Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: adenosine deaminase
Description: adenosine deaminase
Alias: adenosine aminohydrolase
Publications199 found, 100 shown here
- [Serum adenosine deaminase as a parameter for activity in sarcoidosis]E Wetzel
Krankenanstalt, , Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus,
Pneumologie 53:323-8. 1999..In comparison to the other parameters, measurement of the serum ADA indicates a greater discrimination between active and inactive disease...
- Interactions among adenosine deaminase, adenosine A(1) receptors and dopamine D(1) receptors in stably cotransfected fibroblast cells and neuronsM Torvinen
Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden
Neuroscience 113:709-19. 2002The role of adenosine deaminase in the interactions between adenosine A(1) and dopamine D(1) receptors was studied in a mouse fibroblast cell line stably cotransfected with human D(1) receptor and A(1) receptor cDNAs (A(1)D(1) cells)...
- Clustered charged amino acids of human adenosine deaminase comprise a functional epitope for binding the adenosine deaminase complexing protein CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IVEva Richard
Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
J Biol Chem 277:19720-6. 2002Human adenosine deaminase (ADA) occurs as a 41-kDa soluble monomer in all cells. On epithelia and lymphoid cells of humans, but not mice, ADA also occurs bound to the membrane glycoprotein CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV...
- [Differences between management guidelines and global health strategies for arterial hypertension with metabolic disorders in France in 1999. Ohara study]J M Mallion
CHU Michallon, 38043 Grenoble
Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 94:834-8. 2001..As a conclusion, to improve the prognosis of hypertensive patients, it is mandatory to raise the awareness of physicians about multiple risk factor management and help them implement the recommendations in their daily practice...
- The black and white of dental education in the United States: enrollment and graduation trendsR S Brown
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Oral Diagnosis and Radiology, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC 20059, USA
J Natl Med Assoc 92:536-43. 2000..4. Greater support for minority dental education institutions. 5. Student loan forgiveness programs, which aid recruitment of minority faculty and dental students who either teach or serve minority communities...
- Effects of the adenosine deaminase polymorphism and caffeine intake on sleep parameters in a large population sampleDiego Robles Mazzotti
Departmento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Sleep 34:399-402. 2011To evaluate the association between the adenosine deaminase polymorphism, sleep architecture, and caffeine consumption.
- Adenosine deaminase modulation of telomerase activity and replicative senescence in human CD8 T lymphocytesStanley T Parish
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
J Immunol 184:2847-54. 2010..The present study investigates the role of a second T cell costimulatory receptor component, adenosine deaminase (ADA), on the process of replicative senescence...
- Type 1 diabetes: evidence of interaction between ACP1 and ADA1 gene polymorphismsPatrizia Saccucci
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
Med Sci Monit 15:CR511-517. 2009ACP1 (acid phosphatase locus 1, a cytosolic low-molecular-weight phosphotyrosin phosphatase) and ADA1 (adenosine deaminase locus 1) are two polymorphic systems involved in immune reactions...
- The HIV-1 gp120 inhibits the binding of adenosine deaminase to CD26 by a mechanism modulated by CD4 and CXCR4 expressionJ Blanco
Unité de Virologie et dImmunologie Cellulaire, ERS 572 CNRS, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France
FEBS Lett 477:123-8. 2000HIV-1 external envelope glycoprotein gp120 inhibits adenosine deaminase (ADA) binding to its cell surface receptor in lymphocytes, CD26, by a mechanism that does not require the gp120-CD4 interaction...
- Adenosine deaminase potentiates the generation of effector, memory, and regulatory CD4+ T cellsJosé M Martinez-Navio
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Spain
J Leukoc Biol 89:127-36. 2011..These data suggest that ADA is a relevant modulator of CD4+ T cell differentiation, even in cells from immunologically compromised individuals...
- Adenosine deaminase enhances T-cell response elicited by dendritic cells loaded with inactivated HIVNuria Climent
Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain
Immunol Cell Biol 87:634-9. 2009..Owing to the fact that adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a member of the family of growth factor with deaminase activity, we tested whether it could ..
- Molecular mechanism and structural basis of interactions of dipeptidyl peptidase IV with adenosine deaminase and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 transcription transactivatorHua Fan
Institut fur Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Arnimallee 22, 14195 Berlin Dahlem, Germany
Eur J Cell Biol 91:265-73. 2012..In this paper, we review our recent studies on the interactions of DPPIV with adenosine deaminase (ADA) and the transcription transactivator of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 Tat) as ..
- HIV-1 envelope gp120 and viral particles block adenosine deaminase binding to human CD26A Valenzuela
Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de Barcelona, Spain
Adv Exp Med Biol 421:185-92. 1997CD26, known to be the adenosine deaminase (ADA) binding protein, has been implicated in HIV infection...
- Gene-expression profiling reveals down-regulation of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) in Ara-C-resistant CCRF-CEM-derived cellsKazuchika Takagaki
Discovery Research Laboratories, Nippon Shinyaku Co, Ltd, 3 14 1 Sakura, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 0003, Japan
J Biochem 136:733-40. 2004..The adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene was highly up-regulated in Ara-C-resistant cells, while equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (..
