ADAR

Summary

Gene Symbol: ADAR
Description: adenosine deaminase, RNA specific
Alias: ADAR1, AGS6, DRADA, DSH, DSRAD, G1P1, IFI-4, IFI4, K88DSRBP, P136, double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase, 136 kDa double-stranded RNA-binding protein, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1-A, dsRNA adenosine deaminase, dsRNA adeonosine deaminase, interferon-induced protein 4, interferon-inducible protein 4
Species: human
Products:     ADAR

Top Publications

  1. Nie Y, Hammond G, Yang J. Double-stranded RNA deaminase ADAR1 increases host susceptibility to virus infection. J Virol. 2007;81:917-23 pubmed
    The RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein that modifies cellular and viral RNA sequences by adenosine deamination...
  2. Zhang X, He P, Li M, He C, Yan K, Cui Y, et al. Seven novel mutations of the ADAR gene in Chinese families and sporadic patients with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (DSH). Hum Mutat. 2004;23:629-30 pubmed
    ..and hypopigmented macules of on the extremities and caused by the mutations in the ADAR gene(also called DSRAD) encoding for RNA-specific adenosine deaminase...
  3. Pfaller C, Li Z, George C, Samuel C. Protein kinase PKR and RNA adenosine deaminase ADAR1: new roles for old players as modulators of the interferon response. Curr Opin Immunol. 2011;23:573-82 pubmed publisher
    ..gene products are the protein kinase regulated by RNA (PKR) and the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1)...
  4. Wang Y, Samuel C. Adenosine deaminase ADAR1 increases gene expression at the translational level by decreasing protein kinase PKR-dependent eIF-2alpha phosphorylation. J Mol Biol. 2009;393:777-87 pubmed publisher
    b>ADAR1 (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to inosine on RNA substrates with double-stranded character...
  5. Nie Y, Ding L, Kao P, Braun R, Yang J. ADAR1 interacts with NF90 through double-stranded RNA and regulates NF90-mediated gene expression independently of RNA editing. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6956-63 pubmed
    The RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 modifies adenosines by deamination and produces A-to-I mutations in mRNA. ADAR1 was recently demonstrated to function in host defense and in embryonic erythropoiesis during fetal liver development...
  6. Taylor D, Puig M, Darnell M, Mihalik K, Feinstone S. New antiviral pathway that mediates hepatitis C virus replicon interferon sensitivity through ADAR1. J Virol. 2005;79:6291-8 pubmed
    ..and also through a new pathway involving RNA editing by an adenosine deaminase that acts on double-stranded RNA (ADAR1). More than 200 genes are induced by IFN-alpha, and yet only a few are attributed with an antiviral role...
  7. Eggington J, Greene T, Bass B. Predicting sites of ADAR editing in double-stranded RNA. Nat Commun. 2011;2:319 pubmed publisher
    ..We quantified editing sites in an ?800-bp dsRNA after reaction with human ADAR1 or ADAR2, or their catalytic domains alone...
  8. Doria M, Neri F, Gallo A, Farace M, Michienzi A. Editing of HIV-1 RNA by the double-stranded RNA deaminase ADAR1 stimulates viral infection. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:5848-58 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been described that a member of the ADAR family, ADAR1, can target viruses and affect their replication process...
  9. Zahn R, Schelp I, Utermöhlen O, Von Laer D. A-to-G hypermutation in the genome of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. J Virol. 2007;81:457-64 pubmed
    The interferon-inducible adenosine deaminase that acts on double-stranded RNA (ADAR1-L) has been proposed to be one of the antiviral effector proteins within the complex innate immune response...

More Information

Publications71

  1. Miyamura Y, Suzuki T, Kono M, Inagaki K, Ito S, Suzuki N, et al. Mutations of the RNA-specific adenosine deaminase gene (DSRAD) are involved in dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. Am J Hum Genet. 2003;73:693-9 pubmed
    ..3. The mutations involved in causing DSH have been identified in the gene that encodes double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (DSRAD) as the disease gene.
  2. Weier H, George C, Greulich K, Samuel C. The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase gene (DSRAD) maps to human chromosome 1q21.1-21.2. Genomics. 1995;30:372-5 pubmed
    ..1-21.2. Simultaneous multicolor FISH including lambda clones and yeast artificial chromosomes showed a localization of the gene in band 1q21 centromeric of D1S1705. ..
