activation induced cytidine deaminase

Summary

Gene Symbol: activation induced cytidine deaminase
Description: activation induced cytidine deaminase
Alias: AID, ARP2, CDA2, HEL-S-284, HIGM2, single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminase, cytidine aminohydrolase, epididymis secretory protein Li 284, integrated into Burkitt's lymphoma cell line Ramos
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. Sohail A, Klapacz J, Samaranayake M, Ullah A, Bhagwat A. Human activation-induced cytidine deaminase causes transcription-dependent, strand-biased C to U deaminations. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:2990-4 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for the maturation of antibodies in higher vertebrates, where it promotes somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch recombination and gene conversion...
  2. Tran T, Nakata M, Suzuki K, Begum N, Shinkura R, Fagarasan S, et al. B cell-specific and stimulation-responsive enhancers derepress Aicda by overcoming the effects of silencers. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:148-54 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for the generation of antibody memory but also targets oncogenes, among other genes...
  3. Kobayashi M, Sabouri Z, Sabouri S, Kitawaki Y, Pommier Y, Abe T, et al. Decrease in topoisomerase I is responsible for activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent somatic hypermutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19305-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Ig gene require both the transcription of the locus and the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)...
  4. Endo Y, Marusawa H, Chiba T. Involvement of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in the development of colitis-associated colorectal cancers. J Gastroenterol. 2011;46 Suppl 1:6-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) was originally identified as an inducer of somatic hypermutation in the immunoglobulin gene...
  5. Wu X, Geraldes P, Platt J, Cascalho M. The double-edged sword of activation-induced cytidine deaminase. J Immunol. 2005;174:934-41 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for Ig class switch recombination, a process that introduces DNA double-strand breaks in B cells...
  6. Orthwein A, Patenaude A, Affar E, Lamarre A, Young J, Di Noia J. Regulation of activation-induced deaminase stability and antibody gene diversification by Hsp90. J Exp Med. 2010;207:2751-65 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) is the mutator enzyme that initiates somatic hypermutation and isotype switching of the antibody genes in B lymphocytes. Undesired byproducts of AID function are oncogenic mutations...
  7. Shimizu T, Marusawa H, Endo Y, Chiba T. Inflammation-mediated genomic instability: roles of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in carcinogenesis. Cancer Sci. 2012;103:1201-6 pubmed publisher
    ..reactions lead to the aberrant expression of a DNA mutator enzyme, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), in various epithelial cells via NF-?B activation, which causes the accumulation of genetic alterations in tumor-..
  8. Arakawa H, Saribasak H, Buerstedde J. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase initiates immunoglobulin gene conversion and hypermutation by a common intermediate. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E179 pubmed
    Depending on the species and the lymphoid organ, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression triggers diversification of the rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) genes by pseudo V (psiV) gene- templated gene conversion or somatic ..
  9. Kohli R, Abrams S, Gajula K, Maul R, Gearhart P, Stivers J. A portable hot spot recognition loop transfers sequence preferences from APOBEC family members to activation-induced cytidine deaminase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22898-904 pubmed publisher
    Enzymes of the AID/APOBEC family, characterized by the targeted deamination of cytosine to generate uracil within DNA, mediate numerous critical immune responses...

More Information

Publications81

  1. Shinmura K, Igarashi H, Goto M, Tao H, Yamada H, Matsuura S, et al. Aberrant expression and mutation-inducing activity of AID in human lung cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2011;18:2084-92 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is expressed in B lymphocytes and triggers antibody diversification...
  2. Reiniger L, Bodor C, Bognar A, Balogh Z, Csomor J, Szepesi A, et al. Richter's and prolymphocytic transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia are associated with high mRNA expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase and aberrant somatic hypermutation. Leukemia. 2006;20:1089-95 pubmed
    ..To analyze whether activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which is essential for somatic hypermutation (SHM) of normal B-cells, and malfunction of SHM termed aberrant ..