- Altered intracellular and extracellular signaling leads to impaired T-cell functions in ADA-SCID patientsBarbara Cassani
San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy, Milan, Italy
Blood 111:4209-19. 2008Mutations in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene are responsible for a form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by the lymphotoxic accumulation of ADA substrates, adenosine and 2'-deoxy-adenosine...
- Endothelial catabolism of extracellular adenosine during hypoxia: the role of surface adenosine deaminase and CD26Holger K Eltzschig
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Tubingen University Hospital, Hoppe Seyler Str 3, D 72076 Tubingen, Germany
Blood 108:1602-10. 2006..Guided by microarray results revealing induction of endothelial adenosine deaminase (ADA) mRNA in hypoxia, we used in vitro and in vivo models of adenosine signaling, confirming induction of ..
- ADA*2 allele of the adenosine deaminase gene may protect against coronary artery diseaseKrzysztof Safranow
Department of Biochemistry and Medical Chemistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland
Cardiology 108:275-81. 2007The common G22A polymorphism in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene leads to substitution Asp8Asn...
- An Asp8Asn substitution results in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) genetic polymorphism (ADA 2 allozyme): occurrence on different chromosomal backgrounds and apparent intragenic crossoverR Hirschhorn
New York University Medical Center, Department of Medicine, NY 10016
Ann Hum Genet 58:1-9. 1994We have now determined the molecular genetic basis for the common biochemical polymorphism at the adenosine deaminase (ADA) locus...
- Human adenosine deaminase as an allosteric modulator of human A(1) adenosine receptor: abolishment of negative cooperativity for [H](R)-pia binding to the caudate nucleusEduard Gracia
Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer, Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas CIBERNED, University of Barcelona, Spain
J Neurochem 107:161-70. 2008It has been shown that adenosine deaminase (ADA; EC 184.108.40.206) behaves as an ecto-enzyme anchored to membrane proteins, among them A(1) adenosine receptors (A(1)Rs)...
- Gender-specific association of ADA genetic polymorphism with human longevityValerio Napolioni
Department of Molecular, Cellular and Animal Biology, University of Camerino, Italy
Biogerontology 11:457-62. 2010Aim of this study was to investigate whether the polymorphic ADA (Adenosine Deaminase, EC 3.5.4...
- Lower frequency of the low activity adenosine deaminase allelic variant (ADA1*2) in schizophrenic patientsGustavo Pimentel Dutra
Department of Celular and Molecular Biology, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Rev Bras Psiquiatr 32:275-8. 2010..b>Adenosine deaminase participates in purine metabolism by converting adenosine into inosine...
- Adenosine A2B receptors behave as an alternative anchoring protein for cell surface adenosine deaminase in lymphocytes and cultured cellsC Herrera
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Mol Pharmacol 59:127-34. 2001b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme of the purine metabolism that has been largely considered to be cytosolic...
- Adenosine deaminase 1 and concentrative nucleoside transporters 2 and 3 regulate adenosine on the apical surface of human airway epithelia: implications for inflammatory lung diseasesAndrew J Hirsh
Cystic Fibrosis Pulmonary Research and Treatment Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
Biochemistry 46:10373-83. 2007..The conversion of adenosine to inosine was completely inhibited by the adenosine deaminase 1 (ADA1) inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA)...
- Direct association of adenosine deaminase with a T cell activation antigen, CD26J Kameoka
Division of Tumor Immunology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA
Science 261:466-9. 1993..acid sequence analysis and immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that this 43-kilodalton protein was adenosine deaminase (ADA)...
- The genetics of feto-placental development: a study of acid phosphatase locus 1 and adenosine deaminase polymorphisms in a consecutive series of newborn infantsFulvia Gloria-Bottini
Department of Biopathology and Imaging Diagnostics, Division of Human Population Biopathology and Environmental Pathology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
Reprod Biol Endocrinol 6:38. 2008Acid phosphatase locus 1 and adenosine deaminase locus 1 polymorphisms show cooperative effects on glucose metabolism and immunological functions...
- A functional genetic variation of adenosine deaminase affects the duration and intensity of deep sleep in humansJ V Rétey
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology and Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:15676-81. 2005..Here we show in humans that a genetic variant of adenosine deaminase, which is associated with the reduced metabolism of adenosine to inosine, specifically enhances deep sleep ..
- Expression of ecto-adenosine deaminase and CD26 in human T cells triggered by the TCR-CD3 complex. Possible role of adenosine deaminase as costimulatory moleculeM Martin
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
J Immunol 155:4630-43. 1995The expression of surface adenosine deaminase (ADA) and CD26 in activated human T cells was studied by flow cytometry...
- Adenosine deaminase binding to human CD26 is inhibited by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and viral particlesA Valenzuela
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
J Immunol 158:3721-9. 1997CD26, known to be the adenosine deaminase (ADA)-binding protein, has been implicated in HIV infection...
- Stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation by A2-adenosine and beta 2-adrenoceptorsV Sexl
Institute of Pharmacology, University of Vienna, Austria
Br J Pharmacol 114:1577-86. 1995..3. In the presence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), which was used to remove adenosine present in the culture medium, the adenosine receptor agonists N-..
