Gene Symbol: ADH1B
Description: alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (class I), beta polypeptide
Alias: ADH2, HEL-S-117, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B, ADH, beta subunit, alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (class I), beta polypeptide, alcohol dehydrogenase subunit beta, aldehyde reductase, epididymis secretory protein Li 117
Species: human
Products:     ADH1B

Top Publications

  1. Smith M. Genetics of human alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases. Adv Hum Genet. 1986;15:249-90 pubmed
  2. Whitfield J, O Brien M, Nightingale B, Zhu G, Heath A, Martin N. ADH genotype does not modify the effects of alcohol on high-density lipoprotein. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003;27:509-14 pubmed
    ..The aim of this paper was to test for effects of ADH2 and ADH3 genotypes on the response of HDL components to habitual alcohol consumption...
  3. Yokoyama A, Tsutsumi E, Imazeki H, Suwa Y, Nakamura C, Yokoyama T. Contribution of the alcohol dehydrogenase-1B genotype and oral microorganisms to high salivary acetaldehyde concentrations in Japanese alcoholic men. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:1047-54 pubmed
    The less-active homozygous alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B*1/*1) and inactive heterozygous aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2*1/*2) increase the risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer (UADTC) in Japanese alcoholics...
  4. Tolstrup J, Grønbaek M, Tybjaerg Hansen A, Nordestgaard B. Alcohol intake, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes, and liver damage and disease in the Danish general population. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009;104:2182-8 pubmed publisher
    ..7 (0.6-4.7), 2.0 (0.8-7.1), 6.5 (2.0-21), and 13 (4.6-37) (P for trend<0.0001). ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with and did not modify the effect of alcohol on biochemical tests or risk ..
  5. Borras E, Coutelle C, Rosell A, Fernández Muixi F, Broch M, Crosas B, et al. Genetic polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase in europeans: the ADH2*2 allele decreases the risk for alcoholism and is associated with ADH3*1. Hepatology. 2000;31:984-9 pubmed
    Polymorphism at the ADH2 and ADH3 loci of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has been shown to have an effect on the predisposition to alcoholism in Asian individuals. However, the results are not conclusive for white individuals...
  6. Dannenberg L, Chen H, Tian H, Edenberg H. Differential regulation of the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and ADH1C genes by DNA methylation and histone deacetylation. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30:928-37 pubmed
    The human class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes (ADH1A, ADH1B, and ADH1C) differ in expression during development and in various tissues. They are repressed in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line...
  7. Suzuki Y, Fujisawa M, Ando F, Niino N, Ohsawa I, Shimokata H, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase 2 variant is associated with cerebral infarction and lacunae. Neurology. 2004;63:1711-3 pubmed
    The authors examined the association of the alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) genotype with vascular events in community-dwelling Japanese (1,102 men/1,093 women)...
  8. Zhang F, Hou L, Terry M, Lissowska J, Morabia A, Chen J, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in alcohol metabolism, alcohol intake and the risk of stomach cancer in Warsaw, Poland. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:2060-4 pubmed
    ..428 controls in Warsaw, Poland, we evaluated the effect of polymorphisms in alcohol metabolizing genes, including ADH1B (Ex9+5C>T, Ex3+23A>G, Ex3+58A>T and Ex9+77A>G), ADH1C (Ex8-56A>G and Ex6-14G>A) and ALDH2 (Ex1+..
  9. McCarver D. ADH2 and CYP2E1 genetic polymorphisms: risk factors for alcohol-related birth defects. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001;29:562-5 pubmed
    ..A recent population study demonstrated a protective role for the ADH-beta(3) isoform, which is encoded by ADH2*3, an allele unique to African Americans...

More Information


  1. Mulligan C, Robin R, Osier M, Sambuughin N, Goldfarb L, Kittles R, et al. Allelic variation at alcohol metabolism genes ( ADH1B, ADH1C, ALDH2) and alcohol dependence in an American Indian population. Hum Genet. 2003;113:325-36 pubmed
    ..Allelic variants have been identified that alter metabolic rates and influence risk for alcoholism. Specifically, ADH1B*47His (previously ADH2-2) and ALDH2-2 have been shown to confer protection against alcoholism, presumably through ..