  3. Greeve J, Philipsen A, Krause K, Klapper W, Heidorn K, Castle B, et al. Expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in human B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Blood. 2003;101:3574-80 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) induces somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch recombination (CSR), and immunoglobulin gene conversion in B-lymphocytes...
  4. Wang M, Rada C, Neuberger M. Altering the spectrum of immunoglobulin V gene somatic hypermutation by modifying the active site of AID. J Exp Med. 2010;207:141-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The process is dependent on activation-induced deaminase (AID), an enzyme that can deaminate deoxycytidine in DNA in vitro, where its activity is sensitive to the identity of ..
  5. Willmann K, Milosevic S, Pauklin S, Schmitz K, Rangam G, Simon M, et al. A role for the RNA pol II-associated PAF complex in AID-induced immune diversification. J Exp Med. 2012;209:2099-111 pubmed publisher
    Antibody diversification requires the DNA deaminase AID to induce DNA instability at immunoglobulin (Ig) loci upon B cell stimulation...
  6. Shen H, Poirier M, Allen M, North J, Lal R, Widom J, et al. The activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) efficiently targets DNA in nucleosomes but only during transcription. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1057-71 pubmed publisher
    The activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates somatic hypermutation, class-switch recombination, and gene conversion of immunoglobulin genes...
  7. Albesiano E, Messmer B, Damle R, Allen S, Rai K, Chiorazzi N. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase in chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells: expression as multiple forms in a dynamic, variably sized fraction of the clone. Blood. 2003;102:3333-9 pubmed
    ..Because activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an essential component of the canonical somatic hypermutation process in healthy B cells, its expression in B-..
  8. Zhu Y, Nonoyama S, Morio T, Muramatsu M, Honjo T, Mizutani S. Type two hyper-IgM syndrome caused by mutation in activation-induced cytidine deaminase. J Med Dent Sci. 2003;50:41-6 pubmed
    ..All patients had mutations in AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) gene. Five of them had a missense mutation of Arg112His...
  9. Matsumoto Y, Marusawa H, Kinoshita K, Niwa Y, Sakai Y, Chiba T. Up-regulation of activation-induced cytidine deaminase causes genetic aberrations at the CDKN2b-CDKN2a in gastric cancer. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:1984-94 pubmed publisher
    The DNA/RNA editing enzyme activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is mutagenic and has been implicated in human tumorigenesis...
  10. Barreto V, Reina San Martin B, Ramiro A, McBride K, Nussenzweig M. C-terminal deletion of AID uncouples class switch recombination from somatic hypermutation and gene conversion. Mol Cell. 2003;12:501-8 pubmed
    ..conversion are distinct DNA modification reactions, but all are initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme that deaminates cytidine residues in single-stranded DNA...
  11. Lamont K, Hasham M, Donghia N, Branca J, Chavaree M, Chase B, et al. Attenuating homologous recombination stimulates an AID-induced antileukemic effect. J Exp Med. 2013;210:1021-33 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is critical in normal B cells to initiate somatic hypermutation and immunoglobulin class switch recombination...
  12. Shinkura R, Ito S, Begum N, Nagaoka H, Muramatsu M, Kinoshita K, et al. Separate domains of AID are required for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:707-12 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM). Mutants with changes in the C-terminal region of AID retain SHM but lose CSR activity...
  13. Xu Z, Fulop Z, Wu G, Pone E, Zhang J, Mai T, et al. 14-3-3 adaptor proteins recruit AID to 5'-AGCT-3'-rich switch regions for class switch recombination. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:1124-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a key protein in CSR, targets immunoglobulin H (IgH) switch regions, which contain 5'-AGCT-3' repeats in their ..