  3. Nemlich Y, Greenberg E, Ortenberg R, Besser M, Barshack I, Jacob Hirsch J, et al. MicroRNA-mediated loss of ADAR1 in metastatic melanoma promotes tumor growth. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:2703-18 pubmed
    ..Here, we found the primary RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 is frequently reduced in metastatic melanomas...
  4. Wang Q. RNA editing catalyzed by ADAR1 and its function in mammalian cells. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2011;76:900-11 pubmed publisher
    In mammalian cells two active enzymes, ADAR1 and ADAR2, carry out A-to-I RNA editing. These two editases share many common features in their protein structures, catalytic activities, and substrate requirements...
  5. Cho D, Yang W, Lee J, Shiekhattar R, Murray J, Nishikura K. Requirement of dimerization for RNA editing activity of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:17093-102 pubmed
    ..Three vertebrate ADAR gene family members, ADAR1, ADAR2, and ADAR3, have been identified...
  6. Hou Y, Chen J, Gao M, Zhou F, Du W, Shen Y, et al. Five novel mutations of RNA-specific adenosine deaminase gene with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. Acta Derm Venereol. 2007;87:18-21 pubmed
    ..is a rare autosomal dominant pigmentary genodermatosis caused by mutations in the RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR) gene...
  7. Liu Q, Liu W, Jiang L, Sun M, Ao Y, Zhao X, et al. Novel mutations of the RNA-specific adenosine deaminase gene (DSRAD) in Chinese families with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;122:896-9 pubmed
    ..The DSH locus has recently been mapped to chromosome 1q21 and pathogenic mutations were identified in the DSRAD gene encoding double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase in Japanese patients with DSH...
  8. Gélinas J, Clerzius G, Shaw E, Gatignol A. Enhancement of replication of RNA viruses by ADAR1 via RNA editing and inhibition of RNA-activated protein kinase. J Virol. 2011;85:8460-6 pubmed publisher
    Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is a double-stranded RNA binding protein and RNA-editing enzyme that modifies cellular and viral RNAs, including coding and noncoding RNAs...
  9. Herbert A, Alfken J, Kim Y, Mian I, Nishikura K, Rich A. A Z-DNA binding domain present in the human editing enzyme, double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:8421-6 pubmed
    ..Here we report that the RNA editing enzyme, human dsRNA adenosine deaminase (DRADA1, or ADAR1) contains a domain (Zalpha) that binds specifically to the left-handed Z-DNA ..
  10. Laxminarayana D, Khan I, Kammer G. Transcript mutations of the alpha regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and up-regulation of the RNA-editing gene transcript in lupus T lymphocytes. Lancet. 2002;360:842-9 pubmed
    ..transcript editing is regulated by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADAR), we quantified expression of ADAR1 transcripts in SLE and control T cells by competitive PCR...
  11. Patterson J, Thomis D, Hans S, Samuel C. Mechanism of interferon action: double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase from human cells is inducible by alpha and gamma interferons. Virology. 1995;210:508-11 pubmed
    ..These results, which establish that dsRNA-specific AdD is an IFN-inducible protein in human cells, have implications regarding the possible role of interferon in persistent viral infections. ..
  12. Clerzius G, Gélinas J, Daher A, Bonnet M, Meurs E, Gatignol A. ADAR1 interacts with PKR during human immunodeficiency virus infection of lymphocytes and contributes to viral replication. J Virol. 2009;83:10119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that interferon-induced adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1-p150 (ADAR1-p150) and ADAR1-p110 expression increases while the virus replicates actively...
  13. Patterson J, Samuel C. Expression and regulation by interferon of a double-stranded-RNA-specific adenosine deaminase from human cells: evidence for two forms of the deaminase. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:5376-88 pubmed
    ..These results establish that K88 encodes an IFN-inducible dsRNA-specific adenosine deaminase and suggest that at least two forms of dsRNA-specific adenosine deaminase occur in human cells. ..
  14. Jiang Q, Crews L, Barrett C, Chun H, Court A, Isquith J, et al. ADAR1 promotes malignant progenitor reprogramming in chronic myeloid leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:1041-6 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-? pathway gene expression in concert with BCR-ABL amplification, enhanced expression of the IFN-responsive ADAR1 p150 isoform, and a propensity for increased adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing during CML progression...
