Gene Symbol: ADARB1
Description: adenosine deaminase, RNA specific B1
Alias: ADAR2, DRABA2, DRADA2, RED1, double-stranded RNA-specific editase 1, RNA editing deaminase 1, RNA-editing enzyme 1, adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B1 (homolog of rat RED1), dsRNA adenosine deaminase DRADA2
Species: human
Products:     ADARB1

Top Publications

  1. Herrera C, Morimoto C, Blanco J, Mallol J, Arenzana F, Lluis C, et al. Comodulation of CXCR4 and CD26 in human lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:19532-9 pubmed
    ..The physical association of CXCR4 and CD26, direct or part of a supramolecular structure, suggests a role on the function of the immune system and the pathophysiology of HIV infection. ..
  2. Pokharel S, Jayalath P, Maydanovych O, Goodman R, Wang S, Tantillo D, et al. Matching active site and substrate structures for an RNA editing reaction. J Am Chem Soc. 2009;131:11882-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the kinetics of the ADAR2 reaction with analogue-containing RNAs indicated 8-aza-7-deazaadenosine is an excellent substrate for this enzyme ..
  3. Melcher T, Maas S, Herb A, Sprengel R, Seeburg P, Higuchi M. A mammalian RNA editing enzyme. Nature. 1996;379:460-4 pubmed
    ..Here we report the cloning of complementary DNA for RED1, a dsRNA adenosine deaminase expressed in brain and peripheral tissues that efficiently edits the Q/R site in GluR-..
  4. O Connell M, Gerber A, Keller W. Purification of human double-stranded RNA-specific editase 1 (hRED1) involved in editing of brain glutamate receptor B pre-mRNA. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:473-8 pubmed
    ..Recently, a gene encoding a double-stranded-specific editase (RED1) was cloned from a rat brain cDNA library...
  5. Gerber A, O Connell M, Keller W. Two forms of human double-stranded RNA-specific editase 1 (hRED1) generated by the insertion of an Alu cassette. RNA. 1997;3:453-63 pubmed
    The double-stranded RNA-specific editase 1 (RED1/ADAR2) is implicated in the editing of precursor-mRNAs (pre-mRNA) encoding subunits of glutamate receptors (GluRs) in brain...
  6. Villard L, Tassone F, Haymowicz M, Welborn R, Gardiner K. Map location, genomic organization and expression patterns of the human RED1 RNA editase. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1997;23:135-45 pubmed
    A cDNA fragment containing sequences homologous to the rat RED1 RNA editase gene was recently identified on human chromosome 21. Here we report the location of this cDNA in distal 21q22.3 near the CD18 gene...
  7. Maas S, Patt S, Schrey M, Rich A. Underediting of glutamate receptor GluR-B mRNA in malignant gliomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:14687-92 pubmed
    ..enzymatic activity of the editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) 2, as deduced from analysis of ADAR2 self-editing...
  8. Sansam C, Wells K, Emeson R. Modulation of RNA editing by functional nucleolar sequestration of ADAR2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:14018-23 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that ADAR2, a member of the vertebrate ADAR family, is concentrated in the nucleolus, a subnuclear domain disparate from the ..
  9. Macbeth M, Lingam A, Bass B. Evidence for auto-inhibition by the N terminus of hADAR2 and activation by dsRNA binding. RNA. 2004;10:1563-71 pubmed
    ..Human ADAR2 (hADAR2) contains two double-stranded RNA binding motifs (dsRBMs), separated by a 90-amino acid linker, and these ..

More Information

Publications137 found, 100 shown here

  1. Heale B, Keegan L, McGurk L, Michlewski G, Brindle J, Stanton C, et al. Editing independent effects of ADARs on the miRNA/siRNA pathways. EMBO J. 2009;28:3145-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that ADAR2 can modulate the processing of mir-376a2 independently of catalytic RNA editing activity...
  2. Macbeth M, Schubert H, VanDemark A, Lingam A, Hill C, Bass B. Inositol hexakisphosphate is bound in the ADAR2 core and required for RNA editing. Science. 2005;309:1534-9 pubmed
    We report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human ADAR2, an RNA editing enzyme, at 1.7 angstrom resolution. The structure reveals a zinc ion in the active site and suggests how the substrate adenosine is recognized...
  3. Cenci C, Barzotti R, Galeano F, Corbelli S, Rota R, Massimi L, et al. Down-regulation of RNA editing in pediatric astrocytomas: ADAR2 editing activity inhibits cell migration and proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7251-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We find a decrease in ADAR2 editing activity that seems to correlate with the grade of malignancy in children...
  4. Maas S, Gommans W. Novel exon of mammalian ADAR2 extends open reading frame. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4225 pubmed publisher
    ..The adenosine deaminase ADAR2 is the main enzyme responsible for recoding editing and loss of ADAR2 function in mice leads to a phenotype of ..