  14. Basu U, Chaudhuri J, Alpert C, Dutt S, Ranganath S, Li G, et al. The AID antibody diversification enzyme is regulated by protein kinase A phosphorylation. Nature. 2005;438:508-11 pubmed
    ..Somatic hypermutation and CSR both require the B-cell-specific activation-induced cytidine deaminase protein (AID), which initiates these reactions through its single-stranded (ss)DNA-specific cytidine deaminase activity...
  15. Komori J, Marusawa H, Machimoto T, Endo Y, Kinoshita K, Kou T, et al. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase links bile duct inflammation to human cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatology. 2008;47:888-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently provided evidence that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a member of the DNA/RNA editing enzyme family, is implicated in human tumorigenesis via its mutagenic activity...
  16. Pauklin S, Sernández I, Bachmann G, Ramiro A, Petersen Mahrt S. Estrogen directly activates AID transcription and function. J Exp Med. 2009;206:99-111 pubmed publisher
    ..During a healthy immune response, activation-induced deaminase (AID) deaminates cytosines at immunoglobulin (Ig) loci, initiating somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch ..
  17. Basu U, Meng F, Keim C, Grinstein V, Pefanis E, Eccleston J, et al. The RNA exosome targets the AID cytidine deaminase to both strands of transcribed duplex DNA substrates. Cell. 2011;144:353-63 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) and Ig variable region somatic hypermutation (SHM) in B lymphocytes by deaminating cytidines on template and ..
  18. Zan H, Casali P. AID- and Ung-dependent generation of staggered double-strand DNA breaks in immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination: a post-cleavage role for AID. Mol Immunol. 2008;46:45-61 pubmed publisher
    ..CSR requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and occurrence of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) in S regions of upstream and downstream C(H) region genes...
  19. Okazaki I, Okawa K, Kobayashi M, Yoshikawa K, Kawamoto S, Nagaoka H, et al. Histone chaperone Spt6 is required for class switch recombination but not somatic hypermutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7920-5 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is shown to be essential and sufficient to induce two genetic alterations in the Ig loci: class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM)...
  20. Cortellino S, Xu J, Sannai M, Moore R, Caretti E, Cigliano A, et al. Thymine DNA glycosylase is essential for active DNA demethylation by linked deamination-base excision repair. Cell. 2011;146:67-79 pubmed publisher
    ..TDG interacts with the deaminase AID and the damage response protein GADD45a...
  21. Patten P, Chu C, Albesiano E, Damle R, Yan X, Kim D, et al. IGHV-unmutated and IGHV-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells produce activation-induced deaminase protein with a full range of biologic functions. Blood. 2012;120:4802-11 pubmed publisher
    Clonal evolution occurs during the course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and activation-induced deaminase (AID) could influence this process...
  22. Pasqualucci L, Kitaura Y, Gu H, Dalla Favera R. PKA-mediated phosphorylation regulates the function of activation-induced deaminase (AID) in B cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:395-400 pubmed
    ..Both processes require the activity of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme expressed specifically in GC B cells...
  23. Cui T, Wang L, Jiang W, Hu L, Wu J. [Correlation between activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene polymorphism and atopic asthma and plasma IgE in adult]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2003;19:552-3 pubmed
    ..05). The 8408 T/T genotype of AICDA is correlated with atopic asthma and total plasma IgE level in adult. ..
  24. Hancer V, Kose M, Diz Kucukkaya R, Yavuz A, Aktan M. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase mRNA levels in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma. 2011;52:79-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Intracellular up-regulation of the AID gene in the leukemic lymphocytes of patients with CLL may be an important parameter for predicting the progression ..
  25. Liang G, Kitamura K, Wang Z, Liu G, Chowdhury S, Fu W, et al. RNA editing of hepatitis B virus transcripts by activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2246-51 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for the somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class-switch recombination (CSR) of Ig genes. The mechanism by which AID triggers SHM and CSR has been explained by two distinct models...