- Effects of acute and chronic ethanol on cyclic AMP accumulation in NG108-15 cells: differential dependence of changes on extracellular adenosineE Kelly
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol
Br J Pharmacol 114:1433-41. 1995..However, chronic ethanol did not affect [3H]-iloprost binding to cell membranes. 4. Inclusion of adenosine deaminase (ADA; 1 unit ml-1) during the incubation period to measure cyclic AMP accumulation completely abolished the ..
- Different effect of dGTP on 2'-deoxyadenosine metabolism in mitochondria and cytosolJ Greger
Department of Biochemistry, , Poland
Z Naturforsch C 47:893-7. 1992Two enzymes participating in 2'-deoxyadenosine (dAdo) metabolism: dAdo kinase (dAdoK EC 220.127.116.11) and adenosine deaminase (ADA, EC 3.5.4...
- Prothymosin alpha and factors from calf thymic cells decrease expression of Thy 1.2 antigen among small thymocytes from C57BL/6 miceP Barja
, , Universidad de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 16:403-18. 1994..2 antigen (a T-cell marker) and the activities of adenosine deaminase (ADA, E.C. 18.104.22.168), N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NABG, E.C. 22.214.171.124), beta-glucuronidase (BG, E.C. 3...
- [A case of pneumonia due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae accompanying high adenosine deaminase activity in pleural effusion]S Tokisawa
Omuta Kinen Hospital
Kansenshogaku Zasshi 66:995-7. 1992We experienced a 5-year-old male case of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia accompanying Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) activity in pleural effusion...
- Biologic relevance of elevated red cell adenosine deaminase activity in myelodysplastic syndromes and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuriaP Di Marco
Cattedra di Ematologia, , Italy
Tumori 78:370-3. 1992Red cell adenosine deaminase (ADA-RBC) activity in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is significantly increased compared to that observed in normal controls...
- [Role of serum adenosine deaminase as an immune parameter of tuberculosis]C Kelbel
, Akademisches Lehrkrankenhaus,
Pneumologie 49:684-8. 1995..Serum levels positively correlated to the disease extent in tuberculosis of immunocompetent patients. This marker deserves further investigation with respect to its clinical significance...
- High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous detection of malonaldehyde, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, acetone and propionaldehyde to monitor the oxidative stress in heartG A Cordis
University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington 06030-1110
J Chromatogr A 661:181-91. 1994..Since MDA, FDA, ADA, acetone, and PDA are the products of ODFR-PUFA interactions, this method allows proper estimation of LPO which monitors the oxidative stress developed during the reperfusion of ischemic myocardium...
- Identification and characterization of a salivary adenosine deaminase from the sand fly Phlebotomus duboscqi, the vector of Leishmania major in sub-Saharan AfricaHirotomo Kato
Vector Molecular Biology Unit, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
J Exp Biol 210:733-40. 2007Two transcripts coding for an adenosine deaminase (ADA) were identified by sequencing a Phlebotomus duboscqi salivary gland cDNA library...
- A(2A) receptor dependent and A(2A) receptor independent effects of extracellular adenosine on murine thymocytes in conditions of adenosine deaminase deficiencyS Apasov
Biochemistry and Immunopharmacology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20982 1892, USA
Blood 95:3859-67. 2000b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency causes severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and is accompanied by T-cell depletion and accumulation of both intracellular and extracellular adenosine (extAdo) and deoxyadenosine...
- Activities of adenosine deaminase, 5'-nucleotidase, guanase, and cytidine deaminase enzymes in cancerous and non-cancerous human breast tissuesO Canbolat
Biochemistry Department, Ankara University, Ankara University, Turkey
Breast Cancer Res Treat 37:189-93. 1996..We found higher Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) and 5'-Nucleotidase (5'NT) and lower Guanase (GUA) activities in the cancerous tissues compared with ..
- Mechanisms of apoptosis in developing thymocytes as revealed by adenosine deaminase-deficient fetal thymic organ culturesLinda F Thompson
Immunobiology and Cancer Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 825 NE, 13th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
Biochem Pharmacol 66:1595-9. 2003b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) catalyzes the conversion of adenosine and deoxyadenosine to inosine and deoxyinosine, respectively...
- A 9-yr evaluation of carrier erythrocyte encapsulated adenosine deaminase (ADA) therapy in a patient with adult-type ADA deficiencyBridget E Bax
Child Health, Division of Clinical Developmental Sciences, St George s, University of London, London, UK
Eur J Haematol 79:338-48. 2007b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is an inherited disorder which leads to elevated cellular levels of deoxyadenosine triphosphate (dATP) and systemic accumulation of its precursor, 2-deoxyadenosine...
- [Adenosine deaminase activity in tuberculous and malignant pleural effusions]Aleksandra Safianowska
Katedra i Klinika Chorob Wewnetrznych, Pneumonologii i Alergologii AM w Warszawie
Pneumonol Alergol Pol 74:5-9. 2006Measurement of pleural adenosine deaminase activity (ADA) is a useful diagnostic tool for tuberculous pleurisy, but false-positive findings from non-tuberculous effusions have been reported...