  15. Poulsen H, Nilsson J, Damgaard C, Egebjerg J, Kjems J. CRM1 mediates the export of ADAR1 through a nuclear export signal within the Z-DNA binding domain. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:7862-71 pubmed
    ..Different promoters in the ADAR1 gene give rise to two forms of the protein: a constitutive promoter expresses a transcript encoding (c)ADAR1, and ..
  16. Suzuki N, Suzuki T, Inagaki K, Ito S, Kono M, Horikawa T, et al. Ten novel mutations of the ADAR1 gene in Japanese patients with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:309-11 pubmed
    ..We have reported 20 different mutations of the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 gene (ADAR1) in patients with DSH since we had clarified that the disease is caused by a mutation of the ADAR1 gene in 2003...
  17. Zhang F, Liu H, Jiang D, Tian H, Wang C, Yu L. Six novel mutations of the ADAR1 gene in Chinese patients with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. J Dermatol Sci. 2008;50:109-14 pubmed publisher
    ..chromosome 1q21 and subsequently pathogenic mutations were identified in the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA1 (ADAR1) gene in 2003...
  18. Kim U, Wang Y, Sanford T, Zeng Y, Nishikura K. Molecular cloning of cDNA for double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase, a candidate enzyme for nuclear RNA editing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:11457-61 pubmed
    We have cloned human cDNA encoding double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (DRADA). DRADA is a ubiquitous nuclear enzyme that converts multiple adenosines to inosines in double-helical RNA substrates without apparent sequence specificity...
  19. Li Z, Wolff K, Samuel C. RNA adenosine deaminase ADAR1 deficiency leads to increased activation of protein kinase PKR and reduced vesicular stomatitis virus growth following interferon treatment. Virology. 2010;396:316-22 pubmed publisher
    Two size forms of ADAR1 adenosine deaminase are known, one constitutively expressed (p110) and the other interferon (IFN)-induced (p150)...
  20. Kantaputra P, Chinadet W, Ohazama A, Kono M. Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria with long hair on the forearms, hypo/hyperpigmented hair, and dental anomalies: report of a novel ADAR1 mutation. Am J Med Genet A. 2012;158A:2258-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutation analysis of ADAR1 gene demonstrated a novel splice acceptor site mutation in intron 10, IVS10-2A>C...
  21. Wong S, Sato S, Lazinski D. Elevated activity of the large form of ADAR1 in vivo: very efficient RNA editing occurs in the cytoplasm. RNA. 2003;9:586-98 pubmed
    Mammalian cells express small and large forms of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR1, referred to as ADAR1-S and ADAR1-L, respectively...
  22. Ota H, Sakurai M, Gupta R, Valente L, Wulff B, Ariyoshi K, et al. ADAR1 forms a complex with Dicer to promote microRNA processing and RNA-induced gene silencing. Cell. 2013;153:575-89 pubmed publisher
    ..the interaction of the RNA editing mechanism with the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery and found that ADAR1 forms a complex with Dicer through direct protein-protein interaction...
  23. Heale B, Keegan L, McGurk L, Michlewski G, Brindle J, Stanton C, et al. Editing independent effects of ADARs on the miRNA/siRNA pathways. EMBO J. 2009;28:3145-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, in a Drosophila assay for RNAi deaminase-inactive ADAR1 inhibits RNAi through the siRNA pathway...
  24. Kondo T, Suzuki T, Mitsuhashi Y, Ito S, Kono M, Komine M, et al. Six novel mutations of the ADAR1 gene in patients with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria: histological observation and comparison of genotypes and clinical phenotypes. J Dermatol. 2008;35:395-406 pubmed publisher
    ..Since we clarified that the disease is caused by a mutation of the adenosine deaminase acting on the RNA 1 gene (ADAR1) in 2003, the molecular pathogenesis of a peculiar clinical feature of the disease has been expected to be ..
  25. Phuphuakrat A, Kraiwong R, Boonarkart C, Lauhakirti D, Lee T, Auewarakul P. Double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminases enhance expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteins. J Virol. 2008;82:10864-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Knockdown of ADAR1 by RNA silencing inhibited HIV-1 production...