  26. Mai T, Zan H, Zhang J, Hawkins J, Xu Z, Casali P. Estrogen receptors bind to and activate the HOXC4/HoxC4 promoter to potentiate HoxC4-mediated activation-induced cytosine deaminase induction, immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination, and somatic hypermutation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:37797-810 pubmed publisher
    ..It has been suggested that estrogen up-regulates the expression of activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID), which is critical for antibody class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM), through ..
  27. Klemm L, Duy C, Iacobucci I, Kuchen S, von Levetzow G, Feldhahn N, et al. The B cell mutator AID promotes B lymphoid blast crisis and drug resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia. Cancer Cell. 2009;16:232-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that LBC but not CML cells express the B cell-specific mutator enzyme AID. We demonstrate that AID expression in CML cells promotes overall genetic instability by hypermutation of tumor ..
  28. Kou T, Marusawa H, Kinoshita K, Endo Y, Okazaki I, Ueda Y, et al. Expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in human hepatocytes during hepatocarcinogenesis. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:469-76 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) plays a role as a genome mutator in activated B cells, and inappropriate expression of AID has been implicated in the immunopathological phenotype of human B-cell malignancies...
  29. Bombardieri M, Barone F, Humby F, Kelly S, McGurk M, Morgan P, et al. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression in follicular dendritic cell networks and interfollicular large B cells supports functionality of ectopic lymphoid neogenesis in autoimmune sialoadenitis and MALT lymphoma in Sjögren's syndrome. J Immunol. 2007;179:4929-38 pubmed
    ..study, we show that in salivary glands (SGs) of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the enzyme responsible for CSR and SHM is invariably expressed within follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks ..
  30. Rada C, Jarvis J, Milstein C. AID-GFP chimeric protein increases hypermutation of Ig genes with no evidence of nuclear localization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:7003-8 pubmed
    ..It seems that MSH2 is involved in the second stage, and that activation induced deaminase (AID) is implicated in the control of hypermutation...
  31. Patenaude A, Orthwein A, Hu Y, Campo V, Kavli B, Buschiazzo A, et al. Active nuclear import and cytoplasmic retention of activation-induced deaminase. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:517-27 pubmed publisher
    The enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID) triggers antibody diversification in B cells by catalyzing deamination and consequently mutation of immunoglobulin genes...
  32. Ishikawa C, Nakachi S, Senba M, Sugai M, Mori N. Activation of AID by human T-cell leukemia virus Tax oncoprotein and the possible role of its constitutive expression in ATL genesis. Carcinogenesis. 2011;32:110-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is involved in somatic DNA alterations of the immunoglobulin gene for amplification of immune diversity...
  33. Revy P, Muto T, Levy Y, Geissmann F, Plebani A, Sanal O, et al. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) deficiency causes the autosomal recessive form of the Hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2). Cell. 2000;102:565-75 pubmed
    ..mutations in the human counterpart of AID in patients with the autosomal recessive form of hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2)...
  34. Guo J, Su Y, Zhong C, Ming G, Song H. Hydroxylation of 5-methylcytosine by TET1 promotes active DNA demethylation in the adult brain. Cell. 2011;145:423-34 pubmed publisher
    ..of 5hmCs in mammalian cells, demethylation of both exogenously introduced and endogenous 5hmCs is promoted by the AID (activation-induced deaminase)/APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme complex) family of cytidine deaminases...
  35. Cattoretti G, Büttner M, Shaknovich R, Kremmer E, Alobeid B, Niedobitek G. Nuclear and cytoplasmic AID in extrafollicular and germinal center B cells. Blood. 2006;107:3967-75 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is necessary for immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) in T-dependent immune response in germinal centers (GCs)...
  36. Uchimura Y, Barton L, Rada C, Neuberger M. REG-? associates with and modulates the abundance of nuclear activation-induced deaminase. J Exp Med. 2011;208:2385-91 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) acts on the immunoglobulin loci in activated B lymphocytes to initiate antibody gene diversification...