  2. Drogan D, Sheldrick A, Schütze M, Knüppel S, Andersohn F, di Giuseppe R, et al. Alcohol consumption, genetic variants in alcohol deydrogenases, and risk of cardiovascular diseases: a prospective study and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32176 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, to quantitatively summarize available evidence of prospective studies on polymorphisms in ADH1B and ADH1C and CVD-risk...
  3. Ma L, Xue Y, Liu Y, Wang Z, Cui X, Li P, et al. Polymorphism study of seven SNPs at ADH genes in 15 Chinese populations. Hereditas. 2005;142:103-11 pubmed
    ..However, the causative SNP ADH1B Arg47His confirmed in case-control studies could not act as significant indicator to distinguish bibulous groups ..
  4. Husemoen L, Fenger M, Friedrich N, Tolstrup J, Beenfeldt Fredriksen S, Linneberg A. The association of ADH and ALDH gene variants with alcohol drinking habits and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008;32:1984-91 pubmed publisher
    ..More large-scale epidemiologic studies are needed to confirm theses results and to further investigate genetic susceptibility to the effects of alcohol drinking. ..
  5. Whitfield J. Alcohol dehydrogenase and alcohol dependence: variation in genotype-associated risk between populations. Am J Hum Genet. 2002;71:1247-50; author reply 1250-1 pubmed
  6. Guo Y, Wang Q, Liu Y, Chen H, Qi Z, Guo Q. Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P4502E1, alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Gansu Chinese males. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:1444-9 pubmed
    To evaluate the association between genetic polymorphisms in CYP2E1, ALDH2 and ADH1B and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a high risk area of Gansu Province, in Chinese males...
  7. Luo X, Kranzler H, Zuo L, Wang S, Schork N, Gelernter J. Diplotype trend regression analysis of the ADH gene cluster and the ALDH2 gene: multiple significant associations with alcohol dependence. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;78:973-87 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we genotyped 16 markers within the ADH gene cluster (including the ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH1C, ADH5, ADH6, and ADH7 genes), 4 markers within the ALDH2 gene, and 38 unlinked ancestry-informative markers ..
  8. Saito K, Yokoyama T, Yoshiike N, Date C, Yamamoto A, Muramatsu M, et al. Do the ethanol metabolizing enzymes modify the relationship between alcohol consumption and blood pressure?. J Hypertens. 2003;21:1097-105 pubmed
    ..dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genotypes, but few studies have examined the association with alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), and those have yielded inconsistent results...
  9. Hasin D, Aharonovich E, Liu X, Mamman Z, Matseoane K, Carr L, et al. Alcohol and ADH2 in Israel: Ashkenazis, Sephardics, and recent Russian immigrants. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159:1432-4 pubmed
    Jews drink less than other Caucasians and have a higher prevalence of ADH2*2, an allele of an alcohol dehydrogenase gene that protects against heavy drinking...
  10. Wall T, Shea S, Luczak S, Cook T, Carr L. Genetic associations of alcohol dehydrogenase with alcohol use disorders and endophenotypes in white college students. J Abnorm Psychol. 2005;114:456-65 pubmed
    Associations of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene polymorphisms (ADH1B*2 and ADH1C*1) with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD) were examined in White college students...
  11. Yokoyama A, Kato H, Yokoyama T, Tsujinaka T, Muto M, Omori T, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and glutathione S-transferase M1 and drinking, smoking, and diet in Japanese men with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23:1851-9 pubmed
    The genetic polymorphisms of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), ADH3, and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) influence the metabolism of alcohol and other carcinogens...
  12. Ding J, Li S, Cao H, Wu J, Gao C, Liu Y, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase-2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotypes, alcohol drinking and the risk for esophageal cancer in a Chinese population. J Hum Genet. 2010;55:97-102 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the relationship among alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genetic polymorphisms, alcohol consumption and the susceptibility to esophageal cancer in a Chinese population, we conducted a case-..