  5. Agranat L, Sperling J, Sperling R. A novel tissue-specific alternatively spliced form of the A-to-I RNA editing enzyme ADAR2. RNA Biol. 2010;7:253-62 pubmed
    b>ADAR2, a member of the adenosine deaminase family of proteins, is the enzyme that edits the Q/R site in the GluR-B transcript, an important physiological A-to-I editing event...
  6. Aizawa H, Sawada J, Hideyama T, Yamashita T, Katayama T, Hasebe N, et al. TDP-43 pathology in sporadic ALS occurs in motor neurons lacking the RNA editing enzyme ADAR2. Acta Neuropathol. 2010;120:75-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We immunohistochemically examined the expression of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2), the enzyme that specifically catalyzes GluR2 Q/R site-editing, and the expression of phosphorylated and non-..
  7. Galeano F, Rossetti C, Tomaselli S, Cifaldi L, Lezzerini M, Pezzullo M, et al. ADAR2-editing activity inhibits glioblastoma growth through the modulation of the CDC14B/Skp2/p21/p27 axis. Oncogene. 2013;32:998-1009 pubmed publisher
    ..b>ADAR2-mediated A-to-I RNA editing, an essential post-transcriptional modification event in brain, is impaired in GBMs ..
  8. Mittaz L, Scott H, Rossier C, Seeburg P, Higuchi M, Antonarakis S. Cloning of a human RNA editing deaminase (ADARB1) of glutamate receptors that maps to chromosome 21q22.3. Genomics. 1997;41:210-7 pubmed
    ..The human sequence (designated ADARB1 by the HGMW Nomenclature Committee) contains two double-stranded RNA-binding domains and a deaminase domain ..
  9. Kawahara Y, Ito K, Ito M, Tsuji S, Kwak S. Novel splice variants of human ADAR2 mRNA: skipping of the exon encoding the dsRNA-binding domains, and multiple C-terminal splice sites. Gene. 2005;363:193-201 pubmed
    ..two previously unknown alternative splice sites in the mRNA of human adenosine deaminase acting on RNA type 2 (ADAR2), an RNA editing enzyme...
  10. Lai F, Chen C, Carter K, Nishikura K. Editing of glutamate receptor B subunit ion channel RNAs by four alternatively spliced DRADA2 double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminases. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:2413-24 pubmed
    ..genes through expressed sequence tag databases led to the cloning of the second member of this class of enzyme, DRADA2, which has a high degree of sequence homology to DRADA1 yet exhibits a distinctive RNA editing site selectivity...
  11. Jaikaran D, Collins C, Macmillan A. Adenosine to inosine editing by ADAR2 requires formation of a ternary complex on the GluR-B R/G site. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:37624-9 pubmed
    ..Editing of the human GluR-B transcript is catalyzed by the enzyme ADAR2 at the Q/R and R/G sites...
  12. Slavov D, Gardiner K. Phylogenetic comparison of the pre-mRNA adenosine deaminase ADAR2 genes and transcripts: conservation and diversity in editing site sequence and alternative splicing patterns. Gene. 2002;299:83-94 pubmed
    Adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA -2 (ADAR2) is a member of a family of vertebrate genes that encode adenosine (A)-to-inosine (I) RNA deaminases, enzymes that deaminate specific A residues in specific pre-mRNAs to produce I...
  13. Kniewel R, Murakami H, Liu Y, Ito M, Ohta K, Hollingsworth N, et al. Histone H3 Threonine 11 Phosphorylation Is Catalyzed Directly by the Meiosis-Specific Kinase Mek1 and Provides a Molecular Readout of Mek1 Activity in Vivo. Genetics. 2017;207:1313-1333 pubmed publisher
    ..These localization patterns closely tracked the distribution of Red1 and Hop1, axis proteins required for Mek1 activation...
  14. Sharma M, Cortés Cruz M, Ahern K, McMullen M, Brutnell T, Chopra S. Identification of the pr1 gene product completes the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway of maize. Genetics. 2011;188:69-79 pubmed publisher
    ..assays demonstrated that the pr1 gene is under the regulatory control of anthocyanin transcription factors red1 and colorless1...
  15. Onizuka K, Hazemi M, Thomas J, Monteleone L, Yamada K, Imoto S, et al. Synthesis of native-like crosslinked duplex RNA and study of its properties. Bioorg Med Chem. 2017;25:2191-2199 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a competitive binding experiment with the duplex RNA binding enzyme, ADAR2, showed the crosslinked dsRNA bound the protein with nearly the same binding affinity as the natural dsRNA, ..