  37. Dudley D, Manis J, Zarrin A, Kaylor L, Tian M, Alt F. Internal IgH class switch region deletions are position-independent and enhanced by AID expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9984-9 pubmed
    ..CSR is mediated by highly repetitive switch (S) region sequences and requires the activation-induced deaminase (AID)...
  38. Pham P, Smolka M, Calabrese P, Landolph A, Zhang K, Zhou H, et al. Impact of phosphorylation and phosphorylation-null mutants on the activity and deamination specificity of activation-induced cytidine deaminase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:17428-39 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in B cells by deaminating C --> U on transcribed DNA...
  39. Coker H, Petersen Mahrt S. The nuclear DNA deaminase AID functions distributively whereas cytoplasmic APOBEC3G has a processive mode of action. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007;6:235-43 pubmed
    b>AID deaminates cytosine in the context of single stranded DNA to generate uracil, essential for effective class-switch recombination, somatic hypermutation and gene conversion at the B cell immunoglobulin locus...
  40. Shen H, Ratnam S, Storb U. Targeting of the activation-induced cytosine deaminase is strongly influenced by the sequence and structure of the targeted DNA. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10815-21 pubmed
    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) initiates immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation (SHM)...
  41. Prochnow C, Bransteitter R, Chen X. APOBEC deaminases-mutases with defensive roles for immunity. Sci China C Life Sci. 2009;52:893-902 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) plays a central role in the biochemical steps of somatic hypermutation and class switch ..
  42. Martin A, Bardwell P, Woo C, Fan M, Shulman M, Scharff M. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase turns on somatic hypermutation in hybridomas. Nature. 2002;415:802-6 pubmed
    ..Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which is expressed specifically in germinal-centre centroblasts, is required for this process, but its exact role ..
  43. Noguchi E, Shibasaki M, Inudou M, Kamioka M, Yokouchi Y, Yamakawa Kobayashi K, et al. Association between a new polymorphism in the activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene and atopic asthma and the regulation of total serum IgE levels. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108:382-6 pubmed
    ..These variants were not associated with the 7888C/T polymorphism. The 7888C/T polymorphism might be associated with the pathogenesis of atopic asthma and the regulation of total serum IgE levels. ..
  44. Besmer E, Market E, Papavasiliou F. The transcription elongation complex directs activation-induced cytidine deaminase-mediated DNA deamination. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:4378-85 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a single-stranded DNA deaminase required for somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes, a key process in the development of adaptive immunity...
  45. MacCarthy T, Kalis S, Roa S, Pham P, Goodman M, Scharff M, et al. V-region mutation in vitro, in vivo, and in silico reveal the importance of the enzymatic properties of AID and the sequence environment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8629-34 pubmed publisher
    The somatic hypermutation of Ig variable regions requires the activity of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) which has previously been shown to preferentially deaminate WRC (W = A/T, R = A/G) motif hot spots in in vivo and in ..
  46. Storb U. Why does somatic hypermutation by AID require transcription of its target genes?. Adv Immunol. 2014;122:253-77 pubmed publisher
    ..available experimental evidence concerning the molecular interactions of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) with transcription of its target genes...
  47. Minegishi Y, Lavoie A, Cunningham Rundles C, Bedard P, Hebert J, Cote L, et al. Mutations in activation-induced cytidine deaminase in patients with hyper IgM syndrome. Clin Immunol. 2000;97:203-10 pubmed
    ..studies have shown that mutations in a newly described RNA editing enzyme, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), can cause an autosomal recessive form of hyper IgM syndrome...
  48. Carpenter M, Rajagurubandara E, Wijesinghe P, Bhagwat A. Determinants of sequence-specificity within human AID and APOBEC3G. DNA Repair (Amst). 2010;9:579-87 pubmed publisher
    Human APOBEC3G (A3G) and activation-induced deaminase (AID) belong to a family of DNA-cytosine deaminases. While A3G targets the last C in a run of C's, AID targets C in the consensus sequence WRC (W is A or T and R is a purine)...