  26. O Connell M, Krause S, Higuchi M, Hsuan J, Totty N, Jenny A, et al. Cloning of cDNAs encoding mammalian double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1389-97 pubmed
    ..raised against the protein encoded by the partial bovine clone specifically recognize the calf thymus dsRNA adenosine deaminase. Furthermore, the antibodies can immunodeplete a calf thymus extract of dsRNA adenosine deaminase ..
  27. Biswas N, Wang T, Ding M, Tumne A, Chen Y, Wang Q, et al. ADAR1 is a novel multi targeted anti-HIV-1 cellular protein. Virology. 2012;422:265-77 pubmed publisher
    We examined the antiviral activity of ADAR1 against HIV-1...
  28. George C, Samuel C. Human RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 transcripts possess alternative exon 1 structures that initiate from different promoters, one constitutively active and the other interferon inducible. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:4621-6 pubmed
    RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1) catalyzes the deamination of adenosine to inosine in viral and cellular RNAs...
  29. Liu H, Fu X, Yu Y, Yu G, Yan X, Liu H, et al. Identification of two novel splice mutations of the ADAR1 gene in two Chinese families with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2011;36:797-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The DSH locus has been mapped to chromosome 1q21, and in 2003, pathogenic mutations were identified in the ADAR1 (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA1) gene...
  30. Yang W, Wang Q, Howell K, Lee J, Cho D, Murray J, et al. ADAR1 RNA deaminase limits short interfering RNA efficacy in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3946-53 pubmed
    ..Here we show that ADAR1 and ADAR2, but not ADAR3, avidly bind short interfering RNA (siRNA) without RNA editing...
  31. Toth A, Li Z, Cattaneo R, Samuel C. RNA-specific adenosine deaminase ADAR1 suppresses measles virus-induced apoptosis and activation of protein kinase PKR. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:29350-6 pubmed publisher
    b>ADAR1 (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) catalyzes the conversion of adenosine to inosine, a process known as A-to-I editing...
  32. Li C, Li M, Ma H, Luo D, Yang L, Wang D, et al. A new arginine substitution mutation of DSRAD gene in a Chinese family with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. J Dermatol Sci. 2005;37:95-9 pubmed
    ..To date, only three articles testified that DSH is caused by the mutations of DSRAD gene (also called ADAR1) encoding for RNA-specific adenosine deaminase...
  33. Wong S, Sato S, Lazinski D. Substrate recognition by ADAR1 and ADAR2. RNA. 2001;7:846-58 pubmed
    RNA editing catalyzed by ADAR1 and ADAR2 involves the site-specific conversion of adenosine to inosine within imperfectly duplexed RNA...
  34. Strehblow A, Hallegger M, Jantsch M. Nucleocytoplasmic distribution of human RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 is modulated by double-stranded RNA-binding domains, a leucine-rich export signal, and a putative dimerization domain. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:3822-35 pubmed
    The human RNA-editing enzyme adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA (ADAR1) is expressed in two versions. A longer 150-kDa protein is interferon inducible and can be found both in the nucleus and cytoplasm...
  35. Suzuki N, Suzuki T, Inagaki K, Ito S, Kono M, Fukai K, et al. Mutation analysis of the ADAR1 gene in dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria and genetic differentiation from both dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria and acropigmentatio reticularis. J Invest Dermatol. 2005;124:1186-92 pubmed
    ..for the first time four pathological mutations of the double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase gene (ADAR1 or DSRAD) in four DSH pedigrees...
  36. Fritz J, Strehblow A, Taschner A, Schopoff S, Pasierbek P, Jantsch M. RNA-regulated interaction of transportin-1 and exportin-5 with the double-stranded RNA-binding domain regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of ADAR1. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1487-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In the human RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1-c, the nuclear localization signal overlaps the third dsRBD, while the corresponding import factor is unknown...
  37. Li Z, Okonski K, Samuel C. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) suppresses the induction of interferon by measles virus. J Virol. 2012;86:3787-94 pubmed publisher
    b>ADAR1, the interferon (IFN)-inducible adenosine deaminase acting on RNA, catalyzes the C-6 deamination of adenosine (A) to produce inosine (I) in RNA substrates with a double-stranded character...
  38. Rice G, Kasher P, Forte G, Mannion N, Greenwood S, Szynkiewicz M, et al. Mutations in ADAR1 cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome associated with a type I interferon signature. Nat Genet. 2012;44:1243-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that mutations in ADAR1 (also known as ADAR) cause the autoimmune disorder Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS)...