- The salivary adenosine deaminase activity of the mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegyptiJ M Ribeiro
Medical Entomology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, 4 Center Drive, Room 4 126, Bethesda, MD 20892 0425, USA
J Exp Biol 204:2001-10. 2001A cDNA coding for a protein with significant similarity to adenosine deaminase (ADA) was found while randomly sequencing a cDNA library constructed from salivary gland extracts of adult female Culex quinquefasciatus...
- Adenosine deaminase and tuberculous pericarditis--a systematic review with meta-analysisFelipe Francisco Tuon
Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Clinic, Hospital das Clinicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Avenida Dr Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar 255, 4 Andar Sala 4028 ICHC, Cerqueira Cesar, CEP Number 05403 010 São Paulo, Brazil
Acta Trop 99:67-74. 2006b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in pericardial fluid is a valuable aid in the diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis (TP), but there is no systematic review performed to evaluate the benefits of ADA activity as an adjunctive test for ..
- Cerebrospinal fluid adenosine deaminase activity for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis in adultsVerajit Chotmongkol
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 37:948-52. 2006We studied adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 16 cases of tuberculous meningitis, 4 cases of cryptococcal meningitis, 5 cases of bacterial meningitis, 12 cases of eosinophilic meningitis, 26 cases of ..
- Relevance of adenosine deaminase and lysozyme measurements in the diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditisC Aggeli
Cardiology Department, University of Athens, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Greece
Cardiology 94:81-5. 2000To assess the value of pericardial fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA) and pericardial lysozyme (Lys) as tools in diagnosing tuberculous pericarditis.
- Effect of adenosine kinase, adenosine deaminase and transport inhibitors on striatal dopamine and stereotypy after methamphetamine administrationK Gołembiowska
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Smetna 12, 31 343, Krakow, Poland
Neuropharmacology 39:2124-32. 2000The effect of adenosine kinase (AKA), adenosine deaminase (ADA) and transport inhibitors on the release of dopamine (DA) induced by methamphetamine (MTH) in rat striatum was assessed using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats...
- Antithetical effects of corticosterone and dibutyryl cAMP on adenosine deaminase in the gastrointestinal tract of chicken during postnatal developmentPiyali Bhattacharjee
Department of Biochemistry, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, Meghalaya, India
Mol Cell Biochem 327:79-86. 2009b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA; EC 126.96.36.199) is a purine catabolic enzyme causing hydrolytic deamination of adenosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine to inosine and 2'-deoxyinosine...
- Adenosine deaminase activity and its isoenzymes in the sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosisK Dimakou
Sixth Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sotiria Chest Hospital, Athens, Greece
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:744-8. 2009b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been widely used for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion. Two isoenzymes have been described, ADA(1) and ADA(2).
- New insights into the pathogenesis of adenosine deaminase-severe combined immunodeficiency and progress in gene therapyAisha V Sauer
San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy HSR TIGET, Italy
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 9:496-502. 2009b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA)- deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a complex metabolic and immunological disorder, characterized by a severe immunodeficiency due to the accumulation of purine metabolites in plasma and cells...
- Serum adenosine deaminase enzyme and plasma platelet factor 4 activities in active pulmonary tuberculosis, HIV-seropositive subjects and cancer patientsGulnur Tarhan
Refik Saydam Hygiene Center, Tuberculosis Reference and Research Laboratory, Ankara, Turkey
J Infect 52:264-8. 2006The aim of this study was to determine the serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) and plasma platelet factor (PF-4) activities in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis, HIV seropositive subjects, cancer patients (acute and chronic type ..
- Adenosine deaminase, nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase, and xanthine oxidase in patients with major depression: impact of antidepressant treatmentHasan Herken
Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey
Arch Med Res 38:247-52. 2007..In this study, we aimed to investigate whether NO, xanthine oxidase (XO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels are associated with major depression (MD) and to evaluate the impact of antidepressant ..
- Serum adenosine deaminase levels in pancreatic diseasesMehmet Ibis
Department of Gastroenterology, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
Pancreatology 7:526-30. 2007b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is found in most tissues including the pancreas. Its role in inflammation and malignancy has been studied experimentally. To date, serum ADA levels in pancreatic diseases have not been studied before.
- Increased pleural fluid adenosine deaminase levels in patients with malignant pleural effusions: a potential predictor of talc pleurodesis outcomeHuseyin Yildirim
Department of Chest Diseases, Medical Faculty, Osmangazi University, Meselik, 26480, Eskisehir, Turkey
Lung 185:349-54. 2007..The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (Pf-ADA) levels and talc pleurodesis outcomes, and to compare Pf-ADA levels to various other biochemical ..
- Gene therapy for immunodeficiency due to adenosine deaminase deficiencyAlessandro Aiuti
San Raffaele Telethon Institute for Gene Therapy, Milan, Italy
N Engl J Med 360:447-58. 2009We investigated the long-term outcome of gene therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) due to the lack of adenosine deaminase (ADA), a fatal disorder of purine metabolism and immunodeficiency.