  49. Bransteitter R, Pham P, Scharff M, Goodman M. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase deaminates deoxycytidine on single-stranded DNA but requires the action of RNase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:4102-7 pubmed
    The expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is prerequisite to a "trifecta" of key molecular events in B cells: class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation in humans and mice and gene conversion in ..
  50. Pasqualucci L, Guglielmino R, Houldsworth J, Mohr J, Aoufouchi S, Polakiewicz R, et al. Expression of the AID protein in normal and neoplastic B cells. Blood. 2004;104:3318-25 pubmed
    ..Although the SHM mechanism is largely unknown, it was shown to require the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) gene...
  51. Petersen Mahrt S, Harris R, Neuberger M. AID mutates E. coli suggesting a DNA deamination mechanism for antibody diversification. Nature. 2002;418:99-103 pubmed
    ..All three processes depend on activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a B-cell-specific protein that has been proposed (because of sequence homology) to function by RNA editing...
  52. Bransteitter R, Pham P, Calabrese P, Goodman M. Biochemical analysis of hypermutational targeting by wild type and mutant activation-induced cytidine deaminase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51612-21 pubmed
    The synthesis of high affinity antibodies requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to initiate somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination...
  53. Liu Z, Wu X, Duan Y, Wang Y, Shan B, Kong J, et al. AID expression is correlated with Bcr-Abl expression in CML-LBC and can be down-regulated by As2O3 and/or imatinib. Leuk Res. 2011;35:1355-9 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced deaminase (AID), a cytidine deaminase, can accelerate the acquisition of BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations in human CML...
  54. Morgan H, Dean W, Coker H, Reik W, Petersen Mahrt S. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase deaminates 5-methylcytosine in DNA and is expressed in pluripotent tissues: implications for epigenetic reprogramming. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52353-60 pubmed
    DNA deaminases of the Aid/Apobec family convert cytosine into uracil and play key roles in acquired and innate immunity...
  55. Ganesh K, Adam S, Taylor B, Simpson P, Rada C, Neuberger M. CTNNBL1 is a novel nuclear localization sequence-binding protein that recognizes RNA-splicing factors CDC5L and Prp31. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:17091-102 pubmed publisher
    ..found associated with Prp19-containing RNA-splicing complexes as well as with the antibody-diversifying enzyme AID. We find that CTNNBL1 association with the Prp19 complex is mediated by recognition of the NLS of the CDC5L ..
  56. Maeda K, Singh S, Eda K, Kitabatake M, Pham P, Goodman M, et al. GANP-mediated recruitment of activation-induced cytidine deaminase to cell nuclei and to immunoglobulin variable region DNA. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:23945-53 pubmed publisher
    b>AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase) catalyzes transcription-dependent deamination of C --> U in immunoglobulin variable (IgV) regions to initiate somatic hypermutation (SHM) in germinal center B-cells...
  57. Hardianti M, Tatsumi E, Syampurnawati M, Furuta K, Saigo K, Nakamachi Y, et al. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase expression in follicular lymphoma: association between AID expression and ongoing mutation in FL. Leukemia. 2004;18:826-31 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is required for somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene. AID has been reported to be specifically expressed in the germinal center (GC)...
  58. Brar S, Watson M, Diaz M. Activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) is actively exported out of the nucleus but retained by the induction of DNA breaks. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26395-401 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) is a cytosine deaminase that is critical to immunoglobulin hypermutation, class switch recombination, and gene conversion...
  59. Conticello S, Ganesh K, Xue K, Lu M, Rada C, Neuberger M. Interaction between antibody-diversification enzyme AID and spliceosome-associated factor CTNNBL1. Mol Cell. 2008;31:474-84 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) deaminates deoxycytidine residues in immunoglobulin genes, triggering antibody diversification...