  39. Ma C, Chong J, Guo Y, Zeng H, Liu S, Xu L, et al. Abnormal expression of ADAR1 isoforms in Chinese pediatric acute leukemias. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;406:245-51 pubmed publisher
    The posttranscriptional RNA editing by the type 1 adenosine deaminase acting on RNAs (ADAR1), expressed as p110 and p150 isoforms, is important for both physiological and pathological processes...
  40. Cenci C, Barzotti R, Galeano F, Corbelli S, Rota R, Massimi L, et al. Down-regulation of RNA editing in pediatric astrocytomas: ADAR2 editing activity inhibits cell migration and proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7251-60 pubmed publisher
    ..However, high expression levels of ADAR1 and ADAR3 were found in tumors when compared with normal tissues dissected in the same area of the brain...
  41. Desterro J, Keegan L, Jaffray E, Hay R, O Connell M, Carmo Fonseca M. SUMO-1 modification alters ADAR1 editing activity. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:5115-26 pubmed
    We identify ADAR1, an RNA-editing enzyme with transient nucleolar localization, as a novel substrate for sumoylation...
  42. Desterro J, Keegan L, Lafarga M, Berciano M, O CONNELL M, Carmo Fonseca M. Dynamic association of RNA-editing enzymes with the nucleolus. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:1805-18 pubmed
    b>ADAR1 and ADAR2 are editing enzymes that deaminate adenosine to inosine in long double stranded RNA duplexes and specific pre-mRNA transcripts...
  43. Eckmann C, Neunteufl A, Pfaffstetter L, Jantsch M. The human but not the Xenopus RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 has an atypical nuclear localization signal and displays the characteristics of a shuttling protein. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:1911-24 pubmed
    The RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1 (adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA) is a bona fide nuclear enzyme that has been cloned from several vertebrate species...
  44. Li M, Yang L, Li C, Jin C, Lai M, Zhang G, et al. Mutational spectrum of the ADAR1 gene in dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. Arch Dermatol Res. 2010;302:469-76 pubmed publisher
    ..macules of various sizes on the extremities and caused by the mutations of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA1 (ADAR1) gene. We screened 14 unrelated families or sporadic cases for mutation in the full coding sequence of this gene...
  45. Lu J, Liao Z, Chen J, Xiang Y, Wu Z, Zuo C, et al. Identification of two novel DSRAD mutations in two Chinese families with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. Arch Dermatol Res. 2006;298:357-60 pubmed
    ..Genetic studies have identified mutations in the double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (DSRAD) gene, encoding double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase, to be responsible for this disorder...
  46. Ben Shoshan S, Kagan P, Sultan M, Barabash Z, Dor C, Jacob Hirsch J, et al. ADAR1 deletion induces NFκB and interferon signaling dependent liver inflammation and fibrosis. RNA Biol. 2017;14:587-602 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current research, our aim was to study the role of ADAR1 in liver homeostasis...
  47. Snyder E, Licht K, Braun R. Testicular adenosine to inosine RNA editing in the mouse is mediated by ADARB1. Biol Reprod. 2017;96:244-253 pubmed publisher
    ..and cell types and can be catalyzed by one of the two adenosine deaminase acting on double-stranded RNA enzymes, ADAR and ADARB1...
  48. Pestal K, Funk C, Snyder J, Price N, Treuting P, Stetson D. Isoforms of RNA-Editing Enzyme ADAR1 Independently Control Nucleic Acid Sensor MDA5-Driven Autoimmunity and Multi-organ Development. Immunity. 2015;43:933-44 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in ADAR, which encodes the ADAR1 RNA-editing enzyme, cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), a severe autoimmune disease associated with an aberrant type I interferon response...
  49. Wang X, Vuković L, Koh H, Schulten K, Myong S. Dynamic profiling of double-stranded RNA binding proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:7566-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we examined four human dsRBPs, ADAD2, TRBP, Staufen 1 and ADAR1 on six dsRNA substrates that vary in length and secondary structure...
  50. Wang I, So E, Devlin J, Zhao Y, Wu M, Cheung V. ADAR regulates RNA editing, transcript stability, and gene expression. Cell Rep. 2013;5:849-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the role of ADAR proteins in RNA editing and gene regulation, we sequenced and compared the DNA and RNA of human B cells...