  13. Tolstrup J, Hansen J, Grønbaek M, Vogel U, Tjønneland A, Joensen A, et al. Alcohol drinking habits, alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and risk of acute coronary syndrome. Scand J Public Health. 2010;38:489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..with lower risk of acute coronary syndrome; however, there was no evidence that these finding were modified by ADH1B or ADH1C genotypes...
  14. Wu C, Wu D, Hsu H, Kao E, Lee J, Lin C, et al. Relationship between genetic polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in males. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:5103-8 pubmed
    To investigate the association between the genetic polymorphisms of ADH2 and ALDH2, lifetime alcohol consumption and esophageal cancer risk in the Taiwanese men...
  15. Akbari M, Malekzadeh R, Shakeri R, Nasrollahzadeh D, Foumani M, Sun Y, et al. Candidate gene association study of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk region in Iran. Cancer Res. 2009;69:7994-8000 pubmed publisher
    ..The association observed for a functional variant in ADH1B was confirmed in the validation set, and that of a tagSNP in MGMT, the association was borderline significant in ..
  16. Tanaka F, Yamamoto K, Suzuki S, Inoue H, Tsurumaru M, Kajiyama Y, et al. Strong interaction between the effects of alcohol consumption and smoking on oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma among individuals with ADH1B and/or ALDH2 risk alleles. Gut. 2010;59:1457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is considered a difficult cancer to cure. The detection of environmental and genetic factors is important for prevention on an individual basis...
  17. Oze I, Matsuo K, Suzuki T, Kawase T, Watanabe M, Hiraki A, et al. Impact of multiple alcohol dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms on risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancers in a Japanese population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:3097-102 pubmed publisher
    ..In Caucasians, significant associations between polymorphisms in ADH1B (rs1229984) and ADH1C (rs698 and rs1693482), and UAT cancer have been observed, despite strong linkage ..
  18. Matsumoto M, Cyganek I, Sanghani P, Cho W, Liangpunsakul S, Crabb D. Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011;35:28-38 pubmed publisher
    Human class I alcohol dehydrogenase 2 isoenzymes (encoded by the ADH1B locus) have large differences in kinetic properties; however, individuals inheriting the alleles for the different isoenzymes exhibit only small differences in ..
  19. Kuo P, Kalsi G, Prescott C, Hodgkinson C, Goldman D, van den Oord E, et al. Association of ADH and ALDH genes with alcohol dependence in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of alcohol dependence (IASPSAD) sample. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008;32:785-95 pubmed publisher
    ..association was observed in the ADH5 and ADH1C genes, and in a long haplotype block formed by the ADH1A and ADH1B loci...
  20. Hiraki A, Matsuo K, Wakai K, Suzuki T, Hasegawa Y, Tajima K. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions between alcohol drinking habit and polymorphisms in alcohol-metabolizing enzyme genes and the risk of head and neck cancer in Japan. Cancer Sci. 2007;98:1087-91 pubmed
    ..The genetic polymorphisms aldehyde dehydrogenase2 (ALDH2) Glu487Lys and alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) His47Arg, which have a strong impact on alcohol metabolism, are common in the Japanese population...
  21. Bierut L, Goate A, Breslau N, Johnson E, Bertelsen S, Fox L, et al. ADH1B is associated with alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption in populations of European and African ancestry. Mol Psychiatry. 2012;17:445-50 pubmed publisher
    A coding variant in alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) (rs1229984) that leads to the replacement of Arg48 with His48 is common in Asian populations and reduces their risk for alcoholism, but because of very low allele frequencies the ..
  22. Duranceaux N, Schuckit M, Eng M, Robinson S, Carr L, Wall T. Associations of variations in alcohol dehydrogenase genes with the level of response to alcohol in non-Asians. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006;30:1470-8 pubmed
    ..Variations in the ADH1B and ADH1C genes may influence the LR to alcohol by increasing levels of acetaldehyde during alcohol metabolism, ..