  16. Badalamenti J, Krajmalnik Brown R, Torres C, Bond D. Genomes of Geoalkalibacter ferrihydriticus Z-0531T and Geoalkalibacter subterraneus Red1T, Two Haloalkaliphilic Metal-Reducing Deltaproteobacteria. Genome Announc. 2015;3: pubmed publisher
    ..Deltaproteobacteria, Geoalkalibacter ferrihydriticus Z-0531(T) (DSM 17813) and Geoalkalibacter subterraneus Red1(T) (DSM 23483). During assembly, we discovered that the DSMZ stock culture of G. subterraneus was contaminated...
  17. Fritzell K, Xu L, Otrocka M, Andréasson C, Ohman M. Sensitive ADAR editing reporter in cancer cells enables high-throughput screening of small molecule libraries. Nucleic Acids Res. 2019;47:e22 pubmed publisher
    ..reports on elevated endogenous ADAR1 editing activity induced by interferon as well as knockdown of ADAR1 and ADAR2. In a single-well setup we used the reporter in HeLa cells to screen a small molecule library of 33 000 compounds...
  18. Tashiro S, Asano T, Kanoh J, Ishikawa F. Transcription-induced chromatin association of RNA surveillance factors mediates facultative heterochromatin formation in fission yeast. Genes Cells. 2013;18:327-39 pubmed publisher
    ..which involves a cis-element called the determinant of selective removal (DSR) and transacting factors, Mmi1 and Red1, also participates in heterochromatin formation at the meiotic genes, but the molecular mechanism underlying the ..
  19. Bou Torrent J, Toledo Ortiz G, Ortiz Alcaide M, Cifuentes Esquivel N, Halliday K, Martinez García J, et al. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis by Shade Relies on Specific Subsets of Antagonistic Transcription Factors and Cofactors. Plant Physiol. 2015;169:1584-94 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, a change in the levels of the transcriptional cofactor LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR RED1, which also binds to PIF1 and other PIFs to regulate shade-related elongation responses, did not impact PSY ..
  20. Mizrahi R, Shin D, Sinkeldam R, Phelps K, Fin A, Tantillo D, et al. A Fluorescent Adenosine Analogue as a Substrate for an A-to-I RNA Editing Enzyme. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2015;54:8713-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The reactivity of ADAR2 was evaluated with RNA containing the emissive adenosine analogue thieno[3,4-d]-6-aminopyrimidine ((th)A)...
  21. Lin L, Jiang P, Park J, Wang J, Lu Z, Lam M, et al. The contribution of Alu exons to the human proteome. Genome Biol. 2016;17:15 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of the RNA editing enzyme ADARB1, which contains an Alu exon peptide in its catalytic domain, RNA sequencing analyses of A-to-I editing demonstrate ..
  22. Terajima H, Yoshitane H, Yoshikawa T, Shigeyoshi Y, Fukada Y. A-to-I RNA editing enzyme ADAR2 regulates light-induced circadian phase-shift. Sci Rep. 2018;8:14848 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously found that adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (Adar2), an A-to-I RNA editing enzyme catalyzing rhythmic A-to-I RNA editing, governs a wide range of mRNA rhythms in the ..
  23. Hosaka T, Yamashita T, Teramoto S, Hirose N, Tamaoka A, Kwak S. ADAR2-dependent A-to-I RNA editing in the extracellular linear and circular RNAs. Neurosci Res. 2018;: pubmed publisher specifically reduced in the motor neurons due to the downregulation of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2)...
  24. Oakes E, Anderson A, Cohen Gadol A, Hundley H. Adenosine Deaminase That Acts on RNA 3 (ADAR3) Binding to Glutamate Receptor Subunit B Pre-mRNA Inhibits RNA Editing in Glioblastoma. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:4326-4335 pubmed publisher
    ..As the Q/R site of GRIA2 is specifically edited by ADAR2, we suggest that ADAR3 directly competes with ADAR2 for binding to GRIA2 transcript, inhibiting RNA editing,..
  25. Fu L, Qin Y, Ming X, Zuo X, Diao Y, Zhang L, et al. RNA editing of SLC22A3 drives early tumor invasion and metastasis in familial esophageal cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E4631-E4640 pubmed publisher
    ..The RNA-editing enzyme ADAR2, a familial ESCC susceptibility gene identified by our post hoc genome-wide association study, is positively ..
  26. Zaidan H, Ramaswami G, Golumbic Y, Sher N, Malik A, Barak M, et al. A-to-I RNA editing in the rat brain is age-dependent, region-specific and sensitive to environmental stress across generations. BMC Genomics. 2018;19:28 pubmed publisher
    ..Developmental and stress-induced changes in Adar and Adarb1 mRNA expression were observed but did not correlate with editing changes...
  27. Díaz Piña G, Ordoñez Razo R, Montes E, Páramo I, Becerril C, Salgado A, et al. The Role of ADAR1 and ADAR2 in the Regulation of miRNA-21 in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Lung. 2018;196:393-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Six control and six fibrotic primary fibroblast cell cultures were used for RNA extraction, ADAR1, ADAR2, PELI1, SPRY2, miRNA-21, and pri-miRNA-21 expression was measured...