- Adenosine deaminase inhibition enhances the inotropic response mediated by A1 adenosine receptor in hyperthyroid guinea pig atriumAdam Kemeny-Beke
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Debrecen, PO Box 30, H 4012 Debrecen, Hungary
Pharmacol Res 56:124-31. 2007The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that inhibition of adenosine deaminase (ADA) enhances the efficiency of signal-transduction of myocardial A1 adenosine receptors in hyperthyroidism...
- Effect of propylthiouracil on adenosine deaminase activity and thyroid function in patients with psoriasisK Kose
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri, Turkey
Br J Dermatol 144:1121-6. 2001T-cell activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis; adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity has been considered as a marker of T-cell activation...
- Characterization of Adenosine deaminase (ADA) in hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrataM R Vale
Laboratorio de Bioquimica, Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Rua Cel Nunes de Melo, 1127, CEP 60430 270, Rodolfo Teofilo, Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil
Braz J Biol 65:371-6. 2005Adenosine is an important signaling molecule for many cellular events. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a key enzyme for the control of extra- and intra-cellular levels of adenosine. Activity of ADA was detected in hemolymph of B...
- Adenosine kinase inhibition promotes survival of fetal adenosine deaminase-deficient thymocytes by blocking dATP accumulationC Justin Van De Wiele
Immunobiology and Cancer Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City 73104, USA
J Clin Invest 110:395-402. 2002Thymocyte development past the CD4(-)CD8(-) stage is markedly inhibited in adenosine deaminase-deficient (ADA-deficient) murine fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOCs) due to the accumulation of ADA substrates derived from thymocytes failing ..
- The use of adenosine deaminase and interferon-gamma as diagnostic tools for tuberculous pericarditisLesley J Burgess
Department of Cardiology, Tygerberg Hospital and University of Stellenbosch, South Africa
Chest 122:900-5. 2002..periods, and this has led to more emphasis being placed on biochemical tests such as the pericardial adenosine deaminase (ADA) test. However, controversy exists as to its diagnostic utility...
- Further differentiation of murine double-positive thymocytes is inhibited in adenosine deaminase-deficient murine fetal thymic organ cultureC Justin Van De Wiele
Immunobiology and Cancer Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, 825 Northeast 13th Street, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA
J Immunol 176:5925-33. 2006Murine fetal thymic organ culture (FTOC) was used to investigate the mechanism by which a lack of adenosine deaminase (ADA) leads to a failure of T cell production in the thymus...
- Function of murine adenosine deaminase in the gastrointestinal tractP A Xu
Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 269:749-57. 2000b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency in humans leads to a combined immunodeficiency characterized by severe T and B cell lymphopenia. ADA-deficient humans also display defective development of gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT)...
- Impaired germinal center maturation in adenosine deaminase deficiencyMelissa B Aldrich
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA
J Immunol 171:5562-70. 2003Mice deficient in the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) have small lymphoid organs that contain reduced numbers of peripheral lymphocytes, and they are immunodeficient...
- Diagnostic utility of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in pleural fluid and serum of tuberculous and non-tuberculous respiratory disease patientsMadhab Lamsal
Department of Biochemistry, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 38:363-9. 2007b>Adenosine deaminase activity (ADA) was assayed in pleural fluid and serum of 42 subjects with pleural effusion. Twenty-nine of them had TB pleural effusion and the remaining 13 had pleural effusion due to non-TB respiratory diseases...
- A prospective study of sensitivity and specificity of adenosine deaminase estimation in the diagnosis of tuberculosis pleural effusionS K Sharma
Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 43:149-55. 2001We prospectively evaluated the usefulness of adenosine deaminase [ADA] estimation in the diagnosis of tuberculosis [TB] pleural effusion. Seventy five subjects with pleural effusion were studied...
- Ontogeny of adenosine deaminase in the mouse decidua and placenta: immunolocalization and embryo transfer studiesT B Knudsen
Department of Anatomy, East Tennessee State University, James H Quillen College of Medicine, Johnson City 37614
Biol Reprod 44:171-84. 1991This study has determined the cellular site of adenosine deaminase (ADA) expression in the mouse during development from Days 5 through 13 (day vaginal plug was found = Day 0) of gestation...
- Concurrent measurement of adenosine deaminase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusionElif Kupeli
Department of Chest Diseases, Ankara University School of Medicine, 06100 Cebeci, Ankara, Turkey
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 65:365-71. 2009Measurement of pleural fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels aids diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE). Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP) enzyme is closely related to ADA...
- Adenosine deaminase activity is a sensitive marker for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleuritis in patients with very low CD4 countsKamaldeen Baba
Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
PLoS ONE 3:e2788. 2008b>Adenosine Deaminase Activity (ADA) is a commonly used marker for the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion...
- In vivo kinetics of transduced cells in peripheral T cell-directed gene therapy: role of CD8+ cells in improved immunological function in an adenosine deaminase (ADA)-SCID patientN Kawamura
Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan
J Immunol 163:2256-61. 1999We previously reported successful peripheral T cell-directed gene therapy in a boy with adenosine deaminase (ADA)-SCID...
