorphism in ADH and MTHFR genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma of Indians. Oral Dis. 2008;14:633-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study is designed to asses the polymorphic status in ADH1B (formerly ADH2), ADH1C (formerly ADH3) and MTHFR genes in order to correlate the susceptibility to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
  13. Sturgis E, Dahlstrom K, Guan Y, Eicher S, Strom S, Spitz M, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype is not associated with risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and pharynx. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10:273-5 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis, we investigated the association between the ADH3 genotype and oral and pharyngeal cancer risk in a large racially homogeneous case-control study of 229 patients and ..
  14. Nishimoto I, Pinheiro N, Rogatto S, Carvalho A, de Moura R, Caballero O, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype as a risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;130:78-82 pubmed
    To assess alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) polymorphism at position Ile349Val as indicator of risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer to verify its association with UADT cancer in nonalcoholic or nonsmoking individuals...
  15. Olshan A, Weissler M, Watson M, Bell D. Risk of head and neck cancer and the alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:57-61 pubmed
    ..The joint effects of lifetime alcohol use and the presence of the ADH3 'rapid' allele (ADH3(*)1) was evaluated in relation to the risk of SCCHN...
  16. Heidrich J, Wellmann J, Doring A, Illig T, Keil U. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase and risk of coronary heart disease in the MONICA/KORA-Augsburg cohort 1994/1995-2002. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007;14:769-74 pubmed
    ..Recently, genotype of alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) has been reported to modify the impact of alcohol consumption on the risk of coronary heart ..
  17. Broćić M, Supic G, Zeljic K, Jovic N, Kozomara R, Zagorac S, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of ADH1C and CYP2E1 and risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;145:586-93 pubmed publisher
    ..of alcohol is modulated by the polymorphisms in genes encoding ethanol-metabolizing enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase 1C, ADH1C, and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase, CYP2E1...
  18. Homann N, Stickel F, Konig I, Jacobs A, Junghanns K, Benesova M, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 allele is a genetic marker for alcohol-associated cancer in heavy drinkers. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:1998-2002 pubmed
    ..The allele ADH1C*1 of ADH1C encodes for an enzyme with a high capacity to generate acetaldehyde...
  19. Van Dijk B, van Houwelingen K, Witjes J, Schalken J, Kiemeney L. Alcohol dehydrogenase type 3 (ADH3) and the risk of bladder cancer. Eur Urol. 2001;40:509-14 pubmed
    ..DNA was isolated from peripheral blood, and ADH3 genotype was determined using PCR/RFLP...
  20. Ebrahim S, Lawlor D, Shlomo Y, Timpson N, Harbord R, Christensen M, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase type 1C (ADH1C) variants, alcohol consumption traits, HDL-cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease in women and men: British Women's Heart and Health Study and Caerphilly cohorts. Atherosclerosis. 2008;196:871-8 pubmed
    The alcohol dehydrogenase 1C gene (ADH1C) gamma2gamma2 variant reportedly interacts with moderate alcohol consumption to increase HDL-cholesterol levels and reduce coronary heart disease (CHD)...
  21. Visvanathan K, Crum R, Strickland P, You X, Ruczinski I, Berndt S, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase genetic polymorphisms, low-to-moderate alcohol consumption, and risk of breast cancer. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:467-76 pubmed
    In vitro, human isoenzymes encoded by genes homozygous for the ADH1C*1 or ADH1B*2 alleles metabolize ethanol to acetaldehyde at a faster rate than those homozygous for the ADH1C*2 or ADH1B*1 allele...
  22. Peters E, McClean M, Liu M, Eisen E, Mueller N, Kelsey K. The ADH1C polymorphism modifies the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck associated with alcohol and tobacco use. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14:476-82 pubmed
    ..Alcohol is eliminated through oxidation by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The ADH1C gene is polymorphic and the ADH1C*1 allele metabolizes ethanol to acetaldehyde at a higher rate than the variant ..
  23. Macgregor S, Lind P, Bucholz K, Hansell N, Madden P, Richter M, et al. Associations of ADH and ALDH2 gene variation with self report alcohol reactions, consumption and dependence: an integrated analysis. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:580-93 pubmed publisher
    ..7 x 10(-5)) and suggestive associations (P<0.001) between alcohol consumption phenotypes and rs1693482 (ADH1C), rs1230165 (ADH5) and rs3762894 (ADH4)...