  28. Vesely C, Tauber S, Sedlazeck F, Tajaddod M, von Haeseler A, Jantsch M. ADAR2 induces reproducible changes in sequence and abundance of mature microRNAs in the mouse brain. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:12155-68 pubmed publisher
    ..By comparing deep sequencing data of brain miRNAs from wild-type and ADAR2 deficient mouse strains, we detect editing sites and altered miRNA processing at high sensitivity...
  29. Behm M, Wahlstedt H, Widmark A, Eriksson M, Ohman M. Accumulation of nuclear ADAR2 regulates adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing during neuronal development. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:745-753 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of the active editing enzymes ADAR1 or ADAR2 (also known as ADAR and ADARB1, respectively), mice fail to survive until adulthood...
  30. Yamashita T, Kwak S. Cell death cascade and molecular therapy in ADAR2-deficient motor neurons of ALS. Neurosci Res. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..editing at the GluA2 glutamine/arginine (Q/R) site due to down-regulation of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2)...
  31. Gurung S, Evans A, Wilkinson K, Henley J. ADAR2-mediated Q/R editing of GluK2 regulates kainate receptor upscaling in response to suppression of synaptic activity. J Cell Sci. 2018;131: pubmed publisher
    ..GluK2 (also known as GRIK2), and the properties of these receptors are determined in part by ADAR2 (also known as ADARB1)-mediated mRNA editing of GluK2, which changes a genomically encoded glutamine residue into an arginine residue (Q/..
  32. Li P, Chang X, Fan X, Fan C, Tang T, Wang R, et al. Dietary calcium status during maternal pregnancy and lactation affects lipid metabolism in mouse offspring. Sci Rep. 2018;8:16542 pubmed publisher
    ..programmed an abnormal expression of hepatic and adipose genes (PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, FABP4, Fasn, UCP2, PPAR-α, HMG-Red1, Acc1, and SREBP-1c) in the offspring and this may lead to dyslipidemia and accumulation of hepatic triglyceride (..
  33. Schmidt H, McFarland K, Darnell S, Huizenga M, Sangrey G, Cha J, et al. ADAR2-dependent GluA2 editing regulates cocaine seeking. Mol Psychiatry. 2015;20:1460-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) is a nuclear enzyme that is essential for editing GluA2 pre-mRNA at Q/R site 607...
  34. Sasaki S, Sasaki S, Yamashita T, Kwak S, Shin K. Autophagy in spinal motor neurons of conditional ADAR2-knockout mice: An implication for a role of calcium in increased autophagy flux in ALS. Neurosci Lett. 2015;598:79-84 pubmed publisher
    ..of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, an RNA editing enzyme called adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) is down-regulated and consequently GluA2 mRNAs unedited at the Q/R site is expressed in contrast to normal motor ..
  35. Brande Eilat N, Golumbic Y, Zaidan H, Gaisler Salomon I. Acquisition of conditioned fear is followed by region-specific changes in RNA editing of glutamate receptors. Stress. 2015;18:309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we observed experience-dependent changes in mRNA expression of the RNA editing enzymes ADAR2 and ADAR1 in amygdala and hippocampus, and a learning-dependent increase in the alternatively spliced inactive ..
  36. Keegan L, Khan A, Vukic D, O CONNELL M. ADAR RNA editing below the backbone. RNA. 2017;23:1317-1328 pubmed publisher
    ..focuses on Drosophila melanogaster, which has a single Adar gene encoding a homolog of vertebrate ADAR2 that site-specifically edits hundreds of transcripts to change individual codons in ion channel subunits and ..
  37. Kshirsagar R, Ghodke I, Muniyappa K. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Red1 protein exhibits nonhomologous DNA end-joining activity and potentiates Hop1-promoted pairing of double-stranded DNA. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:13853-13866 pubmed publisher
    ..i>S. cerevisiae Hop1 and Red1 are essential structural components of the SC axial/lateral elements...
  38. Chen Y, Chang I, Liu H, Ma C, Kuo Y, Shih C, et al. Tumor-associated intronic editing of HNRPLL generates a novel splicing variant linked to cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:10158-10171 pubmed publisher
    ..transcript variant containing an additional exon 12A (E12A), which is a substrate of ADAR1 and ADAR2. Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) direct deaminase-dependent expression of ..
  39. Shamay Ramot A, Khermesh K, Porath H, Barak M, Pinto Y, Wachtel C, et al. Fmrp Interacts with Adar and Regulates RNA Editing, Synaptic Density and Locomotor Activity in Zebrafish. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005702 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression levels of the adar genes and Adar2 protein increased in fmr1-/- zebrafish...
  40. Grice L, Degnan B. The origin of the ADAR gene family and animal RNA editing. BMC Evol Biol. 2015;15:4 pubmed publisher
    ..The modern vertebrate ADAR family is comprised of ADAD, ADAR2 and ADAR1, each of which has a conserved domain architecture...