  23. STURMER T, Wang Gohrke S, Arndt V, Boeing H, Kong X, Kreienberg R, et al. Interaction between alcohol dehydrogenase II gene, alcohol consumption, and risk for breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2002;87:519-23 pubmed
    ..Breast cancer risk associated with alcohol consumption may vary according to the alcohol dehydrogenase II polymorphism, probably due to differences in alcohol metabolism. ..
  24. Niederhut M, Gibbons B, Perez Miller S, Hurley T. Three-dimensional structures of the three human class I alcohol dehydrogenases. Protein Sci. 2001;10:697-706 pubmed
    ..humans possess three distinct genes for class I alcohol dehydrogenase and show polymorphic variation in the ADH1B and ADH1C genes...
  25. Yamada Y, Sun F, Tsuritani I, Honda R. Genetic differences in ethanol metabolizing enzymes and blood pressure in Japanese alcohol consumers. J Hum Hypertens. 2002;16:479-86 pubmed
    Orientals have unique genetic polymorphisms in ethanol metabolizing enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) and cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1)...
  26. Jacobson S, Carr L, Croxford J, Sokol R, Li T, Jacobson J. Protective effects of the alcohol dehydrogenase-ADH1B allele in children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy. J Pediatr. 2006;148:30-7 pubmed
    To examine alcohol use for mothers with and without an ADH1B*3 allele and the moderating effects of the maternal and child ADH1B*3 allele on a broad range of infant and 7.5-year outcomes...
  27. Cao H, Li S, Wu J, Gao C, Su P, Liu Y, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase-2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotypes, alcohol drinking and the risk for stomach cancer in Chinese males. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11:1073-7 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship among alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genetic polymorphisms, alcohol consumption, and the susceptibility of stomach cancer in Chinese males...
  28. Wu C, Kraft P, Zhai K, Chang J, Wang Z, Li Y, et al. Genome-wide association analyses of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese identify multiple susceptibility loci and gene-environment interactions. Nat Genet. 2012;44:1090-7 pubmed publisher
    ..known association of the ALDH2 locus on 12q24 to ESCC, and a joint analysis showed that drinkers with both of the ADH1B and ALDH2 risk alleles had a fourfold increased risk for ESCC compared to drinkers without these risk alleles...
  29. McKay J, Truong T, Gaborieau V, Chabrier A, Chuang S, Byrnes G, et al. A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001333 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10??); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10??; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02)...
  30. Yang S, Wang H, Li X, Du H, Zheng C, Chen H, et al. Genetic polymorphisms of ADH2 and ALDH2 association with esophageal cancer risk in southwest China. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:5760-4 pubmed
    To evaluate the impact of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) polymorphisms on esophageal cancer risk...
  31. Carr L, Foroud T, Stewart T, Castelluccio P, Edenberg H, Li T. Influence of ADH1B polymorphism on alcohol use and its subjective effects in a Jewish population. Am J Med Genet. 2002;112:138-43 pubmed
    ..Genetic polymorphism at the ADH1B locus (old nomenclature ADH2) results in isozymes with quite different catalytic properties...
  32. Matsuo K, Hiraki A, Hirose K, Ito H, Suzuki T, Wakai K, et al. Impact of the alcohol-dehydrogenase (ADH) 1C and ADH1B polymorphisms on drinking behavior in nonalcoholic Japanese. Hum Mutat. 2007;28:506-10 pubmed
    A linkage disequilibrium (LD) between the alcohol-dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) and alcohol-dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) polymorphisms adds complexity to differentiating the significance of these two genetic polymorphisms on drinking behavior and ..
  33. Peng G, Yin J, Wang M, Lee J, Hsu Y, Yin S. Alcohol sensitivity in Taiwanese men with different alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genotypes. J Formos Med Assoc. 2002;101:769-74 pubmed
    Previous studies demonstrated that ADH2*2, encoding for high-maximal velocity (Vmax) beta2-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity, and mutant ALDH2*2, encoding for null aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 activity, independently influence ..
  34. Tolstrup J, Grønbaek M, Nordestgaard B. Alcohol intake, myocardial infarction, biochemical risk factors, and alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009;2:507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes were not associated with risk of myocardial infarction or with any of the cardiovascular ..