  24. Seitz H, Meier P. The role of acetaldehyde in upper digestive tract cancer in alcoholics. Transl Res. 2007;149:293-7 pubmed
    ..In Caucasians, alcohol dehydrogenase 1*1 (ADH1C*1) allele encodes for an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzyme, which produces 2...
  25. Kortunay S, Koseler A, Orhan Kara C, Topuz B, Omer Atalay E. Frequencies of ADH1C alleles and genotypes in a Turkish head and neck cancer population. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2010;32:187-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes. The ADH1C*1 wild-type and ADH1C*2 variant alleles were analyzed with an RFLP method by using SspI as restriction enzyme...
  26. Frank J, Cichon S, Treutlein J, Ridinger M, Mattheisen M, Hoffmann P, et al. Genome-wide significant association between alcohol dependence and a variant in the ADH gene cluster. Addict Biol. 2012;17:171-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1789891, which is located between the ADH1B and ADH1C genes, achieved genome-wide significance [P = 1.27E-8, odds ratio (OR) = 1.46]...
  27. Garcia S, Curioni O, de Carvalho M, Gattás G. Polymorphisms in alcohol metabolizing genes and the risk of head and neck cancer in a Brazilian population. Alcohol Alcohol. 2010;45:6-12 pubmed publisher
    ..A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. We here investigated ADH1C Ile(350)Val, ADH1B Arg(48)His, ADH1B Arg(370)Cys and CYP2E1*5A PstI polymorphisms by PCR-RFLP Polymerase Chain ..
  28. Terry M, Gammon M, Zhang F, Knight J, Wang Q, Britton J, et al. ADH3 genotype, alcohol intake and breast cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:840-7 pubmed
    ..Individuals differ in their ADH genotype, and one locus in particular (ADH3) is polymorphic in Caucasian populations...
  29. Martinez C, Galván S, Garcia Martin E, Ramos M, Gutiérrez Martín Y, Agundez J. Variability in ethanol biodisposition in whites is modulated by polymorphisms in the ADH1B and ADH1C genes. Hepatology. 2010;51:491-500 pubmed publisher
    ..and acoustic signals, and we analyzed 13 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the genes coding for ADH1B, ADH1C, ALDH2, and CYP2E1 in 250 healthy white individuals...
  30. Schwartz S, Doody D, Fitzgibbons E, Ricks S, Porter P, Chen C. Oral squamous cell cancer risk in relation to alcohol consumption and alcohol dehydrogenase-3 genotypes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2001;10:1137-44 pubmed
    ..Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) converts ethanol to acetaldehyde, which is a suspected oral carcinogen...
  31. Oze I, Matsuo K, Suzuki T, Kawase T, Watanabe M, Hiraki A, et al. Impact of multiple alcohol dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms on risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in a Japanese population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:3097-102 pubmed publisher
    ..In Caucasians, significant associations between polymorphisms in ADH1B (rs1229984) and ADH1C (rs698 and rs1693482), and UAT cancer have been observed, despite strong linkage disequilibrium among them...
  32. Curtin K, Slattery M, Ulrich C, Bigler J, Levin T, Wolff R, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism: associations with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colon cancer and the modifying effects of diet. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:1672-9 pubmed
    ..methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) were evaluated. CIMP- or CIMP+ phenotype was based on five CpG island markers: MINT1, MINT2, MINT31, p16 and MLH1...
  33. Tolstrup J, Hansen J, Grønbaek M, Vogel U, Tjønneland A, Joensen A, et al. Alcohol drinking habits, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and risk of acute coronary syndrome. Scand J Public Health. 2010;38:489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..lower risk of acute coronary syndrome; however, there was no evidence that these finding were modified by ADH1B or ADH1C genotypes...
  34. Terry M, Gammon M, Zhang F, Vaughan T, Chow W, Risch H, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 and risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas. Cancer Causes Control. 2007;18:1039-46 pubmed
    ..These data suggest ADH3 genotype may be associated with risk of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas.
  35. Wu M, Chang S, Kampman E, Yang J, Wang X, Gu X, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes and esophageal cancer: a population-based case-control study in China. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:1868-77 pubmed publisher Jiangsu Province, China, we aimed to provide further information on the association of ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms with EC in a Chinese population...