  41. Marayati B, Hoskins V, Boger R, Tucker J, Fishman E, Bray A, et al. The fission yeast MTREC and EJC orthologs ensure the maturation of meiotic transcripts during meiosis. RNA. 2016;22:1349-59 pubmed publisher
    ..are constitutively transcribed, but most of the resulting mRNAs are rapidly eliminated by the Mmi1-MTREC (Mtl1-Red1 core) complex...
  42. Wang Y, Zheng Y, Beal P. Adenosine Deaminases That Act on RNA (ADARs). Enzymes. 2017;41:215-268 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, recently solved crystal structures of the human ADAR2 deaminase bound to RNA have provided insights regarding the catalytic and substrate recognition mechanisms...
  43. Cox D, Gootenberg J, Abudayyeh O, Franklin B, Kellner M, Joung J, et al. RNA editing with CRISPR-Cas13. Science. 2017;358:1019-1027 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA editing by using catalytically inactive Cas13 (dCas13) to direct adenosine-to-inosine deaminase activity by ADAR2 (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA type 2) to transcripts in mammalian cells...
  44. George C, Ramaswami G, Li J, Samuel C. Editing of Cellular Self-RNAs by Adenosine Deaminase ADAR1 Suppresses Innate Immune Stress Responses. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:6158-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the role of A-to-I RNA editing by two ADARs, ADAR1 and ADAR2, in the sensing of self-RNA in the absence of pathogen infection, leading to activation of IFN-induced, RNA-..
  45. Adams E, Diaz C, Hong J, Shin R. 14-3-3 proteins participate in light signaling through association with PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15:22801-14 pubmed publisher
    ..14-3-3κ could bind to other members of the PIF family, such as PIF1 and PIF6, but not to LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1)...
  46. Uchida H, Matsumura S, Okada S, Suzuki T, Minami T, Ito S. RNA editing enzyme ADAR2 is a mediator of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. FASEB J. 2017;31:1847-1855 pubmed publisher
    ..Seven days after L5 spinal nerve transection (SNT) in adult mice, we found an increase in ADAR2 expression and a decrease in ADAR3 expression in the injured, but not in the uninjured, dorsal root ganglions (..
  47. Chalamcharla V, Folco H, Dhakshnamoorthy J, Grewal S. Conserved factor Dhp1/Rat1/Xrn2 triggers premature transcription termination and nucleates heterochromatin to promote gene silencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:15548-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In fission yeast, RNAi machinery and RNA elimination factors including the Mtl1-Red1 core and the exosome are involved in facultative heterochromatin assembly; however, the exact mechanisms remain ..
  48. Larsen K, Momeni J, Farajzadeh L, Bendixen C. Differential A-to-I RNA editing of the serotonin-2C receptor G-protein-coupled, HTR2C, in porcine brain tissues. Biochimie. 2016;121:189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The HTR2C mRNA is subject to A-to-I RNA editing mediated by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA 1 and 2 (ADAR1 and ADAR2)...
  49. Larsen K, Kristensen K, Momeni J, Farajzadeh L, Bendixen C. A-to-I RNA editing of the IGFBP7 transcript increases during aging in porcine brain tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;479:596-601 pubmed publisher
    ..The IGFBP7 mRNA is subject to A-to-I RNA editing mediated by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA 1 and 2 (ADAR1 and ADAR2)...
  50. Besnard J, Pratelli R, Zhao C, Sonawala U, Collakova E, Pilot G, et al. UMAMIT14 is an amino acid exporter involved in phloem unloading in Arabidopsis roots. J Exp Bot. 2016;67:6385-6397 pubmed
    ..Transporters 14 (UMAMIT14) from Arabidopsis shares sequence similarity to the amino acid facilitator Silique Are Red1 (UMAMIT18), and has been shown to be involved in amino acid transfer to the seeds...
  51. Shelton P, Duran A, Nakanishi Y, Reina Campos M, Kasashima H, Llado V, et al. The Secretion of miR-200s by a PKCζ/ADAR2 Signaling Axis Promotes Liver Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer. Cell Rep. 2018;23:1178-1191 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identified ADAR2 as a direct substrate of PKCζ in CRC cells...
  52. Wettengel J, Reautschnig P, Geisler S, Kahle P, Stafforst T. Harnessing human ADAR2 for RNA repair - Recoding a PINK1 mutation rescues mitophagy. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:2797-2808 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe here the first design of genetically encodable guideRNAs that enable the re-addressing of human ADAR2 toward specific sites in user-defined mRNA targets...
  53. Karanović J, Ivkovic M, Jovanović V, Sviković S, Pantović Stefanović M, Brkušanin M, et al. Effect of childhood general traumas on suicide attempt depends on TPH2 and ADARB1 variants in psychiatric patients. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2017;124:621-629 pubmed publisher
    ..tryptophan hydroxylase 2) variant rs4290270, affecting alternative splicing and editing of TPH2 pre-mRNAs, and ADARB1 (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA B1) variants rs4819035 and rs9983925 may influence the risk for suicide attempt ..