  35. Ferrari P, McKay J, Jenab M, Brennan P, Canzian F, Vogel U, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms, alcohol intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66:1303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the impact of rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs1573496 (ADH7) and rs441 (ALDH2) polymorphisms on CRC risk...
  36. Hashibe M, McKay J, Curado M, Oliveira J, Koifman S, Koifman R, et al. Multiple ADH genes are associated with upper aerodigestive cancers. Nat Genet. 2008;40:707-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene variants rs1229984 (ADH1B) and rs1573496 (ADH7) were significantly protective against aerodigestive cancer in each individual study and ..
  37. Almeida O, Hankey G, Yeap B, Golledge J, Flicker L. Alcohol consumption and cognitive impairment in older men: a mendelian randomization study. Neurology. 2014;82:1038-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We genotyped the rs1229984 G?A variant of the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) gene, which is associated with lower prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence...
  38. Kim D, Choi I, Park B, Lee B, Ham B, Yoon S, et al. Major genetic components underlying alcoholism in Korean population. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:854-8 pubmed
    ..The well-known genetic polymorphisms in ADH1B(His47Arg) and ALDH2(Glu487Lys) have dramatic effects on the rate of metabolizing alcohol and acetaldehyde, ..
  39. Zintzaras E, Stefanidis I, Santos M, Vidal F. Do alcohol-metabolizing enzyme gene polymorphisms increase the risk of alcoholism and alcoholic liver disease?. Hepatology. 2006;43:352-61 pubmed
    ..studies that have investigated the association between alcoholism and alcohol-induced liver damage and the ADH2, ADH3, CYP2E1, and ADLH2 polymorphisms have reported controversial or inconclusive results...
  40. Fischer M, Wetherill L, Carr L, You M, Crabb D. Association of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promoter polymorphism with alcohol consumption and reactions in an American Jewish population. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:1654-9 pubmed
    ..When the other covariates (ADH1B genotype, gender, and population) were controlled for, there was a marginal association between ALDH2A genotype ..
  41. Peng G, Chen Y, Tsao T, Wang M, Yin S. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic basis for partial protection against alcoholism in Asians, heterozygous for the variant ALDH2*2 gene allele. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007;17:845-55 pubmed
    ..were divided into 3 combinatorial genotypic groups of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and ALDH, that is, ALDH2*1/*1-ADH1B*1/*1-ADH1C*1/*1 (n=8), ALDH2*1/*1-ADH1B*2/*2-ADH1C*1/*1 (n=8), and ALDH2*1/*2-ADH1B*2/*2-ADH1C*1/*1 (n=16)...
  42. Ding J, Li S, Cao H, Wu J, Gao C, Su P, et al. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and esophageal cancer risk in Southeast Chinese males. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:2395-400 pubmed
    To evaluate the impact of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) polymorphisms on esophageal cancer susceptibility in Southeast Chinese males...
  43. Jia C, Liu T, Liu Z, Li M, Hu M. Joint effects of eNOS gene T-786C and ADH2 Arg47His polymorphisms on the risk of premature coronary artery disease. Thromb Res. 2007;120:679-84 pubmed
    ..Since ADH2 Arg47His polymorphism is common in Asian population, the aim of this present study was to assess the interaction ..
  44. Lee C, Lee J, Wu D, Goan Y, Chou S, Wu I, et al. Carcinogenetic impact of ADH1B and ALDH2 genes on squamous cell carcinoma risk of the esophagus with regard to the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and betel quid. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:1347-56 pubmed
    ..The genotoxic effect of the ADH1B and ALDH2 genes modulating an individual's alcohol-metabolizing capacity on ESCC may be linked to drinking ..
  45. Gao C, Takezaki T, Wu J, Zhang X, Cao H, Ding J, et al. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese males. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:5078-83 pubmed
    To evaluate the relationship between drinking and polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) and/or aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) for risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Chinese males...