  60. Cui T, Wang L, Wu J, Hu L, Xie J. Polymorphisms of IL-4, IL-4R alpha, and AICDA genes in adult allergic asthma. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2003;23:134-7 pubmed
    ..127, respectively; P < 0.01)] and was correlated with the increased plasma total IgE. These data suggested that the IL-4R alpha chain 576R/R and AICDA 8408T/T genotypes confer genetic susceptibility to adult allergic asthma in China. ..
  61. Orthwein A, Zahn A, Methot S, Godin D, Conticello S, Terada K, et al. Optimal functional levels of activation-induced deaminase specifically require the Hsp40 DnaJa1. EMBO J. 2012;31:679-91 pubmed publisher
    The enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID) deaminates deoxycytidine at the immunoglobulin genes, thereby initiating antibody affinity maturation and isotype class switching during immune responses...
  62. Ito S, Nagaoka H, Shinkura R, Begum N, Muramatsu M, Nakata M, et al. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm like apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1975-80 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a molecule central to initiating class switch recombination, somatic hypermutation, and gene conversion of Ig genes...
  63. Bhutani N, Brady J, Damian M, Sacco A, Corbel S, Blau H. Reprogramming towards pluripotency requires AID-dependent DNA demethylation. Nature. 2010;463:1042-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown showed that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, also known as AICDA) is required for promoter demethylation and induction of OCT4 (also known as POU5F1) and NANOG ..
  64. MacDuff D, Neuberger M, Harris R. MDM2 can interact with the C-terminus of AID but it is inessential for antibody diversification in DT40 B cells. Mol Immunol. 2006;43:1099-108 pubmed
    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) is essential for immunoglobulin gene diversification by the distinct processes of class switch recombination, somatic hypermutation and gene conversion...
  65. Larijani M, Petrov A, Kolenchenko O, Berru M, Krylov S, Martin A. AID associates with single-stranded DNA with high affinity and a long complex half-life in a sequence-independent manner. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:20-30 pubmed
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates secondary antibody diversification processes by deaminating cytidines on single-stranded DNA...
  66. Feldhahn N, Henke N, Melchior K, Duy C, Soh B, Klein F, et al. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase acts as a mutator in BCR-ABL1-transformed acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1157-66 pubmed
    ..hypermutation is restricted to mature germinal center B cells and depends on activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)...
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    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for the class switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) of Ig genes...
  68. Park S, Zan H, Pal Z, Zhang J, Al Qahtani A, Pone E, et al. HoxC4 binds to the promoter of the cytidine deaminase AID gene to induce AID expression, class-switch DNA recombination and somatic hypermutation. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:540-50 pubmed publisher
    The cytidine deaminase AID (encoded by Aicda in mice and AICDA in humans) is critical for immunoglobulin class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM)...
  69. Martin A, Scharff M. Somatic hypermutation of the AID transgene in B and non-B cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12304-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), which is specifically expressed in germinal center centroblasts, is indispensable for this process...
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    ..The mRNA expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme indispensable for somatic hypermutation processes, was claimed to be predictive of non-mutated chronic ..
  71. Palacios F, Moreno P, Morande P, Abreu C, Correa A, Porro V, et al. High expression of AID and active class switch recombination might account for a more aggressive disease in unmutated CLL patients: link with an activated microenvironment in CLL disease. Blood. 2010;115:4488-96 pubmed publisher
    ..work has shown expression in peripheral blood (PB) of CLL B cells of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) among CLL patients with an unmutated (UM) profile of immunoglobulin genes and with ongoing class switch ..
  72. Moldenhauer G, Popov S, Wotschke B, Brüderlein S, Riedl P, Fissolo N, et al. AID expression identifies interfollicular large B cells as putative precursors of mature B-cell malignancies. Blood. 2006;107:2470-3 pubmed
    ..Class-switch recombination is initiated by the B-cell-specific protein activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)...