  54. Peng L, Zhang H, Su Y, Shen Q, Du C, Xie H, et al. Lipopolysaccharide enhances ADAR2 which drives Hirschsprung's disease by impairing miR-142-3p biogenesis. J Cell Mol Med. 2018;22:4045-4055 pubmed publisher
    ..b>ADAR2 (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA2)-mediated post-transcriptional adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing promotes ..
  55. Yamanaka S, Mehta S, REYES TURCU F, Zhuang F, Fuchs R, Rong Y, et al. RNAi triggered by specialized machinery silences developmental genes and retrotransposons. Nature. 2013;493:557-60 pubmed publisher
    ..triggered by a mechanism involving the canonical poly(A) polymerase Pla1 and an associated RNA surveillance factor Red1, which also activate the exosome...
  56. Gasparini C, Sutherland H, Maher B, Rodriguez Acevedo A, Khlifi E, Haupt L, et al. Case-control study of ADARB1 and ADARB2 gene variants in migraine. J Headache Pain. 2015;16:511 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B1 (ADARB1) and adenosine deaminase, RNA specific, B2 (ADARB2) genes in an Australian case-control Caucasian population for ..
  57. Du Q, Wang H. Retarded Embryo Development 1 (RED1) regulates embryo development, seed maturation and plant growth in Arabidopsis. J Genet Genomics. 2016;43:439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report the identification of Retarded Embryo Development 1 (RED1) gene in Arabidopsis, whose two independent T-DNA insertion mutant lines, SALK_085642 (red1-1) and SALK_022583 (..
  58. Rossetti C, Picardi E, Ye M, Camilli G, D Erchia A, Cucina L, et al. RNA editing signature during myeloid leukemia cell differentiation. Leukemia. 2017;31:2824-2832 pubmed publisher
    ..or Vitamin D3/granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-driven differentiation, both ADAR1 and ADAR2 enzymes are upregulated, with a concomitant global increase of A-to-I RNA editing...
  59. Kitaura H, Sonoda M, Teramoto S, Shirozu H, Shimizu H, Kimura T, et al. Ca2+ -permeable AMPA receptors associated with epileptogenesis of hypothalamic hamartoma. Epilepsia. 2017;58:e59-e63 pubmed publisher
    ..with these physiologic findings, the neuronal nuclei showed disappearance of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) immunoreactivity...
  60. Huang Y, Cao Y, Li J, Liu Y, Zhong W, Li X, et al. A survey on cellular RNA editing activity in response to Candida albicans infections. BMC Genomics. 2018;19:43 pubmed publisher
    ..exhibited a significant increase, especially in Alu regions, no significant change in the expression of ADAR1 or ADAR2 was observed. Second, we performed further analysis on data from in vivo mouse study with C. albicans infection...
  61. Keegan L, McGurk L, Palavicini J, Brindle J, Paro S, Li X, et al. Functional conservation in human and Drosophila of Metazoan ADAR2 involved in RNA editing: loss of ADAR1 in insects. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:7249-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Vertebrates have two ADAR-editing enzymes that are catalytically active; ADAR1 and ADAR2. We show that human ADAR2 rescues Drosophila Adar mutant phenotypes...
  62. Phelps K, Tran K, Eifler T, Erickson A, Fisher A, Beal P. Recognition of duplex RNA by the deaminase domain of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR2. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:1123-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use a recently discovered RNA substrate that is rapidly deaminated by the isolated human ADAR2 deaminase domain (hADAR2-D) to probe these interactions...
  63. Yamashita T, Akamatsu M, Kwak S. Altered Intracellular Milieu of ADAR2-Deficient Motor Neurons in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Genes (Basel). 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) specifically catalyzes GluA2 Q/R site-RNA editing...
  64. Filippini A, Bonini D, Lacoux C, Pacini L, Zingariello M, Sancillo L, et al. Absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein results in defects of RNA editing of neuronal mRNAs in mouse. RNA Biol. 2017;14:1580-1591 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the ADAR2-FMRP interaction in mammals we analyzed several RNA editing re-coding sites in the fmr1 knockout (KO) mice...
  65. Singh M, Gupta A, Singh D, Khurana J, Laxmi A. Arabidopsis RSS1 Mediates Cross-Talk Between Glucose and Light Signaling During Hypocotyl Elongation Growth. Sci Rep. 2017;7:16101 pubmed publisher
  66. Sebastiani P, Montano M, Puca A, Solovieff N, Kojima T, Wang M, et al. RNA editing genes associated with extreme old age in humans and with lifespan in C. elegans. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8210 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we first show that 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RNA editing genes ADARB1 and ADARB2 are associated with extreme old age in a U.S...