  46. Matsuo K, Wakai K, Hirose K, Ito H, Saito T, Suzuki T, et al. A gene-gene interaction between ALDH2 Glu487Lys and ADH2 His47Arg polymorphisms regarding the risk of colorectal cancer in Japan. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:1018-23 pubmed
    ..Genetic polymorphisms, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) Glu487Lys and alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) His47Arg, which have a strong impact on alcohol metabolism, are common in Japanese population but their ..
  47. Zuccolo L, Fitz Simon N, Gray R, Ring S, Sayal K, Smith G, et al. A non-synonymous variant in ADH1B is strongly associated with prenatal alcohol use in a European sample of pregnant women. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:4457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Single-locus analyses on 7410 women of white/European background showed strong associations for rs1229984 (ADH1B). Rare allele carriers consumed less alcohol before pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) = 0...
  48. Yang S, Yokoyama A, Yokoyama T, Huang Y, Wu S, Shao Y, et al. Relationship between genetic polymorphisms of ALDH2 and ADH1B and esophageal cancer risk: a meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:4210-20 pubmed
    To evaluate the contribution of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) polymorphisms to the risk of esophageal cancer...
  49. Zhang G, Mai R, Huang B. ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism is associated with esophageal cancer risk in high-incidence Asian population: evidence from a meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13679 pubmed publisher
    ..The Arg47His (rs1229984) polymorphism of ADH1B is the highest in East Asians, and ancient migrations along the Silk Road were thought to be contributive to a ..
  50. Duester G, Farres J, Felder M, Holmes R, Hoog J, Pares X, et al. Recommended nomenclature for the vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase gene family. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999;58:389-95 pubmed
    ..e. ADH1A, ADH1B, and ADH1C for human alpha, beta, and gamma class I ADHs, respectively...
  51. Yin G, Kono S, Toyomura K, Moore M, Nagano J, Mizoue T, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms and colorectal cancer: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study. Cancer Sci. 2007;98:1248-53 pubmed
    ..The present case-control study was conducted to determine the influence of ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 polymorphisms in Fukuoka, Japan, with 685 incident cases of histologically confirmed colorectal ..
  52. Li H, Mukherjee N, Soundararajan U, Tarnok Z, Barta C, Khaliq S, et al. Geographically separate increases in the frequency of the derived ADH1B*47His allele in eastern and western Asia. Am J Hum Genet. 2007;81:842-6 pubmed
    The ADH1B Arg47His polymorphism has been convincingly associated with alcoholism in numerous studies of several populations in Asia and Europe...
  53. Macgregor S, Lind P, Bucholz K, Hansell N, Madden P, Richter M, et al. Associations of ADH and ALDH2 gene variation with self report alcohol reactions, consumption and dependence: an integrated analysis. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:580-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of two genetic variants in ALDH2 and ADH1B in AD risk has been extensively investigated...
  54. Birley A, James M, Dickson P, Montgomery G, Heath A, Martin N, et al. ADH single nucleotide polymorphism associations with alcohol metabolism in vivo. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1533-42 pubmed publisher
    ..of ADH7 SNPs were associated with the early stages of alcohol metabolism, with additional effects in the ADH1A, ADH1B and ADH4 regions...
  55. Birley A, Whitfield J, Neale M, Duffy D, Heath A, Boomsma D, et al. Genetic time-series analysis identifies a major QTL for in vivo alcohol metabolism not predicted by in vitro studies of structural protein polymorphism at the ADH1B or ADH1C loci. Behav Genet. 2005;35:509-24 pubmed
    ..Nearly all participants were subsequently genotyped on two polymorphic SNPs in the ADH1B and ADH1C loci known to affect in vitro ADH activity. In the DZ pairs, 14 microsatellite markers covering a 20...
  56. Chen Y, Chen C, Wu D, Lee C, Wu C, Lee J, et al. Interactive effects of lifetime alcohol consumption and alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms on esophageal cancer risks. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:2827-31 pubmed
    In our previous study, we found that polymorphisms of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH1B and ALDH2) are important risks for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Taiwanese population...