  51. de Chassey B, Aublin Gex A, Ruggieri A, Meyniel Schicklin L, Pradezynski F, Davoust N, et al. The interactomes of influenza virus NS1 and NS2 proteins identify new host factors and provide insights for ADAR1 playing a supportive role in virus replication. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003440 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) appeared as a pro-viral host factor whose expression is necessary for optimal viral protein synthesis and ..
  52. Filippini A, Bonini D, Lacoux C, Pacini L, Zingariello M, Sancillo L, et al. Absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein results in defects of RNA editing of neuronal mRNAs in mouse. RNA Biol. 2017;14:1580-1591 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, an unexpected function of FMRP in modulating the activity of Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes has been reported both in Drosophila and Zebrafish...
  53. Ganem N, Ben Asher N, Lamm A. In cancer, A-to-I RNA editing can be the driver, the passenger, or the mechanic. Drug Resist Updat. 2017;32:16-22 pubmed publisher
    In recent years, A-to-I RNA modifications performed by the Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA (ADAR) protein family were found to be expressed at altered levels in multiple human malignancies...
  54. Tang Z, Wang S, Tu C, Wang T, Ma C, Liu Y, et al. Eight Novel Mutations of the ADAR1 Gene in Chinese Patients with Dyschromatosis Symmetrica Hereditaria. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    To identify potential novel gene mutations in Chinese patients with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria (DSH).
  55. Lazzari E, Mondala P, Santos N, Miller A, Pineda G, Jiang Q, et al. Alu-dependent RNA editing of GLI1 promotes malignant regeneration in multiple myeloma. Nat Commun. 2017;8:1922 pubmed publisher
    ..emerged as a driver of cancer progression, genomic amplification combined with inflammatory cytokine activation of ADAR1 could stimulate MM progression and therapeutic resistance...
  56. Qin Y, Qiao J, Chan T, Zhu Y, Li F, Liu H, et al. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing mediated by ADARs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2014;74:840-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the three ADAR enzymes expressed in human cells, only ADAR1 was overexpressed in primary ESCC tumors. ADAR1 overexpression was due to gene amplification...
  57. Nie Y, Zhao Q, Su Y, Yang J. Subcellular distribution of ADAR1 isoforms is synergistically determined by three nuclear discrimination signals and a regulatory motif. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:13249-55 pubmed
    b>ADAR1 is an RNA-specific adenosine deaminase that edits RNA sequences. We have demonstrated previously that different ADAR1 isoforms are induced during acute inflammation...
  58. Xu D, Farmer A, Collett G, Grishin N, Chook Y. Sequence and structural analyses of nuclear export signals in the NESdb database. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3677-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we also tested CRM1-binding of 40 NESs that were found in the 56 structures. We found that 16 of the NES peptides did not bind CRM1, hence illustrating how NESs are easily misidentified...
  59. Wu X, Shi W, Wu J, Zhu X, Chen K, Zheng S, et al. A functional polymorphism in ADAR1 gene affects HBsAg seroclearance both spontaneously and interferon induced. Liver Int. 2014;34:1560-5 pubmed publisher
    Our previous study found that rs4845384 in ADAR1 gene to be associated with HBeAg seroconversion. However, the effect of rs4845384 on HBsAg seroclearance is unknown. To assess the relationship between rs4845384 and HBsAg seroclearance...
  60. Xu X, Wang Y, Liang H. The role of A-to-I RNA editing in cancer development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2018;48:51-56 pubmed publisher
    ..editing is the most common type of post-transcriptional nucleotide modification in humans, which is catalyzed in ADAR enzymes...
  61. Hwang Y, Chen E, Gu Z, Chuang W, Yu M, Lai M, et al. Genetic predisposition of responsiveness to therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Pharmacogenomics. 2006;7:697-709 pubmed
    ..studies and haplotype reconstruction revealed selection of seven genes: adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific (ADAR), caspase 5, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase (CASP5), fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), interferon consensus ..
  62. Murata I, Hayashi M, Hozumi Y, Fujii K, Mitsuhashi Y, Oiso N, et al. Mutation analyses of patients with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria: five novel mutations of the ADAR1 gene. J Dermatol Sci. 2010;58:218-20 pubmed publisher