  67. Doria M, Tomaselli S, Neri F, Ciafrè S, Farace M, Michienzi A, et al. ADAR2 editing enzyme is a novel human immunodeficiency virus-1 proviral factor. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1228-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that another ADAR enzyme, ADAR2, positively affects the replication process of HIV-1...
  68. Akamatsu M, Yamashita T, Hirose N, Teramoto S, Kwak S. The AMPA receptor antagonist perampanel robustly rescues amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology in sporadic ALS model mice. Sci Rep. 2016;6:28649 pubmed publisher
    ..AR2 mice, in which an RNA editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) is conditionally knocked out in the motor neurons, exhibit a progressive ALS phenotype with TDP-43 pathology in ..
  69. Nakano M, Nakajima M. Significance of A-to-I RNA editing of transcripts modulating pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacol Ther. 2018;181:13-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, ADAR1 and ADAR2, convert adenosines in double-stranded RNA structures into inosines by hydrolytic deamination...
  70. Markowitz T, Suarez D, Blitzblau H, Patel N, Markhard A, MacQueen A, et al. Reduced dosage of the chromosome axis factor Red1 selectively disrupts the meiotic recombination checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006928 pubmed publisher
    ..assembly defects of this allele are explained by a linked mutation in the promoter of the major axial element gene RED1 that reduces Red1 protein levels to 20-25% of wild type...
  71. Gallo A, Vukic D, Michalík D, O Connell M, Keegan L. ADAR RNA editing in human disease; more to it than meets the I. Hum Genet. 2017;136:1265-1278 pubmed publisher
    ..b>ADAR2 is most highly expressed in brain and is primarily required for site-specific editing of CNS transcripts; recent ..
  72. Terajima H, Yoshitane H, Ozaki H, Suzuki Y, Shimba S, Kuroda S, et al. ADARB1 catalyzes circadian A-to-I editing and regulates RNA rhythm. Nat Genet. 2017;49:146-151 pubmed publisher
    ..Our CLOCK-ChIP-seq analysis identified rhythmic expression of adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B1 (Adarb1, also known as Adar2), an adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA-editing enzyme...
  73. Galipon J, Ishii R, Suzuki Y, Tomita M, Ui Tei K. Differential Binding of Three Major Human ADAR Isoforms to Coding and Long Non-Coding Transcripts. Genes (Basel). 2017;8: pubmed publisher carried out by no less than three major adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs): ADAR1-p150, ADAR1-p110, and ADAR2. However, the first two derive from alternative splicing, so that it is currently impossible to delete ADAR1-p110 ..
  74. Huang H, Kapeli K, Jin W, Wong Y, Arumugam T, Koh J, et al. Tissue-selective restriction of RNA editing of CaV1.3 by splicing factor SRSF9. Nucleic Acids Res. 2018;46:7323-7338 pubmed publisher
    ..3 are subject to brain-selective A-to-I RNA editing by ADAR2. Here, we show that editing of CaV1...
  75. Liscovitch N, Bazak L, Levanon E, Chechik G. Positive correlation between ADAR expression and its targets suggests a complex regulation mediated by RNA editing in the human brain. RNA Biol. 2014;11:1447-56 pubmed publisher
    ..It is possible, however, that RNA editing by ADAR in non-coding regions of the gene might be a part of a more complex expression regulation mechanism. ..
  76. Sugiyama T, Thillainadesan G, Chalamcharla V, Meng Z, Balachandran V, Dhakshnamoorthy J, et al. Enhancer of Rudimentary Cooperates with Conserved RNA-Processing Factors to Promote Meiotic mRNA Decay and Facultative Heterochromatin Assembly. Mol Cell. 2016;61:747-759 pubmed publisher
    ..To perform these functions, EMC associates with two distinct complexes, Mtl1-Red1 core (MTREC) and CCR4-NOT...
  77. Cao Y, Cao R, Huang Y, Zhou H, Liu Y, Li X, et al. A comprehensive study on cellular RNA editing activity in response to infections with different subtypes of influenza a viruses. BMC Genomics. 2018;19:925 pubmed publisher infections with some influenza A viruses (H1N1 and H3N2) is linked to the up-regulation of ADAR1 but not ADAR2. Further, the pattern recognition receptors of human epithelial cells infected with H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H7N9 were ..
  78. Jayan G, Casey J. Increased RNA editing and inhibition of hepatitis delta virus replication by high-level expression of ADAR1 and ADAR2. J Virol. 2002;76:3819-27 pubmed
    ..We examined the effects of increased ADAR1 and ADAR2 expression on HDV RNA editing and replication in transfected Huh7 cells...