- Regulation of adenosine concentration and cytoprotective effects of novel reversible adenosine deaminase inhibitorsJ Barankiewicz
Cypros Pharmaceutical Corporation, Carlsbad, California 92008, USA
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 283:1230-8. 1997..actions of several novel erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) analogs to identify new reversible adenosine deaminase (ADA) inhibitors with potential clinical utility...
- Specific binding of adenosine deaminase but not HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat to human CD26J Blanco
Unité de Virologie et d Immunologie Cellulaire, UA CNRS 1157, Institut Pasteur, Paris Cedex, France
Exp Cell Res 225:102-11. 1996b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat have been reported to bind to human CD26, also known as dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV)...
- Effects of adenosine deaminase and A1 receptor deficiency in normoxic and ischaemic mouse heartsLaura Willems
Heart Foundation Research Center, Griffith University, Southport, QLD 4217, Australia
Cardiovasc Res 71:79-87. 2006b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) may be multifunctional, regulating adenosine levels and adenosine receptor (AR) agonism, and potentially modifying AR functionality...
- Adenosine deaminase activity in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virusCareen Hankanga
Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, The United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University
J Vet Med Sci 69:881-5. 2007b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme involved in purine metabolism, has been shown to be of clinical importance in several diseases in humans...
- Diagnostic accuracy of ascitic fluid IFN-gamma and adenosine deaminase assays in the diagnosis of tuberculous ascitesS K Sharma
Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
J Interferon Cytokine Res 26:484-8. 2006..evaluated the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of ascitic fluid interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) assays in the diagnosis of tuberculous ascites...
- [Critically appraised article: Diagnostic accuracy of adenosine deaminase in tuberculous pleurisy: A metaanalyses]Cristian Herrera R
Unidad de Medicina Basada en Evidencia
Rev Med Chil 137:308-11. 2009..Many studies have investigated the usefulness of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in pleural fluid for the early diagnosis of tuberculous pleuresy...
- Enhanced oral bioavailability of 2'- beta-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (F-ddA) through local inhibition of intestinal adenosine deaminaseR T DeGraw
Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40536, USA
Pharm Res 18:1270-6. 2001..2-Beta-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (F-ddA) is an adenosine deaminase (ADA) activated prodrug of 2-beta-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyinosine (F-ddI) with enhanced delivery to the central ..
- Correlation of serum levels of adenosine deaminase activity and its isoenzymes with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritisR A Sari
Department of Immunology Rheumatology, Ataturk University, Medical School, Erzurum, Turkey
Clin Exp Rheumatol 21:87-90. 2003b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is involved in purine metabolism and plays a significant role in the mechanisms of the immune system...
- Serum adenosine deaminase levels in diagnosis of acute appendicitisZ A Oztürk
Department of Internal Medicine, Ankara Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
Emerg Med J 25:583-5. 2008b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is found in most tissues including lymphoid cells and lymph nodes. It is a marker of T lymphocyte activation. The role of type 1 and type 2 T helper cells in appendicitis has been investigated experimentally...
- Does adenosine deaminase play a key role in coronary artery diseaseRibo Tang
Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China
Med Hypotheses 67:371-4. 2006b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme which catalyzes adenosine to inosine. Patients who inherently lack the enzyme have defects in both humoral and cellular immunity...
- Serum adenosine deaminase activity in women with hyperemesis gravidarumYoshio Yoneyama
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nippon Medical School, 1 1 5, Sendagi, Bunkyo ku, Tokyo 113 8603, Japan
Clin Chim Acta 324:141-5. 2002Serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity increases in diseases where cellular immunity is stimulated. Since hyperemesis gravidarum is characterized by enhanced cell-mediated immunity, serum ADA activity may be altered...
- Serum adenosine deaminase levels in reactional and non-reactional leprosyP K Nigam
Department of Dermatology, Pt J N M Medical College, Raipur 492 001, India
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 71:20-2. 2005Altered serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels have been recorded in various diseases involving lymphocytes and/or lymphoreticular system including leprosy...
- Syzygium cumini inhibits adenosine deaminase activity and reduces glucose levels in hyperglycemic patientsA Bopp
Departamento de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas, Centro de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil
Fundam Clin Pharmacol 23:501-7. 2009..Leaves, fruits, and barks of S. cumini have been used for their hypoglycemic activity. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an important enzyme that plays a relevant role in purine and DNA metabolism, immune responses, and ..
- The diagnostic utility of adenosine deaminase isoenzymes in tuberculous pleural effusionsA E Zemlin
Division of Chemical Pathology, National Health Laboratory Service, Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Parow, Tygerberg, South Africa
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 13:214-20. 2009Pleural adenosine deaminase (ADA) levels have been found to be useful in diagnosing tuberculous pleuritis...
- Regulation of adenosine receptor engagement by ecto-adenosine deaminaseTomoko Hashikawa
Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Immunobiology and Cancer Research Program, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA
FASEB J 18:131-3. 2004b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) can localize to the cell surface through its interaction with CD26...