  36. Soucek P, Susova S, Mohelnikova Duchonova B, Gromadzinska J, Moraviec Sztandera A, Vodicka P, et al. Polymorphisms in metabolizing enzymes and the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in the Slavic population of the central Europe. Neoplasma. 2010;57:415-21 pubmed
    ..metabolizing smoke constituents and/or alcohol (CYP2A13, CYP1B1, EPHX1, NQO1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, ADH1B and ADH1C)...
  37. Li D, Zhao H, Gelernter J. Further clarification of the contribution of the ADH1C gene to vulnerability of alcoholism and selected liver diseases. Hum Genet. 2012;131:1361-74 pubmed publisher
    The alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) subunit is an important member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family, a set of genes that plays a major role in the catabolism of ethanol...
  38. McKay J, Truong T, Gaborieau V, Chabrier A, Chuang S, Byrnes G, et al. A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001333 pubmed publisher
    ..non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10??); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10??; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02)...
  39. Tolstrup J, Grønbaek M, Nordestgaard B. Alcohol intake, myocardial infarction, biochemical risk factors, and alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009;2:507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with risk of myocardial infarction or with any of the cardiovascular biochemical ..
  40. Brennan P, Lewis S, Hashibe M, Bell D, Boffetta P, Bouchardy C, et al. Pooled analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and head and neck cancer: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159:1-16 pubmed
    Possession of the fast metabolizing alleles for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), ADH1B*2 and ADH1C*1, and the null allele for aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), ALDH2*2, results in increased acetylaldehyde levels and is hypothesized to increase ..
  41. Risch A, Ramroth H, Raedts V, Rajaee Behbahani N, Schmezer P, Bartsch H, et al. Laryngeal cancer risk in Caucasians is associated with alcohol and tobacco consumption but not modified by genetic polymorphisms in class I alcohol dehydrogenases ADH1B and ADH1C, and glutathione-S-transferases GSTM1 and GSTT1. Pharmacogenetics. 2003;13:225-30 pubmed
    ..and 251 population-based controls, matched by age and gender, were genotyped for genetic polymorphisms in ADH1B, ADH1C, GSTM1 and GSTT1, using genomic DNA isolated from peripheral lymphocytes and employing PCR and PCR/restriction ..
  42. Treutlein J, Cichon S, Ridinger M, Wodarz N, Soyka M, Zill P, et al. Genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66:773-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of genes that contribute to alcohol dependence will improve our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this disorder...
  43. Coutelle C, Hohn B, Benesova M, Oneta C, Quattrochi P, Roth H, et al. Risk factors in alcohol associated breast cancer: alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism and estrogens. Int J Oncol. 2004;25:1127-32 pubmed
    ..acetaldehyde is a carcinogenic factor associated with chronic alcohol consumption, individuals with the alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 allele (ADH1C*1 allele) seem to be at particular risk, since this allele encodes for a rapidly ethanol ..
  44. Zee R, Ridker P, Cook N. Prospective evaluation of the alcohol dehydrogenase gamma1/gamma2 gene polymorphism and risk of stroke. Stroke. 2004;35:e39-42 pubmed
    Genetic polymorphism of the alcohol dehydrogenase type 3 gene (ADH1C) has recently been associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction. However, data on risk of stroke are not available...
  45. Hines L, Hunter D, Stampfer M, Spiegelman D, Chu N, Rifai N, et al. Alcohol consumption and high-density lipoprotein levels: the effect of ADH1C genotype, gender and menopausal status. Atherosclerosis. 2005;182:293-300 pubmed
    We previously demonstrated that a functional polymorphism in alcohol dehydrogenase type 1C (ADH1C, also known as ADH3) modifies the association between moderate alcohol consumption and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and risk of ..
  46. Freudenheim J, Ram M, Nie J, Muti P, Trevisan M, Shields P, et al. Lung cancer in humans is not associated with lifetime total alcohol consumption or with genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3). J Nutr. 2003;133:3619-24 pubmed
    ..In addition we examined the alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) genotype in relation to lung cancer risk; ADH3 is rate limiting in alcohol metabolism and has a functional ..
  47. Tiemersma E, Wark P, Ocke M, Bunschoten A, Otten M, Kok F, et al. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2003;12:419-25 pubmed
    ..neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme...
  48. Xue Y, Wang M, Zhong D, Tong N, Chu H, Sheng X, et al. ADH1C Ile350Val polymorphism and cancer risk: evidence from 35 case-control studies. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37227 pubmed publisher
    b>Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) is the key enzyme catalyze oxidation of alcohol to acetaldehyde, which plays vital roles in the etiology of various cancer...