  79. Kameoka J, Ichinohasama R, Inoue H, Yamamoto J, Yokoyama H, Tomiya Y, et al. CD26, together with cell surface adenosine deaminase, is selectively expressed on ALK-positive, but not on ALK-negative, anaplastic large cell lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2006;47:2181-8 pubmed
    ..This is also the first report to demonstrate that ADA is coexpressed with CD26 on the cell surface of malignant neoplasms in vivo. ..
  80. Kubota Sakashita M, Iwamoto K, Bundo M, Kato T. A role of ADAR2 and RNA editing of glutamate receptors in mood disorders and schizophrenia. Mol Brain. 2014;7:5 pubmed publisher
    ..modification known as RNA editing that is mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA type 2 (ADAR2). This modification alters the amino acid sequence and function of the receptor...
  81. Dillman A, Cookson M, Galter D. ADAR2 affects mRNA coding sequence edits with only modest effects on gene expression or splicing in vivo. RNA Biol. 2016;13:15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Editing creates multiple isoforms of neurotransmitter receptors, such as with Gria2. Adar2 KO mice die of seizures shortly after birth, but if the Gria2 Q/R editing site is mutated to mimic the edited ..
  82. Wang Q, Li X, Qi R, Billiar T. RNA Editing, ADAR1, and the Innate Immune Response. Genes (Basel). 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..ADAR3 is a catalytically null enzyme and the most significant function of ADAR2 was found to be in editing on the neuron receptor GluR-B mRNA...
  83. Azmahani A, Nakamura Y, Ozawa Y, McNamara K, Fujimura T, Haga T, et al. Androgen receptor, androgen-producing enzymes and their transcription factors in extramammary Paget disease. Hum Pathol. 2015;46:1662-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied 51 cases of EMPD with known clinicopathological status. AR, 5α-red1, 17β-HSD5, and β-catenin immunoreactivity was evaluated by using the modified H-score method while cyclin D1, ..
  84. Chan T, Qamra A, Tan K, Guo J, Yang H, Qi L, et al. ADAR-Mediated RNA Editing Predicts Progression and Prognosis of Gastric Cancer. Gastroenterology. 2016;151:637-650.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..clear RNA misediting phenotype with ADAR1/2 dysregulation arising from the genomic gain and loss of the ADAR1 and ADAR2 gene in primary GCs, respectively...
  85. Paul D, Sinha A, Ray A, Lal M, Nayak S, Sharma A, et al. A-to-I editing in human miRNAs is enriched in seed sequence, influenced by sequence contexts and significantly hypoedited in glioblastoma multiforme. Sci Rep. 2017;7:2466 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA sequencing of GBM patients identified significant miRNA hypoediting which correlated with downregulation of ADAR2 both in metadata and qRT-PCR based validation...
  86. Fitzner A, Niedbalski W. Phylogenetic analysis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains isolated in Poland. Arch Virol. 2017;162:3197-3203 pubmed publisher
    ..contains the Polish RHDV strains from 2004-2015 (GRZ 2004, KRY 2004, L145 2004, W147 2005, SKO 2013, GLE 2013, RED1 2013, STR 2012, STR2 2013, STR 2014, BIE 2015) identified as RHDVa, which clustered into genogroup G6, as ..
  87. Valenzuela A, Blanco J, Callebaut C, Jacotot E, Lluis C, Hovanessian A, et al. Adenosine deaminase binding to human CD26 is inhibited by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and viral particles. J Immunol. 1997;158:3721-9 pubmed
    ..Because ADA deficiency leads to severe combined immunodefiency syndrome, it remains possible that HIV particle-mediated blockade of ADA-CD26 interaction may have significant consequences in the pathogenesis of AIDS. ..
  88. Tan M, Li Q, Shanmugam R, Piskol R, Kohler J, Young A, et al. Dynamic landscape and regulation of RNA editing in mammals. Nature. 2017;550:249-254 pubmed publisher
    ..Globally, ADAR1 is the primary editor of repetitive sites and ADAR2 is the primary editor of non-repetitive coding sites, whereas the catalytically inactive ADAR3 predominantly acts ..
  89. Keegan L, Leroy A, Sproul D, O Connell M. Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs): RNA-editing enzymes. Genome Biol. 2004;5:209 pubmed
  90. Ryman K, Fong N, Bratt E, Bentley D, Ohman M. The C-terminal domain of RNA Pol II helps ensure that editing precedes splicing of the GluR-B transcript. RNA. 2007;13:1071-8 pubmed
    ..b>ADAR2 edits RNA by converting adenosine to inosine within double-stranded or structured RNA...
  91. Marcucci R, Brindle J, Paro S, Casadio A, Hempel S, Morrice N, et al. Pin1 and WWP2 regulate GluR2 Q/R site RNA editing by ADAR2 with opposing effects. EMBO J. 2011;30:4211-22 pubmed publisher
    b>ADAR2 catalyses the deamination of adenosine to inosine at the GluR2 Q/R site in the pre-mRNA encoding the critical subunit of AMPA receptors...