  57. Lilla C, Koehler T, Kropp S, Wang Gohrke S, Chang Claude J. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) genotype, alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk by age 50 years in a German case-control study. Br J Cancer. 2005;92:2039-41 pubmed
    In a population-based study of 613 cases and 1082 controls, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) genotype was not an independent risk factor for breast cancer, although the possibility was raised that it modifies risk associated with high ..
  58. Wall T, Carr L, Ehlers C. Protective association of genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase with alcohol dependence in Native American Mission Indians. Am J Psychiatry. 2003;160:41-6 pubmed
    Two alcohol dehydrogenase genes (ADH2 and ADH3 on chromosome 4) and one aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH2 on chromosome 12) exhibit functional polymorphisms...
  59. Shaheen S, Rutterford C, Zuccolo L, Ring S, Davey Smith G, Holloway J, et al. Prenatal alcohol exposure and childhood atopic disease: a Mendelian randomization approach. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133:225-32.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..91 [95% CI, 0.82-1.01] and 0.87 [95% CI, 0.78-0.98], respectively). However, maternal ADH1B genotype was not associated with asthma comparing carriers of A allele with persons homozygous for G allele (OR, 0...
  60. Tolstrup J, Nordestgaard B, Rasmussen S, Tybjaerg Hansen A, Grønbaek M. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes. Pharmacogenomics J. 2008;8:220-7 pubmed alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C...
  61. Zuccolo L, Lewis S, Smith G, Sayal K, Draper E, Fraser R, et al. Prenatal alcohol exposure and offspring cognition and school performance. A 'Mendelian randomization' natural experiment. Int J Epidemiol. 2013;42:1358-70 pubmed publisher
    ..and Children (ALSPAC) and performed both conventional observational analyses and Mendelian randomization using an ADH1B variant (rs1229984) associated with reduced alcohol consumption...
  62. Yang C, Matsuo K, Ito H, Hirose K, Wakai K, Saito T, et al. Esophageal cancer risk by ALDH2 and ADH2 polymorphisms and alcohol consumption: exploration of gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2005;6:256-62 pubmed
    ..drinking is a major risk factor for esophageal cancer in Japan and its impact may be modulated by levels of ALDH2, ADH2 and CYP2E1, three representative alcohol-metabolizing enzymes which display genetic polymorphisms altering ..
  63. Luczak S, Glatt S, Wall T. Meta-analyses of ALDH2 and ADH1B with alcohol dependence in Asians. Psychol Bull. 2006;132:607-21 pubmed
    ..Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the magnitude of relationships between polymorphisms in 2 genes, ALDH2 and ADH1B, with alcohol dependence in Asians...
  64. Cui R, Kamatani Y, Takahashi A, Usami M, Hosono N, Kawaguchi T, et al. Functional variants in ADH1B and ALDH2 coupled with alcohol and smoking synergistically enhance esophageal cancer risk. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:1768-75 pubmed publisher
    ..of ESCC with 4q21-23 and 12q24 regions, which include nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in ADH1B (rs1229984, P = 6.76 x 10(-35)) and ALDH2 (rs671, P = 3...
  65. Borinskaya S, Kal ina N, Marusin A, Faskhutdinova G, Morozova I, Kutuev I, et al. Distribution of the alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*47His allele in Eurasia. Am J Hum Genet. 2009;84:89-92; author reply 92-4 pubmed publisher
  66. Matsuo K, Wakai K, Hirose K, Ito H, Saito T, Tajima K. Alcohol dehydrogenase 2 His47Arg polymorphism influences drinking habit independently of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 Glu487Lys polymorphism: analysis of 2,299 Japanese subjects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:1009-13 pubmed
    Although the functional effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) His(47)Arg polymorphism has been elucidated, its effect on habitual drinking remains unknown...
  67. Choi I, Son H, Yang B, Kim S, Lee J, Chai Y, et al. Scanning of genetic effects of alcohol metabolism gene (ADH1B and ADH1C) polymorphisms on the risk of alcoholism. Hum Mutat. 2005;26:224-34 pubmed
    ..Direct DNA sequencing of whole ADH1B and ADH1C genes revealed 36 sequence variants, including six nonsynonymous and 14 novel polymorphisms...