  49. Wall T, Carr L, Ehlers C. Protective association of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase with alcohol dependence in Native American Mission Indians. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:41-6 pubmed
    Two alcohol dehydrogenase genes (ADH2 and ADH3 on chromosome 4) and one aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH2 on chromosome 12) exhibit functional polymorphisms...
  50. Yasunami M, Kikuchi I, Sarapata D, Yoshida A. The human class I alcohol dehydrogenase gene cluster: three genes are tandemly organized in an 80-kb-long segment of the genome. Genomics. 1990;7:152-8 pubmed
    ..1.1.1) play a key role in hepatic alcohol catabolism. Three human class I ADH genes, ADH1, ADH2, and ADH3, which encode the alpha, beta, and gamma subunits respectively, have been isolated and mapped on chromosome 4q21-..
  51. Toth R, Fiatal S, Petrovski B, McKee M, Adany R. Combined effect of ADH1B RS1229984, RS2066702 and ADH1C RS1693482/ RS698 alleles on alcoholism and chronic liver diseases. Dis Markers. 2011;31:267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..the most frequent alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphisms (Arg48His and Arg370Cys in ADH1B, Arg272Gln and Ile350Val in ADH1C) on the alcohol use habits, alcohol dependence and chronic liver diseases in Hungary...
  52. Peng G, Yin J, Wang M, Lee J, Hsu Y, Yin S. Alcohol sensitivity in Taiwanese men with different alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genotypes. J Formos Med Assoc. 2002;101:769-74 pubmed
    ..Twenty-four adults, matched by age, body mass index, nutritional state, and homozygosity at ADH3, were recruited from a population base of 304 men...
  53. Way M, McQuillin A, Saini J, Ruparelia K, Lydall G, Guerrini I, et al. Genetic variants in or near ADH1B and ADH1C affect susceptibility to alcohol dependence in a British and Irish population. Addict Biol. 2015;20:594-604 pubmed publisher
    ..To further elucidate these associations, SNPs of interest in ADH1B, ADH1C and the ADH1B/1C intergenic region were genotyped in a British and Irish population (ADS cases n?=?1076: controls ..
  54. Hurley T, Bosron W, Stone C, Amzel L. Structures of three human beta alcohol dehydrogenase variants. Correlations with their functional differences. J Mol Biol. 1994;239:415-29 pubmed
    ..0 A movement of Lys228, relative to the beta 1 enzyme. These structural alterations may compensate for the loss of coenzyme interactions contributed by Arg47 and can explain the high affinity of the Gly47 variant for coenzyme. ..
  55. Visapää J, Gotte K, Benesova M, Li J, Homann N, Conradt C, et al. Increased cancer risk in heavy drinkers with the alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 allele, possibly due to salivary acetaldehyde. Gut. 2004;53:871-6 pubmed
    ..Recent epidemiological studies resulted in contradictory results and therefore we have investigated ADH1C genotypes in heavy alcohol consumers only...
  56. Khan A, Husain Q, Choudhuri G, Parmar D. Association of polymorphism in alcohol dehydrogenase and interaction with other genetic risk factors with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010;109:190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data revealed that the ADH1C*1/*1 genotype exhibited significant association with alcoholic liver cirrhosis while ADH1B genotypes did not show ..
  57. Frenzer A, Butler W, Norton I, Wilson J, Apte M, Pirola R, et al. Polymorphism in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, glutathione S-transferases and apolipoprotein E and susceptibility to alcohol-induced cirrhosis and chronic pancreatitis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002;17:177-82 pubmed
    ..The aim was to compare the genotype frequencies of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), ADH3, aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1), glutathione S-transferase-M1 (GSTM1), GSTT1, and ..
  58. Hidaka A, Sasazuki S, Matsuo K, Ito H, Sawada N, Shimazu T, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2, alcohol consumption, and the risk of gastric cancer: the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study. Carcinogenesis. 2015;36:223-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the association between ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms, alcohol consumption and the risk of gastric cancer among Japanese ..
  59. Divate N, Chen G, Divate R, Ou B, Chung Y. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improvement in stresses tolerance. Bioengineered. 2017;8:524-535 pubmed publisher
    ..Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (tps1) and aldehyde reductase gene (ari1) were co-overexpressed in nth1 (coded for neutral trehalase gene, trehalose degrading enzyme) ..