- Localization of a bidirectional DNA replication origin in the native locus and in episomally amplified murine adenosine deaminase lociS M Carroll
Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037
Mol Cell Biol 13:2971-81. 1993..The 4,000 extrachromosomal copies of the mouse adenosine deaminase (ADA) amplicon in B-1/50 cells initiate their replication remarkably synchronously in early S phase and at ..
- The different extent of B and T cell immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapies in SCID patients with adenosine deaminase deficiencyFederico Serana
Department of Biomedical Science and Biotechnology, University of Brescia, Italy
J Immunol 185:7713-22. 2010The lack of adenosine deaminase (ADA) leads to the accumulation of toxic metabolites, resulting in SCID. If the disease is left untreated, it is likely to have a fatal outcome in early infancy...
- Retroviral transfer of a chimeric multidrug resistance-adenosine deaminase geneU A Germann
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
FASEB J 4:1501-7. 1990A fusion between a selectable multidrug resistance (MDR1) cDNA and an adenosine deaminase (ADA) cDNA concomitantly confers multidrug resistance and ADA activity on transfected cells...
- [A case of tuberculous peritonitis diagnosed by ultrasonography-guide peritoneal biopsy]S Mizunoe
Second Department of Internal Medicine, Oita Medical University
Kansenshogaku Zasshi 74:589-93. 2000..Diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis has often been made by laparotomy or laparoscopy. In a case of this kind, percutaneous peritoneal biopsy guided by ultrasonography is safe and useful...
- High-performance liquid chromatographic peak identification of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives of lipid peroxidation aldehydes by photodiode array detectionG A Cordis
Department of Surgery, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington 06030-1110, USA
J Chromatogr A 798:117-23. 1998..This technique could accurately measure pmol amounts of MDA-DNPH indicating the usefulness of photodiode array detection method for estimating small changes in the oxidative stress...
- Preferential accessibility of the yeast his3 promoter is determined by a general property of the DNA sequence, not by specific elementsX Mai
Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
Mol Cell Biol 20:6668-76. 2000....
- Expression of the E.coli ada gene in S.cerevisiae provides cellular resistance to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in rad6 but not in rad52 mutantsJ Brozmanova
Department of Molecular Genetics, Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava
Nucleic Acids Res 22:5717-22. 1994..coli Ada protein in a RAD1- and RAD6-independent manner, the RAD52 gene product may be essential for the complete functioning of the Ada ATase. This is the first suggestion of a possible cofactor requirement for ATase...
- [A case of the active intestinal tuberculosis detected during the examination of the right pleural effusion]J Yamanouchi
Department of Internal Medicine, Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital
Kansenshogaku Zasshi 72:849-52. 1998..We thought intestinal examination may be useful for the diagnosis of tuberculosis, when lymphocyte-rich exudative pleural effusion of unknown etiology is seen...
- Supervisor personal liability for ADA discrimination. Emerging issues for hospital administrators and physiciansP D Blanck
University of Iowa College of Law, Iowa City, USA
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 20:1528-32. 1995..Also addressed in the article are potential problems employers face if supervisors are held personally liable for Americans with Disabilities Act discrimination...
- Recent developments in ADA case law and implications for spine professionalsP D Blanck
College of Law, University of Iowa, Iowa City
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 20:116-9. 1995....
- An electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based assay for the specific detection of anti-drug antibodies of the IgE isotypeYuling Wu
Translational Sciences, MedImmune LLC, One MedImmune Way, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, United States Electronic address
J Pharm Biomed Anal 86:73-81. 2013....
- Expression of a functional human adenosine deaminase in transgenic tobacco plantsSanjeewa Singhabahu
School of Health, Sport and Bioscience, University of East London, Water Lane, London E15 4LZ, UK
Transgenic Res 22:643-9. 2013An inherited disorder, adenosine deaminase deficiency is a form of severe combined immunodeficiency, which is ultimately caused by an absence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), a key enzyme of the purine salvage pathway...
- [High frequency transthoracic echocardiography in diagnosis of chronic occlusions of major coronary arteries]A A Boshchenko
Kardiologiia 48:11-8. 2008..The study of lat flow in SBRCA did not allow to determine accurately the level of artery lesion...
- Functional ADA polymorphism increases sleep depth and reduces vigilant attention in humansValérie Bachmann
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
Cereb Cortex 22:962-70. 2012..The nonsynonymous c.22G>A polymorphism (rs73598374) of adenosine deaminase (ADA) reduces the conversion of adenosine to inosine and predicts baseline differences in sleep slow-wave ..
- Analysis of serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) and ADA1 and ADA2 isoenzyme activities in HIV positive and HIV-HBV co-infected patientsIraj Khodadadi
Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
Clin Biochem 44:980-3. 2011To determine adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity as a possible diagnostic marker in HIV and HIV-HBV co-infected patients.
- Comparison of The World Health Organization (WHO) two-step strategy and OGTT for diabetes mellitus screeningJohn M F Adam
Diabetes and Lipid Centre, Dr Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Sub Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Hasanuddin University, Makassar
Acta Med Indones 36:3-7. 2004..8% of diabetic patients and 78.4% of IGT subjects. It is recommended that the old strategy of screening--the gold standard OGTT--should be used instead of the two-step strategy, at least in high-risk groups...