  68. Wu M, Chang S, Kampman E, Yang J, Wang X, Gu X, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C and ALDH2 genes and esophageal cancer: a population-based case-control study in China. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:1868-77 pubmed publisher
    ..1,081 controls conducted in Jiangsu Province, China, we aimed to provide further information on the association of ADH1B (rs1229984), ADH1C (rs698) and ALDH2 (rs671) polymorphisms with EC in a Chinese population...
  69. Yang H, Zhou Y, Zhou Z, Liu J, Yuan X, Matsuo K, et al. A novel polymorphism rs1329149 of CYP2E1 and a known polymorphism rs671 of ALDH2 of alcohol metabolizing enzymes are associated with colorectal cancer in a southwestern Chinese population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:2522-7 pubmed publisher
    To screen for tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNP) in the major alcohol metabolizing enzymes: ADH1B, ALDH2, and CYP2E1, and to evaluate the association between these tagSNPs and colorectal cancer (CRC) in a southwestern ..
  70. Neumark Y, Friedlander Y, Durst R, Leitersdorf E, Jaffe D, Ramchandani V, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphisms influence alcohol-elimination rates in a male Jewish population. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28:10-4 pubmed
    ..There is growing evidence of a functional role of the ADH2*2 allele in alcohol-drinking patterns among Jews, who have traditionally exhibited low rates of alcoholism and ..
  71. Brennan P, Lewis S, Hashibe M, Bell D, Boffetta P, Bouchardy C, et al. Pooled analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase genotypes and head and neck cancer: a HuGE review. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159:1-16 pubmed
    Possession of the fast metabolizing alleles for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), ADH1B*2 and ADH1C*1, and the null allele for aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), ALDH2*2, results in increased acetylaldehyde levels and is hypothesized to increase ..
  72. Linneberg A, Gonzalez Quintela A, Vidal C, Jørgensen T, Fenger M, Hansen T, et al. Genetic determinants of both ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism influence alcohol hypersensitivity and drinking behaviour among Scandinavians. Clin Exp Allergy. 2010;40:123-30 pubmed publisher
    ..both populations, alcohol drinkers with a genetically determined fast metabolism of ethanol (the A allele of the ADH1b rs1229984) had an increased risk of alcohol-induced hypersensitivity reactions (odds ratio AA/AG vs...
  73. Li D, Zhao H, Gelernter J. Strong association of the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced medical diseases. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;70:504-12 pubmed publisher
    The alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) is hypothesized to affect predisposition to alcohol dependence (AD) and abuse...
  74. Husemoen L, Jørgensen T, Borch Johnsen K, Hansen T, Pedersen O, Linneberg A. The association of alcohol and alcohol metabolizing gene variants with diabetes and coronary heart disease risk factors in a white population. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11735 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant interactions were observed between alcohol and ADH1b (rs1229984) with respect to LDL and between alcohol and ALDH2 (rs886205) with respect to IGT/diabetes...
  75. Green R, Stoler J. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B genotype and fetal alcohol syndrome: a HuGE minireview. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197:12-25 pubmed
    ..Studies of genetic associations with FAS have focused on the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) gene, comparing mothers and children with the alleles ADH1B*2 or ADH1B*3, associated with faster ..
  76. Hashimoto Y, Nakayama T, Futamura A, Omura M, Nakarai H, Nakahara K. Relationship between genetic polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and changes in risk factors for coronary heart disease associated with alcohol consumption. Clin Chem. 2002;48:1043-8 pubmed
    ..Information regarding lifestyle habits was obtained by questionnaire. The ADH2 genotype was determined by PCR and subsequent digestion with MaeIII...
  77. Yokoyama A, Muramatsu T, Omori T, Yokoyama T, Matsushita S, Higuchi S, et al. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms and oropharyngolaryngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers in Japanese alcoholics. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22:433-9 pubmed
    Alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) gene polymorphisms play roles in ethanol metabolism, drinking behavior and esophageal carcinogenesis in Japanese; however, the combined influence of ADH2 and ALDH2 ..