- The inclusion of ADA-SCID in expanded newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometryGiancarlo la Marca
Newborn Screening, Biochemistry and Pharmacology Laboratories, Clinic of Pediatric Neurology, Meyer University Children s Hospital, Florence, Italy Department of Neurosciences, Psychology, Pharmacology and Child Health, University of Florence, Italy Electronic address
J Pharm Biomed Anal 88:201-6. 2014..In the first 18 months, the pilot project has identified a newborn with a genetically confirmed defect in adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene...
- Gene Therapy for Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Deficiency (PNP)Kevin Baker; Fiscal Year: 2007..also using retroviral transduction of marrow cells, but in this case for introduction of the gene encoding adenosine deaminase (ADA) for treatment of SCID associated with deficiency of ADA...
- Adenosine Deaminase, Adenosine Signaling and DiseaseRODNEY KELLEMS; Fiscal Year: 2006b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency was the first of the human immunodeficiencies for which the underlying biochemical defect was discovered...
- ADENOSINE DEAMINASE DEFICIENCYLinda Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2007Mutations in the gene for adenosine deaminase (ADA) cause severe combined immunodeficiency in humans. ADA-deficient patients exhibit a profound lymphopenia and are susceptible to a wide array of infectious agents...
- Retroviral Vectors for Safe and Efficacious Gene TherapyPAULA CANNON; Fiscal Year: 2007..The model disease targeted is the well-studied genetic disease Adenosine Deaminase Deficient Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID)...
- Retroviral Vectors for Safe and Efficacious Gene TherapyPAULA CANNON; Fiscal Year: 2006..The model disease targeted is the well-studied genetic disease Adenosine Deaminase Deficient Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID)...
- ADA DEFICIENT MICE--TESTING GROUND FOR NOVEL THERAPIESRODNEY KELLEMS; Fiscal Year: 2001..b>Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is a genetic disease that has been the major testing ground for the therapeutic efficacy ..
- A LYMPHOBLAST MODEL FOR DISEASES OF PURINE METABOLISMMichael Hershfield; Fiscal Year: 2006..and elucidate the biochemical and metabolic effects of inherited deficiency of the purine metabolic enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA)...
- ADENINE DEOXYNUCLEOTIDE METABOLISM AND IMMUNE FUNCTIONDennis Carson; Fiscal Year: 1993..supported by this research grant have aimed to elucidate the biochemical basis for the association of adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency with combined immunodeficiency disease...
- Adenosine Signaling, Priapism and Sickle Cell DiseaseYang Xia; Fiscal Year: 2010..Recently my laboratory unexpectedly found that male adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice display features of priapism seen in humans, including spontaneous prolonged penile ..
- Adenosine Signaling and PriapsimYang Xia; Fiscal Year: 2007..Recently our laboratory unexpectedly observed spontaneous and prolonged penile erections in adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice...
- Therapeutic management of SIRS with pentostatinWILLIAM LAW; Fiscal Year: 2002..systemic inflammatory response syndromes (SIRS), amplifying endogenous adenosine action by inhibiting adenosine deaminase (ADA) with 2-deoxycoformycin (pentostatin) reduces proinflammatory cytokine responses, limits tissue ..
- Adenosine Signaling and Lung FibrosisMichael R Blackburn; Fiscal Year: 2010..Consistent with this, mice deficient in the purine catabolic enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) develop progressive pulmonary fibrosis in association with lung adenosine elevations...
- Adenosine Signaling and Lung FibrosisMichael Blackburn; Fiscal Year: 2007..Consistent with this, mice deficient in the purine catabolic enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) develop progressive pulmonary fibrosis in association with lung adenosine elevations...
- ADENOSINE SIGNALING AND LUNG INFLAMMATIONMichael Blackburn; Fiscal Year: 2001..To this end, we generated mice deficient in the purine catabolic enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA)...
- Molecular Models of Adenosine Signaling and AsthmaMichael Blackburn; Fiscal Year: 2007..However, very little is known about the mechanisms by which adenosine may impact these diseases. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a purine catabolic enzyme that controls the levels of adenosine in tissues and cells...
- PURINE METABOLISM AND HUMAN LYMPHOCYTE MATURATIONLinda Thompson; Fiscal Year: 1999..Curiously, in the thymus, the pattern of expression of adenosine deaminase (ADA), the next enzyme in the purine salvage pathway, is reciprocal to that of 5'- NT...
- Adenosine Signaling and Lung FibrosisMichael Blackburn; Fiscal Year: 2005..We have recently generated a line of mice that contain low levels of the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA), which is responsible for controlling the levels of adenosine in tissues and cells...
- ADENOSINE DEAMINASE DEFICIENCYLinda Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2002DESCRIPTION (Adapted from Investigator's abstract): Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency was discovered as a cause of severe combined immuno- deficiency twenty-five years ago and the genetic mechanisms responsible for the disease are ..